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Workplace exposure and release of ultrafine particles during atmospheric plasma spraying in the ceramic industry
Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is a frequently used technique to produce enhanced-property coatings for different materials in the ceramic industry. This work aimed to characterise and quantify the impact of APS on workplace exposure to airborne particles, with a focus on ultrafine particles (UFPs, < 100 nm) and nanoparticles (< 50 nm). Particle number, mass concentrations, alveolar lung deposited surface area concentration, and size distributions, in the range 10 nm–20 μm were simultaneously monitored at the emission source, in the potential worker breathing zone, and in outdoor...
Challenges on the toxicological predictions of engineered nanoparticles
The perceived enormous potential of nanotechnology in contributing to sustainable innovation has led to the growth of investments into new industrial applications and consumer products. However, the lack of tools that are needed to generate early knowledge about the potential adverse effects, combined with the uncertainties regarding the health and safety risks of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), are a potential threat to the acceptability by society of the nanotechnology innovations, due to the rising societal concerns that are based on generic worries. In order to tackle these issues, it has...
Opportunité et risques des nanomatériaux
Le Programme national de recherche PNR 64 «Opportunités et risques des nanomatériaux» a démarré début 2010. 23 groupes de recherche de toute la Suisse ont examiné les opportunités et les risques présentés par les nanomatériaux synthétiques aux différents stades de leur cycle de vie. Parmi les groupes de recherche, celui mené par Mickael Riediker, ancien chef de groupe à l'IST, est le seul à s'être chargé d'investiguer l'impact des nanomatériaux...
Exposures to nanoparticles and fibers during injection molding and recycling of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites
In this study, the characteristics of airborne particles generated during injection molding and grinding processes of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites (CNT-PC) were investigated. Particle number concentration, size distribution, and morphology of particles emitted from the processes were determined using real-time particle sizers and transmission electron microscopy. The air samples near the operator's breathing zone were collected on filters and analyzed using scanning electron microscope for particle morphology and respirable fiber count. Processing and grinding during...
IARC Monographs Volume 111: Some Nanomaterials and Some Fibres
This volume of the IARC Monographs contains evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans of fluoro-edenite fibrous amphibole, silicon carbide fibres and whiskers, and carbon nanotubes. None of these agents had been evaluated previously by the Working Group. Source: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol111/index.php
Évaluation de méthodes de prélèvement et de caractérisation de nanomatériaux manufacturés dans l'air et sur des surfaces des milieux de travail
La surveillance des niveaux de contamination de l'air par des nanomatériaux manufacturés (NMM) est une démarche complexe qui présente plusieurs incertitudes et limites notamment : la présence simultanée de particules de dimensions nanométriques qui ne sont pas des NMM, l'absence d'instruments validés permettant une mesure en zone respiratoire et la multiplicité des indicateurs à apprécier. Certains organismes, dont l'Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) en France et l'Institut...
'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on
In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken — two of the original authors — look at where we have come, and where we still need to go. Source: Maynard, A. D., & Aitken, R. J. (2016). Nature Research . http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v11/n12/full/nnano.2016.270.html
Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles administered at occupationally relevant doses induces pulmonary effects in mice
In spite of the great promises that the development of nanotechnologies can offer, concerns regarding potential adverse health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticle (NP) is raised. We recently identified metal oxide NP in lung tissue sections of welders, located inside macrophages infiltrated in fibrous regions. This suggests a role of these NP in the lung alterations observed in welders. We therefore designed a study aimed to investigate the pulmonary effects, in mice, of repeated exposure to NP administered at occupationally relevant doses. We therefore chose four metal oxide NPs representative...
First order risk assessment for nanoparticle inhalation exposure during injection molding of polypropylene composites and production of tungsten-carbide-cobalt fine powder based upon pulmonary inflammation and surface area dose
Inhalation exposure to low toxicity and biodurable particles has shown to induce polymorphonuclear neutrophilia (PMN) in the lungs, which is a strong indicator for lung inflammation. Recently, Schmid and Stoeger (2016) reviewed mice and rat intratracheal instillation studies and assessed the relation between particles dry powder BET surface area dose and PMN influx for granular biodurable particles (GBPs) and transition metal oxides. In this study, we measured workers alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations (μm2 cm− 3) during injection molding of polypropylene (PP) car...
Refinement of the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique into the Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0)
Engineered nanomaterial emission and exposure characterization studies have been completed at more than 60 different facilities by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These experiences have provided NIOSH the opportunity to refine an earlier published technique, the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT 1.0), into a more comprehensive technique for assessing worker and workplace exposures to engineered nanomaterials. This change is reflected in the new name Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0) which distinguishes it from NEAT 1.0. NEAT...
Taking stock of the occupational safety and health challenges of nanotechnology: 2000–2015
Engineered nanomaterials significantly entered commerce at the beginning of the 21st century. Concerns about serious potential health effects of nanomaterials were widespread. Now, approximately 15 years later, it is worthwhile to take stock of research and efforts to protect nanomaterial workers from potential risks of adverse health effects. This article provides and examines timelines for major functional areas (toxicology, metrology, exposure assessment, engineering controls and personal protective equipment, risk assessment, risk management, medical surveillance, and epidemiology) to identify...
Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products
Part 2, exploration of exposure processes and methods of assessment In the first of a series of two papers (Larese Filon et al., 2016), we focused our attention on identifying conditions or situations, i.e. a combination of nanoparticle physico-chemical properties, skin barrier integrity, and occupations with high prevalence of skin disease, which deserve further investigation. This second paper focuses on the broad question of dermal exposure assessment to nanoparticles and attempts to give an overview of the mechanisms of occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products...
Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products
Part I - Factors affecting skin absorption The paper reviews and critically assesses the evidence on the relevance of various skin uptake pathways for engineered nanoparticles, nano-objects, their agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA). It focuses especially in occupational settings, in the context of nanotoxicology, risk assessment, occupational medicine, medical/epidemiological surveillance efforts, and the development of relevant exposure assessment strategies. Skin uptake of nanoparticles is presented in the context of local and systemic health effects, especially contact dermatitis, skin barrier...
Control banding tools for occupational exposure assessment of nanomaterials
Ready for use in a regulatory context? The development, production and application of engineered nanomaterials are becoming more and more widespread. Because researchers, developers and industrial workers are the first in line to be exposed to potentially hazardous nanomaterials, appropriate occupational exposure assessment is a key area of concern. Therefore, a number of Control Banding (CB)-based tools have been developed in order to assess and manage the potential risks associated with occupational exposure to nanomaterials.In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of different nanomaterial...
Dioxyde de titane nanométrique
De la nécessité d'une valeur limite d'exposition professionnelle Dès 2005, l'INRS a souligné la nécessité d'engager une réflexion relative aux valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle en lien avec les nanomatériaux en raison de leurs propriétés toxicologiques particulières. Cet article propose, à partir de l'analyse de travaux initiés depuis en Europe, au Japon et aux États-Unis, une valeur limite d'exposition professionnelle pour le dioxyde de titane nanométrique...
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