Fabrication de prothèses dentaires

Guide pratique de ventilation
Cette brochure se voulant essentiellement un guide pratique, seuls les points essentiels relatifs à la conception des installations de ventilation y sont traités. Les nuisances d'ordre toxicologique, c'est-à-dire les effets sur l'homme des différents polluants émis (poussières, vapeurs et gaz), sont particulièrement détaillées. Ce guide a ainsi le double objectif de mettre en évidence le risque d'intoxication lié à l'inhalation de divers polluants aux postes de travail et de proposer des solutions de prévention adaptées à chaque situation. Les autres nuisances (bruit, agents infectieux, travail en position maintenue, rayonnements ultraviolets, laser et infrarouge, etc. et l'utilisation éventuelle d'équipements de protection individuelle ne sont peu ou pas développées.
Les mesures de prévention décrites dans ce guide portent principalement sur :
- la réduction des émissions de polluants : implantation du laboratoire et choix des matériaux, des produits, des techniques les moins émissifs ;
- le captage et la ventilation des polluants : descriptif du ou des dispositifs de captage à la source adaptés à chaque poste de travail (préparation des revêtements, fusion et coulée des alliages, sablage, modelage de la cire, finition à l'établi...) ; point sur le réseau de transport des polluants, l'air de compensation, le rejet de recyclage de l'air extrait, la ventilation générale, les contrôles, l'entretien et le nettoyage.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%20760

Occupational use of high-level disinfectants and fecundity among nurses

Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between occupational use of high-level disinfectants (HLD) and fecundity among female nurses.
Methods: Women currently employed outside the home and trying to get pregnant (N=1739) in the Nurses' Health Study 3 cohort (2010–2014) were included in this analysis. Occupational exposure to HLD used to disinfect medical instruments and use of protective equipment (PE) was self-reported on the baseline questionnaire. Every six months thereafter women reported the duration of their ongoing pregnancy attempt. Multivariable accelerated failure time models were used to estimate time ratios (TR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
Results: Nurses exposed to HLD prior to and at baseline had a 26% (95% CI 8–47%) and 12% (95% CI -2–28%) longer median duration of pregnancy attempt compared to nurses who were never exposed. Among nurses exposed at baseline to HLD, use of PE attenuated associations with fecundity impairments. Specifically, women using 0, 1, and ≥2 types of PE had 18% (95% CI -7–49%), 16% (95% -3–39%), and 0% (95% -22-28%) longer median durations of pregnancy attempt compared to women who were never exposed. While the use of PE varied greatly by type (9% for respiratory protection to 69% for protective gloves), use of each PE appeared to attenuate the associations of HLD exposure with reduced fecundity.
Conclusion: Occupational use of HLD is associated with reduced fecundity among nurses, but use of PE appears to attenuate this risk.

Source: Gaskins, AJ, Chavarro, JE, Rich-Edwards, JW, Missmer, SA, Laden, F., Henn, SA, & Lawson, CC. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3623

Indoor Air Quality in Photocopy Centers, Nanoparticle Exposures at Photocopy Workstations, and the Need for Exposure Controls

Background: Photocopiers emit large amounts of nanoparticles (NP) and are a significant source of indoor air pollution. These emissions induce airway inflammation, irritation, and systemic oxidative stress in humans, lung injury and inflammation in animals, and cytotoxicity and epigenetic modifications in vitro. However, little is known regarding NP exposures at the workstation in the photocopy work environment, or the extent and use of emission controls.
Objective: To survey the photocopy work environment with regards to emissions controls and to evaluate IAQ with emphasis on NP exposure at the operator's workstation.
Methods: Work process, physical characteristics of the centers, and use of controls were recorded. Particle total number concentration (TNC), temperature, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and percent relative humidity were measured during a random workday.
Results: Geometric mean (GM) TNC at workstations ranged between 1900 and 23000 particles cm−3, GSD 1.2–2.8, and maximum of 217000 particles cm−3. Fresh air ventilation was found to be less than American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines in 7 of 15 centers. Only one center used any type of emissions control. Elevated TNC at workstations was significantly correlated with number of copies (r = 0.72). While indoor/outdoor TNC ratios might be expected to be ≤1.0, the ratio here was >1.0 in 40% of centers visited, supporting the finding that copier emissions are a significant source of indoor air pollution. Number of copies per day was the most significant contributor to TNC.

Source: Martin, John, Demokritou, Philip, Woskie, Susan, & Bello, Dhimiter. (2017). Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 61(1), 110-122.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxw016

Rayonnements optiques & électromagnétiques au travail

Pour accompagner les entreprises dans l'amélioration de la prévention des risques professionnels, l'INRS a organisé le colloque " Rayonnements optiques & électromagnétiques - De l'exposition à la prévention " en octobre 2015 à Paris. Durant trois jours, ce colloque a rassemblé près de 300 participants de profils variés : médecins du travail, IPRP, préventeurs d'entreprise, préventeurs institutionnels, scientifiques, consultants, bureaux d'études, organismes de contrôle... venus s'informer au travers de 48 présentations orales et échanger entre eux et avec les intervenants.
L'INRS met aujourd'hui à disposition de ce public et, au-delà, de toutes les personnes intéressées qui n'ont pu participer au colloque, ce numéro hors-série de la revue Hygiène & sécurité du travail. Ce compte-rendu, rassemblant 34 articles couvrant tous les thèmes abordés, a pour ambition d'être une référence au service de tous ceux qui s'intéressent à la prévention de ces nuisances physiques
dans l'entreprise. Bien entendu, les connaissances s'accroissent, les réglementations évoluent, les pratiques industrielles se modernisent, mais nous savons que le contenu de ces articles restera d'actualité pendant encore plusieurs années.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=CC%2016

Liquid release as a source of potential drug exposure during the handling of intravenous infusions in nursing

Purpose: This study aims at experimentally determining the incidence and extent of liquid releases onto the operator's hands and into the work environment during common nursing operations involving infusions.
Methods: A sequence of operations related to the preparation and administration of infusions was conducted by three subjects for 15 times each using fluorescein marked infusion solutions and two different infusion sets (standard set vs. safety-optimized set). Unintended release of liquid was quantified by glove and surface wipe sampling and HPLC/FD analysis of the samples. Operations concerning the disposal of infusions were also part of the study.
Results: In over 90% of the simulations, a release of infusion solution was observed in a standard workflow, comprising priming and decapping the infusion set, connecting it to a peripheral intravenous (IV) cannula, and detaching it again. Based on median values (229 vs. 26 μl), the release of infusion solution was about ninefold higher when using the non-optimized standard infusion set. During decapping, a hand contamination was found in a majority of cases.
Conclusions: The handling of infusions may involve a risk of nurses' exposure to active agents by release of infusion solution into the work environment. According to our results with different infusion sets, exposure risks can be reduced technically and by appropriate handling. Nevertheless, hand contaminations found for both sets emphasize the necessity for additional measures such as more consistent use of protective gloves.

Source: Segner, V., Kimbel, R., Jochems, P., Heinemann, A., Letzel, S., Wollschläger, D., & Roßbach, B. (2017). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-017-1196-0

Trichloramine: de l’émergence d’un risque aux solutions de prévention

La trichloramine, formée à partir du chlore et des substances apportées par les baigneurs dans les piscines, est un irritant des voies respiratoires des salariés de ces lieux de loisirs. Dans une démarche de prévention globale, et après plusieurs études, l'INRS propose des outils pour la prévention de ce risque professionnel qui sont présentés dans cet article.

Source: Gérardin, Fabien. (2016). Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 245, 59-65. 
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/HST/TI-NT-44/nt44.pdf

Urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) Concentrations among Workers in Industries that Manufacture and Use BPA in the USA

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) toxicity and exposure risk to humans has been the subject of considerable scientific debate; however, published occupational exposure data for BPA are limited. Methods: In 2013-2014, 77 workers at six US companies making BPA, BPA-based resins, or BPA-filled wax provided seven urine samples over two consecutive work days (151 worker-days, 525 samples). Participant information included industry, job, tasks, personal protective equipment used, hygiene behaviors, and canned food/beverage consumption. Total (free plus conjugated) BPA, quantified in urine by mass spectrometry, was detected in all samples. Results: The geometric mean (GM) creatinine-adjusted total BPA (total BPACR) concentration was 88.0 μg g−1 (range 0.78–18 900 μg g−1), ~70 times higher than in US adults in 2013–2014 (1.27 μg g−1).
GM total BPACR increased during Day 1 (26.6–127 μg g−1), decreased by pre-shift Day 2 (84.4 μg g−1) then increased during Day 2 to 178 μg g−1. By industry, baseline and post-baseline total BPACR was highest in BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim (GM = 111 μg g−1) and lowest in phenolic resin manufacturing (GM = 6.56 μg g−1). By job, total BPACR was highest at baseline in maintenance workers (GM = 157 μg g−1) and post-baseline in those working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM = 441 μg g−1). Workers in the job of flaking a BPA-based resin had the lowest concentrations at Baseline (GM = 4.81 μg g−1) and post-baseline (GM = 23.2 μg g−1). In multiple regression models, at baseline, industry significantly predicted increased total BPACR (P = 0.0248); post-baseline, handling BPA containers (P = 0.0035), taking ≥3 process/bulk samples with BPA (P = 0.0002) and wearing a Tyvek® coverall (P = 0.0042) significantly predicted increased total BPACR (after adjusting for total BPACR at baseline, time point, and body mass index).

Source: Hines C.J. et al. (2017). Annals of Work Exp, 1-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxw021

Risks to respiratory health in the grain industry

A detailed literature search was carried out to summarise evidence about respiratory disease caused by exposure to grain dust. Long term epidemiological studies examining the risk for respiratory disease in grain workers were undertaken in Canada and the USA from the 1970s to the late 1990s. Smaller studies were undertaken in the UK and Europe but mostly focussed on respiratory disease in arable and livestock farmers.
The conclusion of this review is that the damaging effects of grain dust on the respiratory tract are accumulative and occur at high concentrations of exposure. Acute responses also occur and include declines in lung function as well as irritation and inflammation of the airways. There is less evidence that grain dust exposure causes occupational asthma despite the dusts containing allergens. This may be due to a ‘healthy worker' effect with those already having, or developing, asthma leaving employment earlier than others. There is stronger evidence that the long term effects of exposure include emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial fibrosis of the lung. The risk of developing extrinsic allergic alveolitis has reduced through preventing damp conditions in stored grain.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1083.htm

Study on the implementation of the autonomous agreement on workers’ health protection through the good handling and use of crystalline silica and products containing it

Crystalline silica is a mineral naturally abundant and a component of materials used in a wide variety of industries. However, prolonged inhalation of respirable crystalline silica may cause a specific type of lung damage. A multi-sectoral agreement bringing together social partners from 14 sectors was signed in 2006 to protect workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica, minimise the exposure through good practices and increasing the knowledge about potential health effects. This study provides an assessment of the implementation and impact of the agreement.   

Source: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=7968&type=2&furtherPubs=no

Decision Regulation Impact Statement for managing risks associated with lead in the workplace

Blood lead removal levels and workplace exposure standard
This Decision Regulation Impact Statement (RIS) is the result of Safe Work Australia’s review of the current toxicological information and overseas trends in the regulation of lead in the workplace. It examines options to reduce the adverse health outcomes caused by exposure to lead in the workplace.
In line with international standards and current Australian research, this Decision RIS presents a preferred option of lowering the blood lead removal levels and maximum permissible airborne concentration of lead to afford greater protection to workers who may be exposed to lead at the workplace.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/decision-regulation-impact-statement-for-managing-lead-risk

Rhinite et asthme dans l'industrie pharmaceutique

L'industrie pharmaceutique en France produit chaque année près de 2 800 substances, présentes dans 11 000 spécialités. Parmi celles-ci, les antibiotiques, les enzymes et d'autres substances végétales comme les gommes sont à l'origine de l'essentiel des cas de rhinite ou d'asthme professionnel (AP) rapportés dans la littérature. Toutefois, les données épidémiologiques sont peu nombreuses et la prévalence des cas apparaît comme faible au regard du nombre de substances mises en oeuvre.
D'autres sources d'exposition peuvent également être à l'origine d'AP dans le secteur pharmaceutique, comme les produits désinfectants ou les animaux de laboratoire utilisés dans les unités de recherche. Ces étiologies, non spécifiques à ce secteur, ne seront pas traitées dans cette fiche.
Les mécanismes physiopathologiques en cause sont mal connus, en particulier pour les substances de bas poids moléculaire. À l'inverse, un mécanisme IgE-dépendant est habituellement décrit pour les produits d'origine végétale et les enzymes. D'autres mécanismes (action toxique directe, effet histaminique, effet pharmacologique direct) ont parfois été avancés.

Source: www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/DMT/TI-TR-61/tr61.pdf

Projet Amiante-Meta: bilan et perspectives

Quel bilan peut-on tirer du projet Amiante-Meta, lancé en 2012, pour accompagner les entreprises dans la mise en place d'actions de prévention des risques liés à l'amiante ? Cet article fait le point sur tous les aspects abordés dans ce projet (métrologie, mutualisation des données, vérification des facteurs de protection, nouveaux matériels) et dessine les perspectives d'actions à mettre en oeuvre pour poursuivre l'amélioration de la gestion du risque amiante.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=NT%2043

Perturbateurs endocriniens

Contexte, dangers, sources d'exposition et prévention des risques en milieu professionnel
Les perturbateurs endocriniens (PE) sont des substances chimiques ou des mélanges, d'origine naturelle ou artificielle, susceptibles de modifier le fonctionnement du système endocrinien. Les PE avérés ou suspectés tels que bisphénols, phtalates, parabènes, polychlorobiphényles, polybromés, perfluorés, pesticides... sont retrouvés dans de nombreux secteurs d'activité. Ils sont caractérisés par des modes d'action encore mal connus et sont soupçonnés d'être à l'origine d'une multitude d'effets chez l'homme. La démarche de prévention des risques liés à leur exposition doit être analogue à celle visant à réduire les expositions aux produits CMR.

Source: Pillière, F., & Bouslama, M. Références en santé au travail (2016).
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/PDF/TC156.pdf

Valeurs limites d’exposition professionnelle aux agents chimiques

Un glossaire en ligne et une application pour smartphone
Qu'est-ce qu'une valeur limite d'exposition professionnelle (VLEP)?
A quoi correspondent les valeurs américaines TLV?
Qu'est-ce qu'une valeur limite biologique ? Les réponses à ces questions se trouvent dans un glossaire disponible en trois langues (allemand, anglais, français) élaboré par un groupe de travail du Comité AISS Chimie auquel participe l'INRS. Avec une soixantaine de définitions, ce glossaire permet de mieux comprendre ce que sont les valeurs limites et comment elles s'appliquent.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/actualites/valeurs-limites-exposition-agents-chimiques.html

Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust

Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four methods: culture, direct microscopic spore count (DMSC), β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) dosing and qPCR. For each method, the limit of detection, replicability, and repeatability were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the methods were also evaluated. Depending on the analytical method, mean spore concentrations per 100 cm2 of dust ranged from 10,000 to 682,000. Limits of detection varied from 120 to 217,000 spores/100 cm2. Replicability and repeatability were between 1 and 15%. Pearson correlation coefficients varied from −0.217 to 0.83. The 18S qPCR showed the best sensitivity and precision, as well as the best correlation with the culture method. PCR targets only molds, and a total count of fungal DNA is obtained. Among the methods, mold DNA amplification by qPCR is the method suggested for estimating the fungal content found in dust of HVAC systems.

Source: Mve, M. J. B. B., Cloutier, Y., Lacombe, N., Lavoie, J., Debia, M., & Marchand, G. (2016). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189(1), 8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5682-8

Plus de Messages Page suivante »

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives