Données d’intervention sur les chantiers de construction et autres lieux de travail comportant de l’amiante (2012-2014)

Ce rapport présente une analyse des données d’intervention de la Commission des normes, de l’équité, de la santé et de la sécurité du travail sur les chantiers de construction et autres lieux de travail aux prises avec de l’amiante (2012-2014).
L’analyse montre des écarts par rapport aux exigences de certains articles du Code de sécurité pour les travaux de construction.
Ces écarts accroîtraient le risque d’inhalation de fibres d’amiante par les travailleurs du secteur de la construction, jusqu’à la visite des inspecteurs de la Commission.
Les données ne permettent pas de mesurer l’ampleur de l’exposition professionnelle à l’amiante. Elles révèlent toutefois, malgré certaines limites, le niveau de contrôle de l’exposition à l’amiante dans le secteur de la construction.

Source: https://www.inspq.qc.ca/publications/2176

Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles administered at occupationally relevant doses induces pulmonary effects in mice

In spite of the great promises that the development of nanotechnologies can offer, concerns regarding potential adverse health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticle (NP) is raised. We recently identified metal oxide NP in lung tissue sections of welders, located inside macrophages infiltrated in fibrous regions. This suggests a role of these NP in the lung alterations observed in welders. We therefore designed a study aimed to investigate the pulmonary effects, in mice, of repeated exposure to NP administered at occupationally relevant doses. We therefore chose four metal oxide NPs representative of those found in the welder's lungs: Fe2O3, Fe3O4, MnFe2O4 and CrOOH. These NPs were administered weekly for up to 3 months at two different doses: 5 μg, chosen as occupationally relevant to welding activity, and 50 μg, chosen as occupationally relevant to the context of an NP-manufacturing facility. Our results show that 3 month-repeated exposures to 5 μg NP induced limited pulmonary effects, characterized by the development of a mild peribronchiolar fibrosis observed for MnFe2O4 and CrOOH NP only. This fibrotic event was further extended in terms of intensity and localization after the repeated administration of 50 μg NP: all but Fe2O3 NP induced the development of peribronchiolar, perivascular and alveolar fibrosis, together with an interstitial inflammation. Our data demonstrate for the first time a potential risk for respiratory health posed by repeated exposure to NP at occupationally relevant doses. Given these results, the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) specifically dedicated to NP exposure might therefore be an important issue to address.

Source: Présumé, M., Simon-Deckers, A., Tomkiewicz-Raulet, C., Le Grand, B., Tran Van Nhieu, J., Beaune, G., ... & Boczkowski, J. (2016). Nanotoxicology, 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2016.1242797

Prévention des risques liés aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes

État des lieux et actions à mener pour une meilleure protection individuelle
Au Québec, on dénombrait près de 29 000 exploitations qui procuraient 125 000 emplois à des travailleurs du secteur de la production agricole (2007). Alors que les pesticides ont pour fonction de lutter contre les parasites des cultures, ils peuvent avoir des effets, à court et long termes, sur la santé des producteurs qui y sont exposés, majoritairement par la peau. Leur utilisation est donc encadrée et des mesures de prévention du risque sont proposées, au nombre desquelles les équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) jouent un rôle essentiel. Dans un contexte de quasi-absence de données sur les maladies et lésions professionnelles relatives aux agents causaux « pesticides » au Québec, le message de prévention actuel ne donne pas tous les résultats attendus. Ainsi, cette étude pluridisciplinaire présente un état des lieux sur la prévention par les ÉPI utilisés contre les pesticides en agriculture, dresse un portrait des contextes et pratiques de travail de la production de pommes québécoise, et définit une liste préliminaire de pesticides dont il faudrait se protéger, prioritairement dans ce secteur. Des pistes d'action sont finalement suggérées et discutées.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100902/n/prevention-risques-pesticides-producteurs-pommes-etat-actions

Assessment of indoor air quality in office buildings across Europe

The OFFICAIR study
The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012 − 2013). Four rooms were investigated per building. The target pollutants were twelve volatile organic compounds, seven aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Compared to other studies in office buildings, the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations were lower in OFFICAIR buildings, while the α-pinene and d-limonene concentrations were higher, and the aldehyde, nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 concentrations were of the same order of magnitude. When comparing summer and winter, significantly higher concentrations were measured in summer for formaldehyde and ozone, and in winter for benzene, α-pinene, d-limonene, and nitrogen dioxide. The terpene and 2-ethylhexanol concentrations showed heterogeneity within buildings regardless of the season. Considering the average of the summer and winter concentrations, the acetaldehyde and hexanal concentrations tended to increase by 4–5% on average with every floor level increase, and the nitrogen dioxide concentration tended to decrease by 3% on average with every floor level increase. A preliminary evaluation of IAQ in terms of potential irritative and respiratory health effects was performed. The 5-day median and maximum indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde and ozone did not exceed their respective WHO air quality guidelines, and those of acrolein, α-pinene, and d-limonene were lower than their estimated thresholds for irritative and respiratory effects. PM2.5 indoor concentrations were higher than the 24-h and annual WHO ambient air quality guidelines.

Source: Mandin, C., Trantallidi, M., Cattaneo, A., Canha, N., Mihucz, V. G., Szigeti, T., ... & De Kluizenaar, Y. (2016). Science of The Total Environment.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.238

Valeurs limites d'exposition pour la prévention des risques chimiques

Cette publication est le fruit des travaux d'un groupe international d'experts chargé par le Comité chimie de l'AISS d'élaborer un document destiné aux préventeurs de terrain sur les valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle aux produits chimiques. Ce groupe de travail a été présidé par l'INRS. Cette brochure a pour objet de donner un aperçu des aspects pris en compte et des démarches adoptées pour l'établissement et l'application des valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle. Le Comité chimie de l'AISS entend ainsi contribuer à une meilleure compréhension de l'importance de ces valeurs et favoriser leur respect.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206254

First order risk assessment for nanoparticle inhalation exposure during injection molding of polypropylene composites and production of tungsten-carbide-cobalt fine powder based upon pulmonary inflammation and surface area dose

Inhalation exposure to low toxicity and biodurable particles has shown to induce polymorphonuclear neutrophilia (PMN) in the lungs, which is a strong indicator for lung inflammation. Recently, Schmid and Stoeger (2016) reviewed mice and rat intratracheal instillation studies and assessed the relation between particles dry powder BET surface area dose and PMN influx for granular biodurable particles (GBPs) and transition metal oxides. In this study, we measured workers alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations (μm2 cm− 3) during injection molding of polypropylene (PP) car bumpers and production of tungsten-carbide-cobalt (WCCo) fine grade powder using diffusion chargers. First order risk assessment was performed by comparing the doses calculated from measured LDSA concentrations during an 8-h work day with the NOEL1/100, the one hundredth of no observed effect level, assigned for GBPs (0.11 cm2 g− 1) and transition metal oxide particles (9 × 10− 3 cm2 g− 1). During the injection molding of PP car bumpers, LDSA concentrations varied from 23 to 39.8 μm2 cm− 3. During 8-h exposure PP, particle doses were at a maximum of 1.4 × 10− 3 cm2 g− 1, which was a factor 100 lower compared to the NOEL1/100 assigned for GBPs. In the WCCo fine powder production plant, the LDSA concentrations were below 18.7 μm2 cm− 3, which corresponds to the 8-h dose of 2.7 × 10− 3 cm2 g− 1. This is 3 times lower than the NOEL1/100 assigned for transition metal oxide particles. The LDSA concentrations were generally low compared to urban background levels of 44.2 μm2 cm− 3 in European cities.

Source: Koivisto, A. J., Kling, K. I., Levin, M., Fransman, W., Gosens, I., Cassee, F. R., & Jensen, K. A. (2016). NanoImpact.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.impact.2016.11.002

Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione

Diacetyl and its substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, are widely used as flavoring compounds. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) objective in establishing recommended exposure limits (RELs) for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione is to reduce the risk of respiratory impairment (decreased lung function) and the severe irreversible lung disease obliterative bronchiolitis associated with occupational exposure.
In this Criteria Document, NIOSH reviews the scientific literature concerning potential health effects, toxicology, and risk assessment pertaining to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Recommendations are provided on engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment to prevent and control workplace exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2016-111/

Lung Cancer Among Firefighters

Smoking-Adjusted Risk Estimates in a Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore lung cancer risk among firefighters, with adjustment for smoking.
Methods: We used pooled information from the SYNERGY project including 14 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China, with lifetime work histories and smoking habits for 14,748 cases of lung cancer and 17,543 controls. We estimated odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking and having ever been employed in a job known to present an excess risk of lung cancer.
Results: There was no increased lung cancer risk overall or by specific cell type among firefighters (n?=?190), neither before nor after smoking adjustment. We observed no significant exposure-response relationship in terms of work duration.
Conclusions: We found no evidence of an excess lung cancer risk related to occupational exposure as a firefighter.

Source: Bigert, C., Gustavsson, P., Straif, K., Taeger, D., Pesch, B., Kendzia, B., ... & Wichmann, H. E. (2016). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(11), 1137-1143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000878

Organophosphate Pesticide Urinary Metabolites Among Latino Immigrants

North Carolina Farmworkers and Non-farmworkers Compared
Background: This analysis documents detections and concentrations of the six dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolite of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides among North Carolina Latino migrant farmworkers, with comparison to non-farmworker Latino immigrants.
Methods: Participants provided up to four urine samples during the 2012 and 2013 agricultural seasons. Composite urine samples for each year were analyzed.
Results: DAP urinary metabolite detections were similar in farmworkers and non-farmworker; for example, for 2012, 75.4% of farmworkers and 67.4% of non-farmworkers and, for 2013, 89.3% of farmworkers and 89.7% of non-farmworkers had dimethylthiophosphate detections. DAP geometric mean concentrations were high; for example, dimethylphosphate concentrations among farmworkers were 11.39?μg/g creatinine for 2012 and 4.49?μg/g creatinine for 2013, while they were 10.49?μg/g creatinine for 2012 and 1.97?μg/g creatinine for 2013 for non-farmworkers
Conclusions: Research to reduce pesticide exposure among Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers is needed.

Source: Arcury, Thomas A., Laurienti, Paul J., Chen, Haiying, Howard, Timothy D., Barr, Dana Boyd, Mora, Dana C., Summers, Phillip, Quandt, Sara A. (2016). Journal of Occupational & Environmental Médicine, 58(11), 1079-1086.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000875

Presentation of an approach for risk characterization of exposure to chemicals in cleaning work

Background: Workplace risk assessment methods require expertise which cleaning companies may lack.
Objective: To present a methodological, easy-to-implement approach for risk characterisation of cleaning work, and elaborate on its applicability.
Materials and method: Determinants of chemical exposure including, inter alia, frequency of use (ν), use of PPE (θ) and spray bottle (σ), dilution of chemicals (δ), and workplace ambience (ξ) are used to characterise risk of cleaning work. These, are assigned numerical factors according to how they manifest in work situations. The conceptualised assessment factor, presented as ω = ν∗θ∗δ∗σ∗ξ is used to formulate work risk factor, ∑RF. Calculating ∑RF for workplaces with many cleaning workers and work patterns, agreement on how tasks are performed, use of PPE and spray bottles among minimum 60% of participants was set as acceptance criteria for uniformity of workplace trend. Risk characterisation ratio (RCR) used to compare cleaning work is obtained by collating actual ∑RF to a hypothetical minimum exposure ideal ∑RF.
Results: Assessing different work situations, cleaning Shopping Centre gave the lowest RCR = 1.65, whereas travel terminals had the highest RCR = 7.41. Offices, hospital and kindergarten cleaning gave RCR = 4.05, 4.47 and 4.82 respectively. From RCRs, the largest disparity was between shopping centre and terminals; the least was between office and hospital, and similarly between hospital and kindergartens cleaning.
Conclusion: The approach enables evaluation of work situation establishing the risk of exposure to chemicals. Use of determinants of exposure makes the approach a versatile tool for determination of risk of exposure.

Source: Suleiman, A. M., & Svendsen, K. V. (2017). Safety science, 91, 148-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.011

Association between high ambient temperature and acute work-related injury

A case-crossover analysis using workers' compensation claims data
This study found that high ambient temperatures are associated with increased risk of serious acute work-related injury for some worker subgroups. It expanded on previous research by assessing associations with both daily minimum and maximum temperatures, by using a novel approach to occupational characteristics classification, and by using a case-crossover study design. Study findings provide evidence to inform prevention strategies.

Source: McInnes JA, Akram M, MacFarlane EM, Keegel T, Sim MR, Smith P. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3602

Surveillance for Silicosis

Michigan and New Jersey, 2003–2011
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), state health departments, and other state entities maintain a state-based surveillance program of confirmed silicosis cases. Data on confirmed cases are collected and compiled by state entities and submitted to CDC. This report summarizes information for cases of silicosis that were reported to CDC for 2003–2011 by Michigan and New Jersey, the only states that continue to provide data voluntarily to NIOSH.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/63/wr/mm6355a7.htm

Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Employed Adults

United States, 1994–2013
Since 1987, NIOSH and state health departments have maintained the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) Program, a state-based surveillance program of laboratory-reported adult BLLs. The BLL is an often-used estimate of recent external exposure to lead. This report summarizes data on elevated BLLs among employed adults during January 1, 1994–December 31, 2013.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/63/wr/mm6355a5.htm

Multicenter study of environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in 48 Canadian hospitals

Context: Oncology workers are occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. This exposure can induce adverse health effects. In order to reduce their exposure, contamination on surfaces should be kept as low as possible.
Objectives: To monitor environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in oncology pharmacy and patient care areas in Canadian hospitals. To describe the impact of some factors that may limit contamination.
Methods: This is a descriptive study. Twelve standardized sites were sampled in each participating center (six in the pharmacy and six in patient care areas). Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technology. Descriptive statistical analyses were done and results were compared with a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for independent samples.
Results: In 2015, 48 hospitals participated in this study (48/202, 24%). Overall, 34% (181/525) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 8% (41/525) for ifosfamide, and 6% (31/525) for methotrexate. The 75th percentile value of cyclophosphamide surface concentration was 6.9 pg/cm2. For ifosfamide and methotrexate, they were lower than the limit of detection. Centers who prepared more antineoplastic drugs per year and centers who used more cyclophosphamide per year showed significantly higher surface contamination (p < 0.0001). Over the years, we observed a reduction in surface contamination.
Conclusion: In comparison with other multicenter studies that were conducted in Canada, the concentration of antineoplastic drugs measured on surfaces is decreasing. Regular environmental monitoring is a good practice in order to maintain contamination as low as reasonably achievable.

Source: Poupeau, Céline, Tanguay, Cynthia, Caron, Nicolas J., & Bussières, Jean-François. (2016). Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155216676632

Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents

An Analysis of Health Care Workers and Their Environments
Approximately 8 million health care workers are unnecessarily exposed to highly toxic drugs used to treat cancer; antineoplastic drugs can contribute to negative health effects for these workers. The drugs have been detected in the urine of workers and on the floors and counters of worksites. Safety precautions that could reduce the risk of exposure are underutilized. This cross-sectional study of 163 oncology health care workers used a survey to measure workplace and individual factors, and environmental sampling to measure surface contamination. The study objective was to identify potential exposures to antineoplastic drugs and factors influencing safety behavior. Personal protective equipment (PPE) use was lower than recommended; unit of employment was significantly associated with PPE use. Chemical residue from antineoplastic drugs was found, revealing potential exposures. Workplace safety must be a higher organizational priority. The contamination of common work areas where PPE use is not expected was of utmost concern.

Source: Graeve, C. U., McGovern, P. M., Alexander, B., Church, T., Ryan, A., & Polovich, M. (2016). Workplace Health & Safety.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2165079916662660

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