Les facteurs de pénibilité au travail ont été définis dans la loi de novembre 2010 portant réforme des retraites et confirmés dans la loi de janvier 2014. Ces dix facteurs couvrent des expositions à des contraintes physiques marquées, à un environnement physique agressif et à certains rythmes de travail. Si le nombre de salariés exposés à des facteurs de pénibilité dépend fortement des seuils qui permettent de les définir, les caractéristiques des personnes concernées restent qualitativement similaires.
Selon les résultats de l'enquête Sumer 2010, la pénibilité concerne au premier chef les ouvriers, puis les employés de commerce et de services. Les secteurs les plus exposés sont la construction, l'industrie manufacturière, le secteur du traitement des déchets et l‘agriculture. Les salariés qui exercent des fonctions de production, d'installation, de manutention ou de nettoyage sont plus exposés que la moyenne.
Les jeunes sont eux aussi plus concernés, mais les salariés de plus de 55 ans sont largement exposés dans certains secteurs tels que l'industrie manufacturière.
Aux facteurs de pénibilité s'ajoutent souvent d'importants facteurs de risques organisationnels comme, par exemple, les fortes contraintes de rythme de travail et le manque d'autonomie.
Objective: We examined the prospective association between self-labeled and witness-reported bullying and the risk of newly onset of depression.
Methods: Employees were recruited from two cohorts of 3196 and 2002 employees, respectively. Participants received a questionnaire at baseline in 2006 to 2007 with follow-up in 2008 to 2009 and 2011. New cases of depression were diagnosed in the follow-up using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interviews and the Major Depression Inventory questionnaire.
Results: We identified 147 new cases of depression. The odds ratio for newly onset depression among participants reporting bullying occasionally was 2.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 4.23) and among frequently bullied 9.63 (95% CI: 3.42 to 27.1). There was no association between percentage witnessing bullying and newly onset depression.
Conclusions: Frequent self-labeled bullying predicts development of depression but a work environment with high proportion of employees witnessing bullying does not.
Source: Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie; Persson, Roger; Rugulies, Reiner; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Willert, Morten Veis; Grynderup, Matias; Mors, Ole; Bonde, Jens Peter. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Médicine, December 2014, Volume 56, Issue 12, p. 1258–1265.
Using a national population survey, this article examines how high-involvement work processes affect employee well-being. The analysis shows that greater experiences of autonomy and participation in decision-making have positive or neutral effects. Higher involvement is a key factor predicting higher job satisfaction and better work–life balance while it has no relationship to stress or fatigue. In contrast, higher levels of work intensity increase fatigue and stress and undermine work–life balance. If the quality of working life is a key objective in a reform based on greater employee involvement, close attention needs to be paid to the balance between processes that release human potential and those that increase the intensity of work.
Source: Peter Boxall, Keith Macky. Work Employment & Society, December 2014, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 963-984.
The paper reports on the attitudes of Australian workers towards acceptance of risk taking and rule breaking in the workplace as measured by the Perceptions of Work Health and Safety Survey 2012-13. The Perceptions of Work Health and Safety Survey aimed to provide a baseline measure of work health and safety attitudes, beliefs and actions shortly after the model Work Health and Safety laws were introduced in 2012. The survey targeted four types of respondents: employers, sole traders, health and safety representatives and workers.
Initial Findings of a Pan-Canadian Survey on Domestic Violence and the Workplace
Canadian employers lose $77.9 million annually due to the direct and indirect impacts of domestic violence, and the costs, to individuals, families and society, go far beyond that. However, we know very little about the scope and impacts of this problem in Canada.
Caring for Yourself While Caring for Others is a free and active curriculum to assist trainers in meeting the health and safety training needs for homecare workers and to enhance communication between homecare workers and their clients. The activities in this curriculum are designed to encourage participants in promoting safe and healthy work environments–for their clients and for themselves.
L'Anact a réalisé un état des lieux des facteurs psychosociaux de risques au travail et de la santé mentale des femmes et des hommes au travail. Pour cela, l'auteure, Anne-Marie Nicot, a réalisé une approche par genre des données statistiques nationales.
Created in partnership with the CSA Group, this guide is designed to meet the needs of organizations seeking a step-by-step implementation resource for the Standard. It is geared toward senior leaders, human resource managers, and occupational health and safety professionals, offering a roadmap to implementation of the Standard through four key steps: Building the Foundation, Identifying Opportunities, Setting Objectives, and Implementation.
L'Anact a mis en évidence, sur la base des données statistiques de la Cnam-TS, que femmes et hommes ne sont pas confrontés aux mêmes risques professionnels. Qu'en est-il plus spécifiquement de l'exposition aux facteurs de risques psychosociaux ? Pour le savoir l'Anact a commandé à deux chercheurs du Lest, Paul Bouffartigue, et Jacques Bouteiller, d'analyser les données des enquêtes Sumer au « regard du genre ».
Telle qu'elle est actuellement envisagée, la pénibilité est largement abordée sous l'angle de la compensation. Mais cette approche peut freiner l'ouverture d'une réflexion de fond sur la soutenabilité du travail, dans une logique de prévention et d'anticipation.
Source: Travail & changement, no 357, Novembre/Décembre 2014.
Using the 1957–2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage.
Source: Tetyana Pudrovska and Amelia Karraker, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, December 2014, 55: 424-441.
A systematic review of the literature
Verbal abuse is the most prevalent form of workplace violence. Its impacts on organizations as well as on victims' health are numerous. Several studies have emphasized the need to take into consideration victims' characteristics, in particular sex, to better understand rates of verbal violence in the workplace. Indeed, study results are contradictory, as some show women to be more at risk while others indicate that men would be more exposed. These variations could in part be explained by other factors that influence the prevalence of workplace violence, such as occupational domain and job characteristics. This review of literature thus aimed to describe the prevalence of verbal violence according to sex across occupational domains. Results showed that a majority of studies concluded to no significant sex differences. Among the studies with significant results, men tended to be more at risk than women. However, due to several limitations, it was not possible to draw conclusions as regards specific occupations. Conclusions of this review lead to specific recommendations for future research.
Source: Guay, S., Goncalves, J., & Jarvis, J. (2014). Verbal violence in the workplace according to victims' sex – a systematic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 572-578.
A result from nationwide survey of Korea
BACKGROUND: Noise, or undesirable sound, is one of the most common environmental stressors, and it can cause various health effects. Beyond the auditory consequences of occupational noise exposure, extra-auditory effects such as psychological problems have also been found. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the association between occupational noise annoyance and psychological symptoms, including symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation.
METHODS: A total of 10,020 participants (5,410 men and 4,610 women) were included in the current analysis, using data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess noise annoyance levels, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for psychosocial symptoms were calculated using multiple logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Compared to the no noise annoyance group, ORs (95% CI) of the severe annoyance groups were 1.58 (1.12-2.23) and 1.76 (1.29-2.40) in men and 1.49 (1.05-2.11) and 1.41 (1.01-1.97) in women for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, respectively. The ORs (95% CI) for severe noise annoyance in those with less than five hours of sleep were 2.95 (1.46-5.96) and 2.05 (1.01-4.16) in men and women, respectively, compared with those with no noise annoyance and a sleep time of more than five hours.
CONCLUSION: Our study shows that occupational noise annoyance is significantly related to mental health, including depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation after controlling for individual and socio-demographic characteristics even with gender stratification. However, prospective studies with quantified noise exposure assessment were needed to elucidate the causality on the association between noise annoyance and psychological symptoms.
Source: Yoon JH, Won JU, Lee W, Jung PK, Roh J. PLoS ONE, 9 (8): e105321.
Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatality among Law Enforcement Officers (LEOs), yet data on motor-vehicle-related incidents and motor-vehicle operations are scant. Unfortunately, the limited availability of data makes it difficult for agencies to develop and implement evidence-based prevention programs. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored a statewide survey on officers' thoughts about and experiences with motor-vehicle-related incidents. This statewide survey included a random sample of 60 law enforcement agencies and nearly 1,500 sworn LEOs. Respondents were queried on a wide range of topics: motor-vehicle crashes and roadside incidents, seat belt usage, written motor-vehicle policies, and frequency and type of occupational motor-vehicle training.
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