Systematic review of the relationship between quick returns in rotating shift work and health-related outcomes

A systematic literature search was carried out to investigate the relationship between quick returns (i.e., 11.0 hours or less between two consecutive shifts) and outcome measures of health, sleep, functional ability and work-life balance. A total of 22 studies published in 21 articles were included. Three types of quick returns were differentiated (from evening to morning/day, night to evening, morning/day to night shifts) where sleep duration and sleepiness appeared to be differently affected depending on which shifts the quick returns occurred between. There were some indications of detrimental effects of quick returns on proximate problems (e.g., sleep, sleepiness and fatigue), although the evidence of associations with more chronic outcome measures (physical and mental health and work-life balance) was inconclusive.

Source: Vedaa Ø, Harris A, Bjorvatn B, Waage S, Sivertsen B, Tucker P, Pallesen S. Ergonomics, 2015.

Are immigrants in Canada over-represented in riskier jobs relative to Canadian-born labor market participants?

BACKGROUND: This paper uses new data to examine the gap in injury and fatality rates between immigrant men and women and their Canadian-born counterparts. METHODS: Data from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational and industry injury and fatality rates between various arrival cohorts of immigrants and those Canadian born. RESULTS: For both men and women, there is no significant difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between various arrival cohorts of immigrants and Canadian-born workers. However, industry injury and fatality rates are lower for the most recent arrival cohorts of immigrants relative to Canadian-born workers. CONCLUSIONS: Although immigrants face many hurdles and challenges in their resettlement process in Canada, given the evidence from the paper, they are not likely to be at higher risk for work-related injuries relative to those Canadian-born.

Source: Tiagi R. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2015.

Déséquilibre "efforts/récompenses" (Questionnaire dit de Siegrist)

Ce document présente le questionnaire dit de Siegrist, qui a pour objectf la prédiction de la détresse psychologique et des problèmes de santé qui peuvent survenir lorsqu'il y a un déséquilibre entre les efforts requis par l'activité et la reconnaissance reçue. Il appartient à une série qui analyse les questionnaires utilisés dans les démarches de diagnostic et de prévention du stress et des risques psychosociaux au travail. Le dossier médico-technique TC 134 "Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail" présente cette série et propose au préventeur une méthode adaptée pour choisir l'outil d'évaluation le mieux adapté.


Addressing the Hazards of Temporary Employment

Factors such as fluctuations in the economy, changing social habits and access to technology have boosted a rapid growth in temporary work arrangements. Under many names– temporary workers, contingent workers, contract workers, long-term temps, workers in dual employer situations, on-demand freelance–these workers seem to be ubiquitous in most industrial sectors. These arrangements are impacting work organization, career paths, and health and safety. According to various reports, there were an estimated 17 million workers engaged in some type of temporary employment in the United States in 2013, the most in the nation's history. There is also evidence that this upward trend will continue. Complexities of temporary employment arrangements have created some ambiguity over the responsibility for complying with health and safety standards, which can result in increased health and safety risks in the workplace. A growing body of research demonstrates that temporary workers have higher rates of workplace injury. According to ProPublica research, temporary workers have double the risk of suffering severe injuries on the job, including crushing incidents, lacerations, punctures and fractures.


Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale

Objectives: The aims of the present study were to (i) cross-culturally adapt a Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and (ii) evaluate its psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability among patients with work-related stress complaints.
Methods: A consensus-building process was performed involving the authors of the three previous Danish translations and the consensus version was back-translated into English and pilot-tested. Psychometric properties of the final version were examined in a sample of 64 patients with work-related stress complaints.
Results: The face validity, reliability, and internal consistency of the Danish consensus version of the PSS-10 were satisfactory, and convergent construct validity was confirmed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the change scores showed that the ability of the PSS-10 to correctly classify patients as improved or unchanged according to the patients' own judgment was acceptable. The estimates of minimal clinically important change were 11 points and 28% for absolute and relative change scores, respectively.
Conclusion: The Danish consensus version of the PSS-10 appears to be feasible for use in clinical research settings and has good psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability.

Source: Eskildsen A, Dalgaard VL, Nielsen KJ, Andersen JH, Zachariae R, Olsen LR, Jørgensen A, Christiansen DH. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015.

A systematic review of the sleep, sleepiness, and performance implications of limited wake shift work schedules

Objectives: The aim of this review was to identify which limited wake shift work schedules (LWSW) best promote sleep, alertness, and performance. LWSW are fixed work/rest cycles where the time-at-work does is ≤8 hours and there is >1 rest period per day, on average, for ≥2 consecutive days. These schedules are commonly used in safety-critical industries such as transport and maritime industries.
Methods: Literature was sourced using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. We identified 20 independent studies (plus a further 2 overlapping studies), including 5 laboratory and 17 field-based studies focused on maritime watch keepers, ship bridge officers, and long-haul train drivers. The measurement of outcome measures was varied, incorporating subjective and objective measures of sleep: sleep diaries (N=5), actigraphy (N=4), and polysomnography, (N=3); sleepiness: Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (N=5), visual analog scale (VAS) alertness (N=2) and author-derived measures (N=2); and performance: Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) (N=5), Reaction Time or Vigilance tasks (N=4), Vector and Letter Cancellation Test (N=1), and subjective performance (N=2).
Results: Of the three primary rosters examined (6 hours-on/6 hours-off, 8 hours-on/8 hours-off and 4 hours-on/8 hours-off), the 4 hours-on/8 hours-off roster was associated with better sleep and lower levels of sleepiness. Individuals working 4 hours-on/8 hours-off rosters averaged 1 hour more sleep per night than those working 6 hours-on/6 hours-off and 1.3 hours more sleep than those working 8 hours-on/8 hours-off (P<0.01). More broadly, findings indicate that LWSW schedules were associated with better sleep and lower sleepines in the case of (i) shorter time-at-work, (ii) more frequent rest breaks, (iii) shifts that start and end at the same clock time every 24 hours, and (iv) work shifts commencing in the daytime (as opposed to night). The findings for performance remain incomplete due to the small number of studies containing a performance measure and the heterogeneity of performance measures within those that did.
Conclusion: The literature supports the utility of LWSW in industries where individuals sleep at or near the workplace as they facilitate at least some sleep during the biological night and minimize deficits associated with time-on-shift with shorter shifts. Overall, the 4 hour-on/8 hour-off roster best promoted sleep and minimized sleepiness compared to other LWSW schedules. Nevertheless, and considering the safety-critical nature of industries which employ LWSW, the limited literature needs to be greatly expanded with specific focus on the consequences for performance and comparison to mainstream rosters.

Source: Short MA, Agostini A, Lushington K, Dorrian J. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015.

Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé - Éclat

Quatre contributions de ce numéro apportent un éclairage sur les enjeux entourant différentes manières de « se soustraire » du milieu de travail, que ce soit en limitant l'accès au courriel après les heures de travail, par des absences prolongées du travail, par des « temps d'arrêt » pour exprimer sa souffrance au travail et ultimement… par l'acte suicidaire. Les autres contributions lèvent le voile sur les conditions de travail, la santé et la sécurité dans des contextes encore peu étudiés comme les raids en environnement polaire, les nanomatériaux, le milieu scolaire dans lequel travaillent les professeurs d'éducation physique et les changements technologiques dans le secteur de la santé.

Source: Pistes, 17-1, Printemps 2015.

A Comparative Study of Workplace Bullying Among Public and Private Employees in Europe

Objectives: Workplace bullying emerges from a set of individual, organizational, and contextual factors. The purpose of this article is hence to identify the influence of these factors among public and private employees.
Methods: The study is carried out as a statistical–empirical cross-sectional study. The database used was obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey 2010.
Results: The results reveal a common core with respect to the factors that determine workplace bullying. Despite this common base that integrates both models, the distinctive features of the harassed employee within the public sector deal with age, full-time work, the greater nighttime associated with certain public service professions, and a lower level of motivation.
Conclusions: The present work summarizes a set of implications and proposes that, under normal conditions, workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands are limited and job resources are increased.

Source: Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L.; Leal-Millán, Antonio G. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: June 2015, Volume 57, Issue 6, p. 695-700. 

L'organisation du temps de travail : enquêtes conditons de travail

Ce numéro de Synthèse.Stat' présente les contraintes auxquelles les salariés sont soumis et le degré de latitude dont ils disposent en matière d'organisation du temps de travail : semaine et journée de travail, horaires atypiques, congés, dépassements, astreintes, etc.
Les résultats sont issus de l'enquête Conditions de travail 2013. Conformément aux principes de cette enquête depuis sa création en 1978, c'est le point de vue et les connaissances du salarié sur son travail qui sont recueillis. Les résultats sont systématiquement ventilés par sexe, âge, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, secteur d'activité, type d'employeur (distinguant les trois versants de la fonction publique).


Le livre blanc Collecte des déchets ménagers et assimilés

Émotions au travail

Cette livraison de La Nouvelle Revue du Travail du printemps 2015 propose un Corpus sur un objet original, les émotions au travail. Espace de violences et de solidarités, le travail suscite des sentiments d'injustice, de colère, d'envie, de haine, mais aussi de satisfactions et de plaisirs. Le travail mobilise les individus dans leur « entier », corps et âme, les incitant à s'appuyer sur des savoir-faire techniques mais également affectifs, à engager leur enthousiasme comme leur envie de bien faire, avec des résultats toujours traduits en émotions. En même temps, le management joue des émotions et participe de la mise au travail des émotions et pourrait les instrumentaliser. Six auteurs répondent à leur manière à ces questionnements.


Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

Results from a Danish cohort study
Objective: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10–29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women.
Methods: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996–2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome.
Results: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55–2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26–1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1.73–2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15–2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11–1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91–0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42–1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way.
Conclusion: Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces.

Source: Hansen ML, Thulstrup AM, Juhl M, Kristensen JK, Ramlau-Hansen CH. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015.

De l'évaluation des risques au management de la santé et de la sécurité au travail

L'évaluation des risques est une opportunité pour enclencher une démarche de prévention pour préserver la santé et améliorer la sécurité de l'homme au travail. La réalisation du document unique ne suffit pas à l'entreprise pour progresser durablement en matière de santé et sécurité au travail. Intégrer la gestion de la santé et de la sécurité au travail dans toutes les fonctions de l'entreprise est une bonne pratique de prévention. La mise en place d'un système de management de la santé et de la sécurité au travail (SMS) s'intégrant dans le management global de l'entreprise peut lui permettre d'atteindre cet objectif. Un système de management de la santé et de la sécurité au travail peut être défini comme un dispositif de gestion combinant personnes, politiques, moyens et visant à améliorer la performance d'une entreprise en matière de santé et sécurité de l'homme au travail. C'est un outil au service de l'entreprise lui permettant de mieux maîtriser son organisation et de progresser en continu.


Travail posté

Quel(s) critère(s) de pénibilité?
Le travail posté est un facteur de pénibilité qui sera pris en compte dès le premier janvier 2015 dans le Code du travail et dans celui de la Sécurité sociale. Il se caractérise par une organisation impliquant un travail par équipes fixes ou alternantes ce qui permet aux entreprises de fonctionner en continu ou en semi-continu de façon à assurer la continuité d'une production ou d'un service. Ce mode d'organisation expose les salariés à un ou plusieurs facteurs de risques qui sont susceptibles de laisser des traces durables identifiables et irréversibles sur la santé. C'est à partir de ce constat que l'on peut définir les conditions de pénibilité (Code du travail : article D. 4121-5). Actuellement, en France, la pénibilité qui concerne environ 20 % des salariés impliqués dans ce mode d'organisation, est défini par des seuils annuels d'exposition fixés à une heure d'activité entre minuit et 5 heures pendant 120 nuits pour le travail de nuit et au moins 50 nuits pour le travail alternant. Cette définition se limite donc à différencier la pénibilité à partir de deux modalités de travail qui sont l'alternance et la fixité des postes et d'une période de travail effectuée la nuit. Elle ne tient pas compte de nombreux autres facteurs qui caractérisent le travail posté et qui peuvent impacter la santé des salariés. Parmi ceux-ci :
• le nombre de nuits successives de travail ;
• la rotation des postes lente ou rapide ou le travail permanent de nuit ;
• l'heure de prise de poste ;
• le sens de rotation des postes ;
• la durée de travail en poste ;
• le nombre de nuit de repos entre chaque poste ;
• le type de poste occupé.
Sans être exhaustive cette liste montre que l'on peut considérer qu'il existe dans le monde plus d'un millier de modalités différentes de travail en poste. Compte tenu de ces diversités d'organisation qui ont toutes un impact différent sur la santé et la sécurité de l'opérateur, il semble nécessaire de poser la question de l'évaluation des risques et de la définition des critères de pénibilité selon l'organisation de ce type de travail.
Ce document propose d'analyser cette question spécifique relative au travail posté en considérant l'état de la littérature scientifique en lien avec la santé des opérateurs.

Source: Amiard, V., & Libert, J.-P. (2015). Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement

Is musculoskeletal pain a consequence or a cause of occupational stress?

A longitudinal study
Objectives: Longitudinal studies have linked stress at work with a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain. We aimed to explore the extent to which musculoskeletal pain is a cause as opposed to a consequence of perceived occupational stress.
Methods: As part of the international cultural and psychosocial influences on disability study, we collected information from 305 Italian nurses, at baseline and again after 12 months, about pain during the past month in the low-back and neck/shoulder, and about effort–reward imbalance (ERI) (assessed by Siegrist's ERI questionnaire). Poisson regression was used to assess the RR of ERI >1 at follow-up according to the report of pain and of ERI >1 at baseline.
Results: Among nurses with ERI ≤1 at baseline, ERI >1 at follow-up was associated with baseline report of pain in the low-back (RR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.4–5.0) and neck/shoulder (RR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.3–5.1). However, there was no corresponding association with persistence of ERI in nurses who already had ERI >1 at baseline. Associations of ERI at baseline with pain at follow-up were weak.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the well-documented association between job stress and musculoskeletal pain is not explained entirely by an effect of stress on reporting of pain. It appears also that workers who report musculoskeletal pain are more likely to develop subsequent perceptions of stress. This may be because pain renders people less tolerant of the psychological demands of work. Another possibility is that reports of pain and stress are both manifestations of a general tendency to be aware of and complain about symptoms and difficulties.

Source: Bonzini, Matteo, Bertu, Lorenza, Veronesi, Giovanni, Conti, Marco, Coggon, David, & Ferrario, Marco M. (2015). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88(5), 607-612.

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