Détection des microorganismes par fluorescence/RAMAN UV dans des aérosols, des suspensions ou sur des surfaces

Étude exploratoire
Les microorganismes et leurs sous-produits sont présents dans tous les milieux de travail. Ils se retrouvent en suspension dans l'air, dans un liquide ou déposés sur des surfaces. Ils peuvent avoir des impacts importants sur les entreprises et la santé des travailleurs. Leur détection, à l'aide d'approches classiques faisant appel au dénombrement sur milieux gélosés, exige du temps et des ressources considérables. Cette étude vise à explorer une approche alternative et novatrice soit l'utilisation des signaux de fluorescence émis à différentes longueurs d'onde pour la détection et la différenciation de microorganismes en milieu de travail.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100866/n/detection-microorganismes-fluorescence-raman-uv-aerosols-surfaces

Long-Term Metal PM2.5 Exposures Decrease Cardiac Acceleration and Deceleration Capacities in Welders

Objective: The aim of the study was to clarify whether long-term metal particulates affect cardiac acceleration capacity (AC), deceleration capacity (DC), or both.
Methods: We calculated chronic exposure index (CEI) for PM2.5 over the work life of 50 boilermakers and obtained their resting AC and DC. Linear regression was used to assess the associations between CEI PM2.5 exposure and each of AC and DC, controlling for age, acute effects of welding exposure, and diurnal variation.
Results: Mean (standard deviation) CEI for PM2.5 exposure was 1.6 (2.4)?mg/m3-work years and ranged from 0.001 to 14.6?mg/m3-work years. In our fully adjusted models, a 1?mg/m3-work year increase in CEI for PM2.5 was associated with a decrease of 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 1.96)?ms resting AC, and a decrease of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: −0.14, 1.49)?ms resting DC.
Conclusions: Long-term metal particulate exposures decrease cardiac accelerations and decelerations.

Source: Umukoro, Peter E.; Fan, Tianteng; Zhang, Jinming; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Fang, Shona C.; Lu, Chensheng; Lin, Xihong; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schmidt, Georg; Christiani, David C. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2016, Volume 58, Issue 3, p. 227-231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000661

Olfactory Function in Latino Farmworkers

Subclinical Neurological Effects of Pesticide Exposure in a Vulnerable Population
Objectives: We compared olfactory function in pesticide-exposed Latino farmworkers and nonfarmworkers to explore its use as a subclinical indicator of neurological pesticide effects.
Methods: We recruited 304 current farmworkers and 247 nonfarmworkers. All completed odor identification (14 odors) and threshold tests (16 concentrations of n-butanol) using a well-established methodology.
Results: Farmworkers reported significantly greater lifetime pesticide exposure. Performance on both olfactory tests declined with age. Odor identification performance did not differ between groups. For odor threshold, farmworkers needed significantly higher concentrations to detect the odor. Results were unchanged when adjusted for sex, age, and smoking.
Conclusion: Olfactory function differences between farmworkers and nonfarmworkers suggest possible neurological effects. Because declining olfactory function is an early symptom of Parkinson disease and related conditions, it is a possible subclinical indicator of neurodegenerative disease in this vulnerable worker population.

Source: Quandt, Sara A. Walker, Francis O.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; McLeod, Diane K.; Arcury, Thomas A. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2016, Volume 58, Issue 3, p. 248-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000672

Influence of Cytokines and Soluble Receptors in the Quality of Life and Functional Capacity of Workers Exposed to Silica

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators in subjects exposed to silica, with and without silicosis compared with unexposed control group; and to check the association between inflammatory mediators with pulmonary function, quality of life, functional capacity, and dyspnea grade.
Methods: Inflammatory mediators were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were 30 subjects exposed to silica and 24 control group.
Results: Interleukin-6 plasma levels were higher in subjects exposed to silica with and without silicosis than in the control group. There was a positive correlation between radiological severity and the quality of life, whereas there was a negative correlation between radiological severity and pulmonary function. A negative correlation between sTNFR1 plasma level and functional capacity was found. Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with the quality of life total score and was positively correlated with the functional capacity and pulmonary function.

Source: Braz, Nayara Felicidade Tomaz; Carneiro, Ana Paula Scalia; de Avelar, Núbia Carelli Pereira; de Miranda, Aline Silva; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2016, Volume 58, Issue 3, p. 272-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000606

Dioxyde de titane nanométrique

De la nécessité d'une valeur limite d'exposition professionnelle
Dès 2005, l'INRS a souligné la nécessité d'engager une réflexion relative aux valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle en lien avec les nanomatériaux en raison de leurs propriétés toxicologiques particulières. Cet article propose, à partir de l'analyse de travaux initiés depuis en Europe, au Japon et aux États-Unis, une valeur limite d'exposition professionnelle pour le dioxyde de titane nanométrique en associant une méthode de mesure adaptée.

Source: Sandrine Chazelet, Jean-Raymond Fontaine, Stéphane Binet, Laurent Gaté, Guy Hédelin, Stéphane Binet, Stéphane Malard, Myriam Ricaud, Davy Rousset, Olivier Witschger. Hygiène et sécurité du travail, mars 2016 no 242.
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/HST/TI-NT-36/nt36.pdf

Occupation and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Its Subtypes

A Pooled Analysis from the InterLymph Consortium
Background: Various occupations have been associated with an elevated risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but results have been inconsistent across studies.
Objectives: We investigated occupational risk of NHL and of four common NHL subtypes with particular focus on occupations of a priori interest.
Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of 10,046 cases and 12,025 controls from 10 NHL studies participating in the InterLymph Consortium. We harmonized the occupational coding using the 1968 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-1968) and grouped occupations previously associated with NHL into 25 a priori groups. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for center, age, and sex were determined for NHL overall and for the following four subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).
Results: We confirmed previously reported positive associations between NHL and farming occupations [field crop/vegetable farm workers OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.51; general farm workers OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.37]; we also confirmed associations of NHL with specific occupations such as women's hairdressers (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.74), charworkers/cleaners (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.36), spray-painters (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.29), electrical wiremen
(OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.54), and carpenters (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.93). We observed subtype-specific associations for DLBCL and CLL/SLL in women's hairdressers and for DLBCL and PTCL in textile workers.
Conclusions: Our pooled analysis of 10 international studies adds to evidence suggesting that farming, hairdressing, and textile industry–related exposures may contribute to NHL risk. Associations with women's hairdresser and textile occupations may be specific for certain NHL subtypes.

Source: ‘t Mannetje A, De Roos AJ, Boffetta P, Vermeulen R, Benke G, Fritschi L, Brennan P, Foretova L, Maynadié M, Becker N, Nieters A, Staines A, Campagna M, Chiu B, Clavel J, de Sanjose S, Hartge P, Holly EA, Bracci P, Linet MS, Monnereau A, Orsi L, Purdue MP, Rothman N, Lan Q, Kane E, Seniori Costantini A, Miligi L, Spinelli JJ, Zheng T, Cocco P, Kricker A. 2016. Environ Health Perspect 124: 396--05.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409294

Exposition au rayonnement ultraviolet solaire: un sujet brûlant?

Le soleil peut être néfaste pour la santé de l'homme au-delà d'un certain seuil. Plus que les expositions occasionnelles, ce sont les expositions chroniques qui sont responsables de la grande majorité des cancers cutanés liés aux UV et qui touchent de nombreux travailleurs exerçant leur activité en plein air. L'exposition solaire ne doit pas être qu'une question de santé publique: elle doit également être posée dans le milieu professionnel.

Source: Vernez, David, Backes, Claudine et Antoine Milton (2016). Hygiène et Sécurité du Travail, 242, 92-96.
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/HST/TI-VP-12/vp12.pdf

Building a Safety Program to Protect the Nanotechnology Workforce

A Guide for Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is pleased to present Building a Safety Program to Protect the Nanotechnology Workforce: A Guide for Small to Medium-Sized Enterprises. Responsible development of nanotechnologies includes considering and managing the potential, unintended consequences to human health and the environment that might accompany development and use of the technology. This guide will demonstrate that the key to ensuring the safety of your business, particularly when resources are limited, is to prevent occupational exposures and incidents before they happen.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2016-102/default.html

Dermatites de contact professionnelles aux désinfectants et antiseptiques

Les désinfectants et antiseptiques, contenant des substances actives biocides, sont responsables essentiellement de dermatites de contact d'irritation et/ou allergiques et plus rarement d'urticaires de contact. Ils sont utilisés surtout dans le secteur de la santé, du nettoyage, le secteur agro-alimentaire, l'agriculture, l'hôtellerie et l'industrie pharmaceutique. La plupart des désinfectants et antiseptiques ont un potentiel irritant. Les allergènes en cause dans la dermatite allergique de contact (DAC) sont principalement les aldéhydes et les isothiazolinones. Les ammoniums quaternaires, la chlorhexidine, le chlorhydrate de polyhexaméthylène biguanide (PHMB) sont plus rarement incriminés comme allergènes. Les principaux agents impliqués dans l'urticaire de contact sont la chloramine T, le formaldéhyde et la chlorhexidine. Le diagnostic étiologique nécessite des tests allergologiques avec la batterie standard européenne, les batteries spécialisées et les produits professionnels.

Source: M. N. Crépy. Références en santé au travail, Mars 2016, no 145.
http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=TA%2099

Demonstration of a Modelling-based Multi-criteria Decision Analysis Procedure for Prioritization of Occupational Risks from Manufactured Nanomaterials

Several tools to facilitate the Risk Assessment and Management of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) have been developed. Most of them require input data on physicochemical properties, toxicity and scenario-specific exposure information. However, such data are yet not readily available, and tools that can handle data gaps in a structured way to ensure transparent risk analysis for industrial and regulatory decision making are needed.
This paper proposes such a quantitative risk prioritisation tool, based on a Multi-criteria Decision Analysis algorithm, which combines advanced exposure and dose-response modelling to calculate Margins of Exposure for a number of MN in order to rank their occupational risks. We demonstrated the tool in a number of workplace exposure scenarios involving the production and handling of nanoscale Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
The results of this application demonstrated that bag/bin filling, manual un/loading, and dumping of large amounts of dry powders led to high emissions, which resulted in high risk associated with these exposure scenarios. The Zinc Oxide MN revealed considerable hazard potential in vivo, which significantly influenced the risk prioritization results.
In order to study how variations in the input data affect our results we performed probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, which demonstrated that the performance of the proposed model is stable against changes in the exposure and hazard input variables.

Source: Hristozov D, Zabeo A, Jensen KA, et al. Nanotoxicology, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2016.1144827

Surveillance médico-professionnelle des travailleurs exposés ou ayant été exposés à des agents cancérogènes pulmonaires

Ces recommandations de bonnes pratiques ont pour objectif de définir la surveillance médicoprofessionnelle des travailleurs exposés ou ayant été exposés à des agents cancérogènes pulmonaires, en répondant notamment aux interrogations des professionnels de santé et des travailleurs sur l'opportunité de les faire bénéficier d'un dépistage du cancer broncho-pulmonaire.
Élaborées à la demande de la Direction générale du travail par la Société française de médecine du travail (SFMT) en partenariat avec d'autres sociétés savantes, elles ont reçu le label de la Haute Autorité de santé en octobre 2015.

Source: http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?refINRS=RST.TM%2036

Risque chimique : une nouvelle version de l’outil Seirich

Une nouvelle version de Seirich est en ligne. Elle corrige les bugs identifiés dans les versions précédentes et apporte plusieurs améliorations, notamment :
- la mise à jour des documents « Démarche d'évaluation dans Seirich » et « Guide de prise en main » (menu outils et documents)
- l'ajout des noms chimiques de plus de 4 000 substances disponibles à partir de la saisie de leur numéro  CAS  dans l'onglet composition (niveaux 2 et 3)
- l'ajout d'environ 150 fiches toxicologiques dans l'onglet composition (niveaux 2 et 3)
- l'ajout des commentaires saisis lors des exports Excel et la refonte de l'écran d'export afin de le rendre plus ergonomique.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/actualites/seirich-outil-risque-chimique-nouvelle-version.html

Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

A Population-Based, Case-Control Study in Connecticut
Objective: The study aims to explore the associations between various occupations and thyroid cancer risk.
Methods: A population-based, case-control study involving 462 histologically confirmed incident cases and 498 controls was conducted in Connecticut in 2010 to 2011.
Results: A significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer, particularly papillary microcarcinoma, was observed for those working as the health care practitioners and technical workers, health diagnosing and treating practitioners, and registered nurses. Those working in building and grounds cleaning, maintenance occupations, pest control, retail sales, and customer service also had increased risk for papillary thyroid cancer. Subjects who worked as cooks, janitors, cleaners, and customer service representatives were at an increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer with tumor size more than 1 cm.
Conclusion: Certain occupations were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, with some tumor size and subtype specificity.

Source: Ba, Yue; Huang, Huang; Lerro, Catherine C.; Li, Shuzhen; Zhao, Nan; Li, Anqi; Ma, Shuangge; Udelsman, Robert; Zhang, Yawei. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2016, Volume 58, Issue 3, p. 299-305.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000637

Prévention des piqûres au venin d'abeille au cours de l'apprentissage de l'apiculture professionnelle

L'apiculture est un secteur d'activité où le risque de piqûre d'abeille est très fréquent. Celui-ci peut se compliquer par la survenue de réaction toxique ou allergique.
Cet article fournit aux équipes pluridisciplinaires de santé au travail des connaissances sur le cycle apicole, les piqûres, leurs complications et les moyens de prévention à travers le suivi d'apprentis apiculteurs.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=TF%20235

Ototoxic chemicals

Chemicals that result in hearing loss
It is well documented that occupational noise exposure is a significant health hazard that leads to permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and we have the National Exposure Standard for Occupational Noise to deal with this.  It is less well known that a substantial number of medications and common industrial chemicals can also cause hearing loss themselves or exacerbate the effects of noise.  These chemicals are said to be ototoxic (oto = ear, toxic = poisonous). 
They may damage the cochlea in the inner ear and/or the auditory neurological pathways leading to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo.  Hearing damage is more likely if exposure is to a combination of chemicals or a combination of the chemicals and noise.
Ototoxic chemicals can be divided into two general classes: workplace chemicals and medication. Currently it is thought that more than 750 different groups of chemicals are potentially ototoxic, but only a few of these have been studied in any depth. 

Source: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/ototoxic-chemicals-chemicals-result-hearing-loss

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