Bilan du programme de contrôle de la qualité de la numération des fibres – 1992 à 2011

L'exposition aux fibres aéroportées en milieu de travail est mesurée à l'aide d'une technique de numération par microscopie optique à contraste de phase. La numération des fibres comporte un biais et une très grande variabilité qui peuvent être limités par de bonnes pratiques de contrôle de la qualité. Conformément aux exigences des méthodes officielles, québécoise et internationales, les laboratoires (ou les compteurs) effectuant de telles analyses doivent participer à un programme de contrôle de la qualité interlaboratoires sur des échantillons représentatifs de leurs activités afin d'évaluer le degré de fiabilité de leurs résultats.
Le présent rapport propose un bilan du programme de contrôle de la qualité de l'IRSST, de 1992 à 2011, élaboré à partir d'échantillons prélevés dans différents secteurs d'activité québécois (textile, mines, chantiers d'enlèvement de matériaux contenant de l'amiante, freins et démantèlement de fours industriels) et contenant des fibres minérales artificielles (FMA) et de l'amiante (amosite ou chrysotile ou en mixité - chrysotile + FMA ; chrysotile + gypse fibreux).

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100890/n/bilan-cq-fibres

Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2016
First published in 1973 as Standard 62, Standard 62.1 specifies minimum ventilation rates and other measures for new and existing buildings that are intended to provide indoor air quality that is acceptable to human occupants and that minimizes adverse health effects.
Whereas changes to the 2013 edition of the standard primarily focused on usability and clarity, the 2016 edition includes a major change to the scope of the standard by which residential occupancies are moved from Standard 62.1 to Standard 62.2. Other changes to the 2016 edition include the following:
•A revised definition of "environmental tobacco smoke" (ETS) to include emissions from electronic smoking devices and the smoking of cannabis
•Revised operations and maintenance requirements to better align Standard 62.1 with the requirements in ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 180-2012
•New requirements to the Indoor Air Quality Procedure for determining minimum ventilation rates by considering the combined effects of multiple contaminants of concern on individual organ systems
•A change to explicitly allow environmental health and safety professionals to determine whether a lower air class is appropriate for a particular laboratory exhaust system
•A change to allow ventilation to be reduced to zero through the use of occupancy sensors for spaces of selected occupancy types
•Changes related to demand control ventilation to make clear that the standard is intended to be used for calculations for code review and also for physical operation

Source: https://www.ashrae.org/resources--publications/bookstore/standards-62-1--62-2

Envoyé: 2016-09-21 8:30 par Maryse Gagnon | avec aucun commentaire
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Needs and Opportunities to Enhance Substitution Efforts within the Context of REACH

In order to improve current working practices in the EU in identifying, evaluating and adopting safer alternatives and to more broadly enhance support for substitution among Member States and the European Commission, ECHA commissioned the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production to undertake a landscape analysis of current capacity and needs. The goal of this project is to identify specific priorities that ECHA and other public authorities could support in the near term in order to advance substitution programs and practices among Member States. A review of select applications for authorisation and restrictions proposals, in addition to surveys and interviews involving industry, Member State and Commission authorities, and NGOs were undertaken to obtain critical insights needed for this research.

Source: https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13630/substitution_capacity_lcsp_en.pdf/2b7489e1-6d96-4f65-8467-72974b032d7b

Association Between Kidney Cancer and Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene

Objective: This study investigates the association between occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and kidney cancer, as this correlation has been questioned.
Methods: The incidence of cancers was studied in a dynamic cohort of 997 male workers who for many years had been occupationally exposed to TCE.
Results: During a 50-year observation period, 13 cases of kidney cancer were observed (7.5 expected) with a standardized incidence ratio of 1.7 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.0 to 3.0. Four other cases, not included in the SIR analysis, were also observed. Long-term TCE exposure was positively confirmed for 14 of the 17 incident cases. There is reason to assume that the remaining cases also had been exposed to TCE.
Conclusions: The present study supports the view that TCE is a kidney carcinogen.

Source: Buhagen, Morten; Grønskag, Anna; Ragde, Siri Fenstad; Hilt, Bjørn. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: September 2016, Volume 58, Issue 9, p. 957-959.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000838

Research to Practice Implications of High-Risk Genotypes for Beryllium Sensitization and Disease

Objective: Beryllium workers may better understand their genetic susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease (CBD) expressed as population-based prevalence, rather than odds ratios from case-control studies.
Methods: We calculated CBD prevalences from allele-specific DNA sequences of 853 workers for Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DPB1 genotypes and groups characterized by number of E69-containing alleles and by calculated surface electronegativity of HLA-DPB1.
Results: Of 18 groups of at least 10 workers with specific genotypes, CBD prevalence was highest, 72.7%, for the HLA-DPB1*02:01:02/DPB1*17:01 genotype. Population-based grouped genotypes with two E69 alleles wherein one allele had –9 surface charge had a beryllium sensitization (BeS) of 52.6% and a CBD prevalence of 42.1%.
Conclusions: The high CBD and BeS prevalences associated with –9-charged E69 alleles and two E69s suggest that workers may benefit from knowing their genetic susceptibility in deciding whether to avoid future beryllium exposure.

Source: Kreiss, Kathleen; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan D.; McCanlies, Erin C.; Schuler, Christine R.; Weston, Ainsley. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: September 2016, Volume 58, Issue 9, p. 855-860.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000805

Breast cancer incidence among female flight attendants

Exposure–response analyses
In a cohort of 6093 female flight attendants, breast cancer incidence was not associated with cumulative exposure to cosmic radiation or two metrics of circadian rhythm disruption. Positive exposure–response relations were observed only in the small subset of the cohort with parity of three or more. Cautious interpretation of the findings in women with high parity is warranted.

Source: Pinkerton LE, Hein MJ, Anderson JL, Little MP, Sigurdson AJ, Schubauer-Berigan MK. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3586

Genetic Basis of Irritant Susceptibility in Health Care Workers

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in inflammation, skin barrier integrity, signaling/pattern recognition, and antioxidant defense with irritant susceptibility in a group of health care workers.
Methods: The 536 volunteer subjects were genotyped for selected SNPs and patch tested with three model irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate custom panels.
Results: The ACACB (rs2268387, rs16934132, rs2284685), NTRK2 (rs10868231), NTRK3 (rs1347424), IL22 (rs1179251), PLAU (rs2227564), EGFR (rs6593202), and FGF2 (rs308439) SNPs showed an association with skin response to tested irritants in different genetic models (all at P?<?0.001). Functional annotations identified two SNPs in PLAU (rs2227564) and ACACB (rs2284685) genes with a potential impact on gene regulation. In addition, EGF (rs10029654), EGFR (rs12718939), CXCL12 (rs197452), and VCAM1 (rs3917018) genes showed an association with hand dermatitis (P?<?0.005).
Conclusions: The results demonstrate that genetic variations in genes related to inflammation and skin homeostasis can influence responses to irritants and may explain inter-individual variation in the development of subsequent contact dermatitis.

Source: Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Barmada, M. Michael; Johnson, Victor J.; Kashon, Michael L.; Baron, Elma; Wilson, Nevin W.; Frye, Bonnie; Wang, Wei; Fluharty, Kara; Gharib, Rola; Meade, Jean; Germolec, Dori; Luster, Michael I.; Nedorost, Susan. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. 753-759.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000784

Occupation and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Nordic Countries

Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of bladder cancer incidence according to occupational categories in the Nordic countries.
Methods: The study cohort comprised 15 million individuals older than 30 years who participated in one or more population censuses in 1960, 1970, 1980/1981, and/or 1990. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 53 occupational categories.
Results: Significantly increased SIRs were observed among tobacco workers (1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 1.96), chimney sweeps (1.48; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.80), waiters (1.43; 95% CI 1.33 to 1.53), hairdressers (1.28; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.40), seamen (1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.30), printers (1.21; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.30), and plumbers (1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.30). A significantly decreased risk of bladder cancer was observed among gardeners (0.78, 0.75 to 0.80), forestry workers (0.74; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.78), and farmers (0.70; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.71).
Conclusions: The SIR of bladder cancer was overall similar across the Nordic countries. The study suggests that occupation is evidently associated with bladder cancer risk.

Source: Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparen, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Pukkala, Eero. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. e301-e307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000803

The Effects of Occupational Exposure of Carbon Disulfide on Sexual Hormones and Semen Quality of Male Workers From a Chemical Fiber Factory

Objective: This study is aimed to analyze the relationship between occupational CS2 exposure and reproductive impairments.
Methods: Seventy-six CS2-exposed (9.73?±?2.76?mg/m3) male workers and 94 unexposed workers were selected for study. Worker demographics were assessed with a customized questionnaire. Sexual hormones and sperm-related parameters were measured by biochemical or morphological analysis.
Results: The CS2-exposed workers had significantly higher serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lower levels of testosterone (T). Significant decrements were also identified in sperm viability and motility, chromatin, antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP), and respiratory chain Complexes II and IV.
Conclusions: Our data indicated that occupational CS2 exposure can exert deleterious effects on male sexual hormones and sperm quality, and mitochondrial dysfunction may play a vital role in this process.

Source: Guo, Yinsheng; Ma, Yue; Chen, Guoyuan; Cheng, Jinquan. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. e294-e300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000823

The estimated prevalence of exposure to asthmagens in the Australian workforce, 2014

Background: There is very little information available on a national level as to the number of people exposed to specific asthmagens in workplaces.
Methods: We conducted a national telephone survey in Australia to investigate the prevalence of current occupational exposure to 277 asthmagens, assembled into 27 groups. Demographic and current job information were obtained. A web-based tool, OccIDEAS, was used to collect job task information and assign exposure to each asthmagen group.
Results: In the Australian Workplace Exposure Study – Asthma (AWES- Asthma) we interviewed 4878 participants (2441 male and 2437 female). Exposure to at least one asthmagen was more common among men (47 %) than women (40 %). Extrapolated to the Australian population, approximately 2.8 million men and 1.7 million women were estimated to be exposed. Among men, the most common exposures were bioaerosols (29 %) and metals (27 %), whilst the most common exposures among women were latex (25 %) and industrial cleaning and sterilising agents (20 %).
Conclusions: This study provides information about the prevalence of exposure to asthmagens in Australian workplaces which will be useful in setting priorities for control and prevention of occupational asthma.

Source: Fritschi, L., J. Crewe, E. Darcey, A. Reid, D. C. Glass, G. P. Benke, T. Driscoll, S. Peters, S. Si, M. J. Abramson and R. N. Carey (2016). BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 16: 48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-016-0212-6

Enceintes ventilées

Après l'évaluation des risques professionnels faite par l'employeur, le service de santé au travail (SST) a un rôle essentiel en matière de conseil sur les mesures de prévention à mettre en place dans les entreprises. Dans les laboratoires
d'analyse, les laboratoires de recherche, la fabrication ou la reconstitution de médicaments cytotoxiques, l'assemblage de pièces électroniques..., l'utilisation d'enceintes ventilées peut être nécessaire. En fonction des caractéristiques propres à chacune d'entre elles, le SST pourra adapter au mieux ses recommandations en matière de prévention des risques chimiques et biologiques en fonction de la situation de travail concernée.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=TP%2024

Acide fluorhydrique en solution aqueuse. Risques à l'utilisation en milieu professionnel et mesures de prévention

Le fluorure d'hydrogène (de formule chimique HF, N° CAS 7664-39-3), mieux connu sous le nom d'acide fluorhydrique, est une matière première utilisée pour la fabrication d'un grand nombre de produits chimiques. L'utilisation des acides est très répandue dans l'industrie et leurs propriétés corrosives sont bien connues, mais le cas de l'acide fluorhydrique est particulier; en effet, les brûlures qu'il occasionne, aggravées par sa grande affinité pour le calcium sanguin, imposent une prise en charge immédiate afin d'éviter des conséquences qui peuvent être dramatiques

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206223

Le prélèvement passif des gaz et vapeurs, une méthode simple et performante

Le prélèvement passif des gaz et vapeurs, fondé sur le principe de la diffusion moléculaire, simplifie l'étape du prélèvement lors de l'évaluation des expositions professionnelles au risque chimique. Faciles à utiliser, légers et peu coûteux, les badges passifs sont une alternative intéressante et performante aux traditionnels modes de prélèvement actif par pompage.

Source: Eddy Langlois. Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2016.
http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=DC%2013

Guide sur l'entreposage des produits dangereux dans le secteur manufacturier

L'entreposage sécuritaire des produits dangereux consiste à séparer les produits incompatibles les uns des autres dans le but de limiter l'impact d'un déversement et de réduire les risques d'incendie ou de réactions violentes.
Ce document propose une méthode en quatre étapes pour aider à organiser et à mettre en place un plan d'entreposage qui répondra aux principales exigences du Code National de Prévention des Incendies (CNPI), du Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail (RSST), de la norme NFPA30 Code des liquides inflammables et combustibles, ed. 1996 et des règles de l'art en matière d'entreposage.

Source: http://multiprevention.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/guide-entreposage-produits-dangereux.pdf

Dermatites de contact professionnelles chez les vétérinaires et les personnels de soins aux animaux

Les dermatites de contact professionnelles observées chez les vétérinaires, le personnel des zoos (dont les soigneurs) et des animaleries de compagnie (vendeurs-conseil, personnels de nettoyage) sont des dermatites de contact d'irritation et/ou allergiques, des urticaires de contact et des dermatites de contact aux protéines. Les principaux irritants sont les désinfectants et détergents, le travail en milieu humide. Les principaux allergènes sont les protéines d'origine animale, les médicaments, les biocides (notamment dans les désinfectants) et les additifs du caoutchouc. Le diagnostic étiologique nécessite des tests allergologiques avec la batterie standard européenne, les batteries spécialisées et les produits professionnels. La prévention technique doit mettre en oeuvre toutes les mesures susceptibles de réduire l'exposition.

Source: http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?ref=RST.TA%20100

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