Violences externes

De quoi parle-t-on ?
Agressions verbales, physiques, attitudes méprisantes, atteintes dégradantes, déni de reconnaissance... La violence au travail, dite externe, est une réalité pour de nombreux salariés. Que recouvre exactement le terme de " violences externes " ? Quelles en sont les différentes formes ? De quels " maux " sont-elles l'expression ? Quelles préventions peut-on mobiliser ? Cet article apporte des éclairages sur le sujet.

Source: Hygiène et sécurité du travail, no 236, septembre 2014.
http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=DC%206

The Health of Young US Workers

Objectives: To provide an overview of the health status of young US workers across four domains: functional health, physical and psychological health, health behavior, and health care utilization.
Methods: Pooled data from the 2004 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for 11,279 US workers aged 18 to 24 years, representing an estimated 16.9 million workers annually. Thirty-nine health indicators were examined and compared across nine occupational groups.
Results: Compared with other occupational groups, craft workers and laborers and helpers had the highest prevalence of risky health behaviors, including current smoking and risky drinking, as well as fewer reported visits to a primary care physician in the past year.
Conclusions: Young workers engage in risky health behaviors, and may benefit from targeted workplace interventions to mitigate the potentially negative long-term effects on health and well-being.

Source: Ocasio, Manuel A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Hollenbeck, Julie; Fernandez, Cristina A.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lin, Jenelle; Caban Martinez, Alberto J.; Kachan, Diana; Christ, Sharon L.; Sestito, John P.; Lee, David J. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: October 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 10 - p 1011–1018.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000256

The aftermath of workplace violence among healthcare workers

A systematic literature review of the conséquences
Workplace violence is an important health and safety issue. Healthcare workers are particularly at risk of experiencing workplace violence. Despite the research that was conducted in this domain, little is known about the consequences of being a victim of workplace violence, specifically in the healthcare sector. Therefore, this article aims to review the literature regarding the consequences of exposure to workplace violence in the healthcare sector. Sixty-eight studies were included in the review and they were evaluated according to 12 criteria recommended for systematic reviews. The studies identified seven categories of consequences of workplace violence: (1) physical, (2) psychological, (3) emotional, (4) work functioning, (5) relationship with patients/quality of care, (6) social/general, and (7) financial. Psychological (e.g., posttraumatic stress, depression) and emotional (e.g., anger, fear) consequences and impact on work functioning (e.g., sick leave, job satisfaction) were the most frequent and important effects of workplace violence. In conclusion, this paper recommends further research, particularly longitudinal studies, in order to better grasp the direct and indirect effects of workplace violence.

Source: Lanctôt N., & Guay S. (2014). The aftermath of workplace violence among healthcare workers: A systematic literature review of the consequences, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 492–501.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2014.07.010

Les dispositifs de prévention des risques professionnels en France

Les enseignements du croisement d'une approche quantitative et qualitative
Ce document propose un premier tableau statistique représentatif des dispositifs de prévention des risques professionnels mis en œuvre dans les entreprises en France au milieu des années 2000, tableau qui faisait jusqu’alors défaut.
 L’exploitation des données de l’enquête REPONSE 2004-2005 dégage quatre grands types de dispositifs, qui témoignent de la diversité des acceptions que peut prendre la notion de « prévention », selon l’activité de travail et sa dangerosité, la taille des établissements et leur secteur. Cependant, l’analyse statistique des dispositifs déclarés n’épuise pas toutes les sources de cette diversité. L’observation directe auprès d’entreprises de la découpe de volaille révèle d’autres éléments de structuration des pratiques. Le jeu du droit, qu’on ne pouvait que très partiellement saisir dans l’enquête statistique, apparaît plus nettement sur le terrain. Il y est possible de suivre l’activité effective des CHSCT et l’usage qui est fait du document unique.
 Mais le seuil des pratiques minimales est à rechercher dans d’autres formes d’action publique que dans le droit lui-même. L’observation des entreprises et les données statistiques révèlent l’importance du rôle des Caisses régionales de l’assurance maladie (Cram), garantes des droits à réparation. Elles assurent, par leurs actions de conseil en entreprise, la diffusion des pratiques de prévention, parallèlement à la gestion du système de tarification.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/document-de-travail/les-dispositifs-de-prevention-des-risques-professionnels-en-france

Psychosocial risks in Europe

Prevalence and strategies for prevention
The report on psychosocial risks at work is a joint publication from the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) and the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound). It draws on the complementary work of the two agencies, which is reflected in their different roles. Acknowledging the complexity of the relationship between health and work, the report presents comparative information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks among workers and examines the associations between these risks and health and well-being. It also looks at the extent to which establishments take action to tackle psychosocial risks and describes interventions that can be adopted in companies. An overview of policies in six Member States is included.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/psychosocial-risks-eu-prevalence-strategies-prevention/view

Recherche et développement conceptuels autour du bien-être au travail

Entre mesure et action
L'approche bien-être au travail voudrait que la préservation de la motivation et de l'implication des salariés soit prise en compte au même titre que leur santé. Le respect de la singularité de chacun garantirait un travail plus créatif, innovant et consensuel et favoriserait alors l'efficacité économique. Après un rappel théorique sur les notions de risques psychosociaux, d'autorégulation des systèmes organisationnels, de feed-back, deux modalités d'interventions sont explicitées en termes de méthodologie et de mise en œuvre. Ces démarches peuvent aider à résoudre des situations de blocage ou conduire à des améliorations concertées touchant à l'organisation. Le cadre non normatif retenu pour les supports au dialogue renforce chez les salariés les possibilités de développer des solutions novatrices et des manières d'agir collectivement, permettant de travailler dans un plus grand "bien-être".

Source: Grosjean V., Formet N., Althaus V., Kop J.L, Brangier É. Références en santé au travail, septembre 2014, no 139, p. 29-39.
http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/DMT/TI-TC-148/tc148.pdf

Policy lessons from the fifth EWCS: The pursuit of more and better jobs

This report examines the evidence and policy lessons that can be drawn from the findings of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) carried out in 2010. The focus is on the links between working conditions and labour market participation in the light of the EU's longstanding policy pursuit of more and better jobs. The report also assesses how the EWCS is valued by policy users and researchers, and where its further development or usage could enhance EU policy on employment and social developments.

Source: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef1429.htm

Workaholisme : état des connaissances

Le workaholisme est une addiction comportementale dont certains facteurs de risque peuvent être liés à l'organisation du travail. Les études et enquêtes menées dans différents secteurs d'activité montrent que cette pathologie entraîne des conséquences pour le salarié lui-même, sa famille mais aussi son entourage professionnel. L'équipe pluridisciplinaire de santé au travail a un rôle important dans l'étude du poste de travail, le repérage du salarié workaholique, son orientation vers un réseau de soins et son maintien dans l'emploi. L'article présenté ici porte sur une revue de la littérature et sur l'interrogation de quelques médecins du travail.

Source: T. Burcoveanu, Références en santé au travail, septembre 2014, no 139, p. 143-151.
http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/DMT/TI-TP-20/tp20.pdf

Occupational exposure to maternal death

Psychological outcomes and coping methods used by midwives working in rural areas
AIM: to explore the psychological outcomes of occupational exposure to maternal death and the coping methods used by midwives working in rural areas.
BACKGROUND: maternal deaths are common in rural areas of developing countries because of the shortages of human and other resources needed for maternity services. When maternal deaths occur, midwives often experience emotional distress while striving to perform their work. This may have a negative impact on their well-being.
METHODS: Descriptive design. A self-administered questionnaire in the English language, comprising the Death Distress Scale and Brief COPE Scale, was used to collect data from 238 midwives working in two rural districts of Uganda.
FINDINGS: the majority of participants were female (81%) and had a diploma in midwifery (36%). Mean age and years of professional experience were 34 [standard deviation (SD) 6.3] years and three (SD 1.3) years, respectively. The majority of participants (94%) had witnessed a maternal death. The results from the Death Distress Scale showed that the majority of midwives who had witnessed a maternal death had moderate to high death anxiety (93%), mild to moderate death obsession (71%) and mild death depression (53%). Most midwives coped with their distress using methods such as active coping, venting, positive reframing, self-distraction and planning.
CONCLUSION: midwifery educational programmes and work settings need to understand the importance of maternal death from the midwives? perspective and their ability to cope with this detrimental experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: there is a need for midwifery practice settings to provide respite care, education on coping with death experiences and counselling after traumatic experiences in order to maintain the well-being of midwives. As occupational exposure to maternal death can have a negative effect on the well-being of midwives, this can affect their professional quality of life and clinical practice.

Source: Muliira RS, Bezuidenhout MC. Midwifery, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2014.08.005

National working conditions surveys in Europe: A compilation

This report describes surveys in 15 EU Member States that meet two conditions: they are national, covering all or most of the working population; and they relate at least primarily to working conditions issues, such as health and safety at the workplace, work organisation, quality of working life and work–life balance. For each survey, a data sheet provides the main characteristics of the survey in a consistent template. These characteristics include the survey name, institute responsible, territorial scope, sectors and population covered, and sample size. Information is also provided on methodology, quality control procedures and contact details.

Source: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef1431.htm

Pilot fatigue

Relationships with departure and arrival times, flight duration, and direction
INTRODUCTION: Flight timing is expected to influence pilot fatigue because it determines the part of the circadian body clock cycle that is traversed during a flight. However the effects of flight timing are not well-characterized because field studies typically focus on specific flights with a limited range of departure times and have small sample sizes. The present project combined data from four studies, including 13 long-range and ultra-long range out-and-back trips across a range of departure and arrival times (237 pilots in 4-person crews, 730 flight segments, 1-3 d layovers).
METHODS: All studies had tripartite support and underwent independent ethical review. Sleep was monitored (actigraphy) from 3 d prior to ≥ 3 d post-trip. Preflight and at top of descent (TOD), pilots rated their sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and fatigue (Samn-Perelli scale), and completed a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) test. Mixed model ANOVA identified independent associations between fatigue measures and operational factors (domicile times of departure and arrival, flight duration and direction, landing versus relief crew).
RESULTS: Preflight subjective fatigue and sleepiness were lowest for flights departing 14:00-17:59. Total in-flight sleep was longest on flights departing 18:00-01:59. At TOD, fatigue and sleepiness were higher and PVT response speeds were slower on flights arriving 06:00-09:59 than on flights arriving later. PVT response speed at TOD was also faster on longer flights.
DISCUSSION: The findings indicate the influence of flight timing (interacting with the circadian body clock cycle), as well as flight duration, on in-flight sleep and fatigue measures at TOD.

Source: Gander PH, Mulrine HM, van den Berg MJ, Smith AA, Signal TL, Wu LJ, Belenky G. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2014; 85: 833-840.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/ASEM.3963.2014

Des artisans en bonne santé… mais stressés

Plus d'un artisan sur deux estime être très régulièrement stressé. C'est le principal enseignement que révèle ce premier baromètre ARTI Santé BTP, qui permet de livrer un panorama de l'état médical des artisans du bâtiment sur leurs conditions de travail. Ce stress est directement lié aux problèmes de gestion de l'entreprise (trésorerie, fortes variations de l'activité et faible visibilité sur l'avenir, poids de l'administratif…). Il résulte aussi de facteurs conjoncturels, en période de crise économique. Il a des effets multiples sur la santé des artisans, notamment sur leur sommeil : ils sont ainsi 45% à avoir une mauvaise qualité de sommeil et 59% à se déclarer fatigués, contre 46% des dirigeants tous secteurs confondus. En revanche, paradoxalement, une écrasante majorité d'artisans du BTP s'estiment en bonne santé (80%). Trois artisans sur quatre déclarent ne pas être suivis médicalement vis-à-vis de leur activité professionnelle. Les artisans interrogés déclarent à 95% que leur activité est exigeante mentalement. Une perception issue de la diversité des tâches que l'artisan effectue tout au long de la journée sur le chantier ou en atelier, mais aussi au bureau.

Source: http://www.preventionbtp.fr/Magazine/Reportages/Actualite/Etude-des-artisans-en-bonne-sante-mais-stresses

Perspective de genre sur l'emploi et les conditions de travail des seniors

L'objectif de ce "Working paper" est d'investiguer systématiquement la dimension du genre dans la problématique des conditions de travail et d'emploi des travailleurs âgés (50 ans et plus). Les conditions de travail et d'emploi apparaissent de plus en plus clairement comme un enjeu clé dans le vieillissement au travail, mais les disparités entre les femmes et les hommes ne font pas l'objet, à ce jour, d'une attention suffisante. Ces disparités ne résultent pas seulement des processus de ségrégation horizontale (entre secteurs d'activité) et de ségrégation verticale (entre catégories de métiers), qui font que les situations de travail des femmes et des hommes sont fortement différenciées. Elles concernent aussi les trajectoires professionnelles respectives des hommes et des femmes, leur lien avec l'état de santé après 50 ans et l'évolution des normes en matière de retraite. Elles ont également trait aux
possibilités d'épanouissement dans le travail et à la reconnaissance au travail. Plus largement, le vieillissement au travail des femmes et des hommes est influencé par l'inégale répartition des tâches domestiques et des tâches de soins, à la fois vis-à-vis des générations plus âgées et des générations plus jeunes.

Source: http://www.ftu-namur.org/fichiers/WP2014%2003%20Genre%20emploi%20conditions%20de%20travail%20seniors%20FR.pdf

The business case for safety and health: Cost–benefit analyses of interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises

This report examines the economic aspects of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions in small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). First, case studies in the existing literature were identified and examined. Second, 13 new case studies on OSH initiatives in European SMEs were developed, with a business case for each intervention prepared according to a common model. The OSH interventions studied were generally profitable, and these new case studies therefore provide a useful tool to allow owners and managers of SMEs an insight into the potential benefits of improving OSH and the key factors involved in carrying out a cost–benefit analysis.

Source : https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/the-business-case-for-safety-and-health-cost-benefit-analyses-of-interventions-in-small-and-medium-sized-enterprises

For better or worse? Changing shift schedules and the risk of work injury among men and women

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the risk of work injury associated with changes in shift schedules and identify whether work injury risks differ between men and women.
Methods: Longitudinal panels from the Survey of Labor and Income Dynamics were used to describe work schedule patterns over a 6-year period among a representative sample of Canadian workers (N=19 131). Cox regression was used to estimate the risk of work injury among workers who (i) switched from regular day to nonstandard shifts, (ii) switched from nonstandard to day shifts and (iii) remained in nonstandard shifts, compared with (iv) those who worked regular day shifts only. Gender differences were examined in separate stratified analyses. Adjustments were made for potential respondent and occupational confounders.
Results: Increased injury risk was observed among those who: switched from day to nonstandard shifts [hazard ratio (HR) 2.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.79–3.77], switched from nonstandard to days (HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.62–3.49), and worked nonstandard shifts only (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.23–1.70). For women, work injury risk was higher among those who switched shifts (days to nonstandard HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.76–5.46; nonstandard to days HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.36–3.91), or worked nonstandard shifts only (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.44–2.37) compared to day schedules. However, for men the risk of injury was elevated only among those who switched shifts (days to nonstandard HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.35–3.51; nonstandard to days HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.41–3.95). The only significant difference between men and women were among nonstandard shift workers.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that changing shift types may increase work injury risk among men and women, and that the risk remains increased among women who work nonstandard shifts for a prolonged period of time. This highlights the need for awareness and implementation of health and safety programs when workers initially change shift schedules and on a regular basis to maintain worker health.

Source: Wong IS, Smith PM, Mustard CA, Gignac MAM. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2014. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3454

Plus de Messages Page suivante »

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives