Born and Bred to Burn out: A Life-Course View and Reflections on Job Burnout

Burnout is a response to prolonged stressors at work, and is defined as a chronic syndrome including exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The 40 years of research on burnout have yielded thousands of studies on its measurement, antecedents, correlates, and consequences. However, most of these studies have used a cross-sectional design, and only very few have addressed burnout from a life-course perspective. In the first part of this article, we reflect on the ideas that inspired our multidisciplinary “A 35-Year Follow-Up Study on Burnout Among Finnish Employees,” and the challenges that we encountered when conducting and publishing the study. In the second part, we focus on another understudied topic in burnout research, namely negative life events and their role in burnout. In the third part of the article, we more broadly discuss 6 important developments in burnout research over the past decade, and propose 6 key topics for future studies on this topic.

Source: Hakanen, Jari J.; Bakker, Arnold B. (2016) Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.

Santé mentale et sécurités des collectivités : appuyer nos agents de sécurité publique à l’aide d’une stratégie nationale sur les blessures de stress opérationnel

Les agents de la sécurité publique sont à risques de souffrir d'un trouble de stress post-traumatique (TSPT) et de blessures de stress opérationnel (BSO) à la suite d'événements traumatiques vécus dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions1. Tout le monde s'entend pour dire que le bien-être des personnes qui aident à protéger la sécurité des Canadiens est d'une importance capitale. Le Comité permanent de la sécurité publique et nationale de la Chambre des communes (le « Comité »), a décidé d'étudier cette question, d'inviter des témoins, de synthétiser l'information et de présenter des recommandations au gouvernement fédéral qui s'apprête à concevoir un cadre pour s'attaquer aux blessures de stress opérationnel dont souffrent les agents de la sécurité publique.
Les principales recommandations du Comité reposent sur trois assises permettant de recueillir des données exactes et de les diffuser à l'échelle nationale de sorte que les agents de la sécurité publique reçoivent de l'aide, quel que soit le lieu où ils vivent ou travaillent. Le Comité demande la création d'un Institut canadien de recherche sur la santé des agents de la sécurité publique et la tenue d'une enquête sur la prévalence des troubles de santé mentale. De plus, il propose de créer un groupe de travail d'experts chargé d'élaborer une stratégie nationale sur les blessures de stress opérationnel comprenant des politiques sur la prévention, le dépistage, la sensibilisation, l'intervention et le traitement.


Working hours and the onset of depressive disorder

A systematic review and meta-analysis
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether working beyond the standard working hours was associated with a greater risk of depressive disorder among workers included in published prospective studies. This manuscript was prepared according to the PRISMA guideline checklist. A database search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES using a relevant set of keywords. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) participants were adult workers; (2) exposure was defined as overtime work; (3) outcome were depressive disorders clinically diagnosed or assessed by a structured interview and (4) the study design was prospective or cohort. 7 studies were identified in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Overtime work was associated with a small, non-significant, elevated risk of depressive disorder (pooled relative risk=1.075; 95% CI 0.834 to 1.387; p=0.575) in a random effects model. The association tended to be greater for women. The risk of working 50 or more hours per week was slightly but not significantly increased (pooled relative risk=1.241; 95% CI 0.880 to 1.750; p=0.218). The effect of overtime work on depressive disorder remains inconclusive and may be small if not negligible. Sex differences and the effect of longer working hours on depressive disorder should be addressed in the future.

Source: Watanabe, K., Imamura, K., & Kawakami, N. (2016). Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

Évaluation et intervention en matière de climat psychologique de travail chez le personnel infirmier

Une revue de la littérature
Cette revue de littérature a pour thème central l'influence du climat psychologique de travail et de la satisfaction au travail sur l'intention de quitter chez les infirmières. Plus spécifiquement, il s'agit d'abord d'exposer l'influence des dimensions du climat psychologique de travail, soit les perceptions liées à la nature de l'emploi, au rôle professionnel, à la qualité du leadership, à la qualité de l'équipe de travail ainsi qu'à l'organisation dans son ensemble, sur l'intention de quitter l'organisation ainsi que la profession chez les infirmières. Ensuite, il s'agit de mettre en évidence le rôle médiateur potentiel de la satisfaction au travail dans l'explication du mécanisme par lequel un individu passe d'une perception défavorable des dimensions du climat psychologique de travail aux intentions de quitter. Ce travail se termine sur une recension des pratiques d'évaluation et d'intervention qui pourraient favoriser le succès des démarches d'amélioration du climat psychologique et de la satisfaction au travail auprès des infirmières.

Source: Maillet, Stéphanie, Courcy, François, Leblanc, Jeannette. (2016). Recherche en soins infirmiers, 125, 84-97.

Workplace bullying and the association with suicidal ideation/thoughts and behaviour

A systematic review
The established links between workplace bullying and poor mental health provide a prima facie reason to expect that workplace bullying increases the risk of suicidal ideation (thoughts) and behaviours. Until now, there has been no systematic summary of the available evidence. This systematic review summarises published studies reporting data on workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, or behaviour. The review sought to ascertain the nature of this association and highlight future research directions. 5 electronic databases were searched. 2 reviewers independently selected the articles for inclusion, and extracted information about study characteristics (sample, recruitment method, assessment and measures) and data reporting the association of workplace bullying with suicidal ideation and behaviour. 12 studies were included in the final review—8 reported estimates of a positive association between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, and a further 4 provided descriptive information about the prevalence of suicidal ideation in targets of bullying. Only 1 non-representative cross-sectional study examined the association between workplace bullying and suicidal behaviour. The results show an absence of high-quality epidemiological studies (eg, prospective cohort studies, which controlled for workplace characteristics and baseline psychiatric morbidity). While the available literature (predominantly cross-sectional) suggests that there is a positive association between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, the low quality of studies prevents ruling out alternative explanations. Further longitudinal, population-based research, adjusting for potential covariates (within and outside the workplace), is needed to determine the level of risk that workplace bullying independently contributes to suicidal ideation and behaviour.

Source: Leach, Liana S., Poyser, Carmel, & Butterworth, Peter. (2016). Occupational & Environmental Medicine

Women's occupational health and safety management

An issue for corporate social responsibility
This study measures the extent to which the gender perspective is taken into account in Occupational Health & Safety (OHS) management and proposes an innovative approach for managing it. This work is an exploratory study of the relations between women's OHS and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through the examination of the main management practices that literature supports in a survey conducted at 117 companies in Spain with different levels of commitment to gender equality. Overall, the practices in question are found to be deployed to a moderate extent and their impact is limited. The most relevant initiatives are those related to the prevention, punishment and eradication of sexual harassment in the workplace and violence against women. Our findings indicate that compliance with the law and
the importance of external recognition in CSR are main drivers in promoting the gender perspective in OHS. A coherent framework is suggested for addressing women's OHS management based on a voluntary, preventive, systematic approach that goes beyond sexual and reproductive issues, namely the CSR.

Source: de Celis, I. L. R., de Bobadilla-Güémez, S. F., del Mar Alonso-Almeida, M., & Velasco-Balmaseda, E. (2017). Safety science, 91, 61-70.

Safety at the workplace: accidents and illnesses

The topic of work safety is a very relevant and multifaceted problem for workers, firms and policy makers. Differing from other narrow-scope studies, this article aims to enrich the understanding of workplace safety as a whole by applying econometric techniques on data from the Italian Labour Force Survey. Findings show poor working conditions are the most significant determinants of accidents and illnesses occurring at work, while having a fixed-term (temporary) contract is not significant. Other significant determinants of work safety are: not being new to the workforce; dissatisfaction with the current job; gender; and a latent proneness observed with occurrence of accident on the way to work. This article also highlights that work related accidents and illnesses are two deeply correlated phenomena and that there is a structural break after three years on the job.

Source: Cioni, Martina. (2016). Work Employment & Society, 30 (5), 858-875.

Safety climate and accidents at work

Cross-sectional study among 15,000 workers of the general working population
Methods: In the 2012 round of the Danish Work Environment and Health Study, 15,144 workers from the general working population of Denmark replied to questions about safety climate and accidents at work. Mutually adjusted logistic regression analyses determined the association between variables.
Results: Within the last year, 5.7% had experienced an accident resulting in sickness absence. The number of safety climate problems was progressively associated with the odds ratio (OR) for accidents. For one safety climate problem the OR for accidents was 2.01 (95% CI 1.67-2.42), for four or more safety climate problems the OR was 4.57 (95% CI 3.64-5.74). Young workers (18-24 years) had higher odds of accidents (OR 1.36 [95% CI 1.02-1.81]). Using safety climate as outcome and excluding those who previously experienced an accident, the OR for experiencing safety climate problems was 1.98 (95% 1.66-2.36) among young workers. Using office and educational work as reference, transport or alone work, construction work, manufacturing work, and service and kitchen work had highest odds for experiencing safety climate problems.
Conclusion: A higher number of safety climate problems are progressively associated with increased odds for experiencing accidents. Young workers are more likely to experience safety climate problems and accidents at work. Especially transport, construction, manufacturing and service workers are more likely to experience safety climate problems.

Source: Ajslev J, Dastjerdi EL, Dyreborg J, et al. (2016). Safety Science,91, 320-325.

Peer Support and Crisis-Focused Psychological Intervention Programs in Canadian First Responders

Results from a review conducted by a team of researchers at the University of Regina have shown that there is an urgent need for more research on the effectiveness of peer support and crisis-focused psychological intervention programs designed to help First Responders — police, paramedics, and fire and rescue personnel — cope with the trauma often associated with their work. The Blue Paper was published by a research team led by Dr. Shadi Beshai and Dr. R. Nicholas Carleton with the Canadian Institute for Public Safety Research and Treatment (CIPSRT).
The “operational stressors” that First Responders regularly confront at work, including death, violence, and threats to their own lives, put them at risk for psychological challenges, including post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and anger. Such challenges can lead to other problems, such as substance abuse, relationship difficulties, and absenteeism.
Many workplaces now offer programs designed to help First Responders manage the operational stressors they experience. Some programs are crisis-focused,
while others try to build resiliency with programming before, during, and after critical incidents. Despite the prevalence of such programs, more work is needed.


Sleep-related problems in the US working population

Prevalence and association with shiftwork status
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of a comprehensive set of self-reported sleep problems by job characteristics, including shiftwork status, among a representative sample of US workers.
Methods: Data for 6338 workers aged ≥18 years were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Short sleep duration was defined as <7 hours per weekday/workday. Sleep quality was categorised as good, moderate and poor based on the frequency of 6 sleep-related symptoms. A sleep-related activities of daily living (ADL) score ≥2 was defined as impaired. Insomnia was defined as having poor sleep quality and impaired ADL. Shiftwork status was categorised as daytime, night, evening, rotating or another schedule. Prevalence rates were calculated and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used.
Results: The prevalence of short sleep duration (37.6% overall) was highest among night shift workers (61.8%; p<0.001). The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 19.2% among all workers, with the highest prevalence among night shift workers (30.7%, p=0.004). The prevalence of impaired ADL score (24.8% overall) and insomnia (8.8% overall) was also highest for night shift workers (36.2%, p=0.001 and 18.5%, p=0.013, respectively). In multivariate analysis, night shift workers had the highest likelihood of these sleep problems.
Conclusions: Self-reported short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, impaired ADL score and insomnia are common among US workers especially among night shift workers. Although these findings should be confirmed with objective sleep measures, they support the need for intervention programmes to improve sleep quantity and quality among night shift workers.

Source: Lee C Yong, Jia Li, Geoffrey M Calvert. (2016). Occup Environ Med .

Les départs précoces des pâtissiers salariés de l'artisanat

Comprendre pour agir en prévention
Le départ précoce de la plupart des pâtissiers salariés de l'artisanat, survenant bien avant l'âge légal de la retraite, constitue à la fois un paradoxe et un défi de prévention en santé au travail. Le présent article fondé sur une analyse pluridisciplinaire décrit l'activité et les altérations de santé caractéristiques de ce métier, ses contraintes et la tension entre deux configurations différentes d'exercice. Des marges de progrès et des actions possibles de prévention à adapter aux particularités de l'entreprise sont décrites.

Source: PICHENE-HOUARD A., LAPOIRE-CHASSET M., MARTEL L., GAUDART C., VOLKOFF S., CLAUDON L. Références en santé au travail, septembre 2016, no 147, p. 51-68. 240

Situation au travail des personnes touchées par des acouphènes et/ou de l'hyperacousie

Cet article propose d'étudier les conditions de travail et l'impact du travail sur la santé d'une population mal connue, celle des personnes très gênées par des troubles de l'audition tels que des acouphènes ou de l'hyperacousie. Les données, issues du Baromètre Santé Sourds et Malentendants (BSSM) de l'Institut national de prévention et d'éducation pour la santé (INPES, devenu en 2016 Santé Publique France), fournissent des résultats sur la perception des conditions de travail, les ressources et contraintes, sur la reconnaissance des situations de handicap et les aménagements de poste dont les personnes disposent. La comparaison de ces données avec celles obtenues en population générale, via le Baromètre santé 2010, permet de souligner les répercussions vécues du travail sur la santé, en termes de fatigue nerveuse ou de souffrance psychique pour ces populations.

Source: C. MENARD, A. SITBON. Références en santé au travail, septembre 2016, no 147, p. 41-50. 239

Do psychosocial job resources buffer the relation between physical work demands and coronary heart disease

A prospective study among men
PURPOSE: Increasing evidence shows the detrimental impact of high physical work demands for cardiovascular health and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the buffering effects of social support at work and job control in the relation between physical work demands and incidence of coronary events. METHODS: The study included 14,337 middle-aged men free from coronary heart disease (CHD) at baseline. The sample consisted of a mixed occupational group recruited within 18 organizations from the manufacturing, service, and public sector. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and clinical examinations. The incidence of clinical coronary events was monitored during a mean follow-up time of 3.15 years. Multilevel Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used, adjusting for socio-demographic and classical coronary risk factors. RESULTS: Social support at work buffered the impact of physical work demands on CHD risk: Only among workers with low social support at work did physical work demands significantly increase the risk for CHD incidence (fully adjusted HR 2.50: 95 % CI 1.13-5.50), while this harmful effect completely disappeared in case of high level of workplace social support (fully adjusted HR 0.40; 95 % CI 0.09-1.70). No interaction or buffering effect with job control was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that supportive relationships at work may be a useful resource for reducing the cardiovascular risk associated with physical work demands in men. Future studies are needed to confirm this moderating role of workplace social support and to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

Source: Clays E, Casini A, van Herck K, et al. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2016.

Job Burnout in Mental Health Providers

A Meta-Analysis of 35 Years of Intervention Research
Burnout is prevalent among mental health providers and is associated with significant employee, consumer, and organizational costs. Over the past 35 years, numerous intervention studies have been conducted but have yet to be reviewed and synthesized using a quantitative approach. To fill this gap, we performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of burnout interventions for mental health workers. We completed a systematic literature search of burnout intervention studies that spanned more than 3 decades (1980 to 2015). Each eligible study was independently coded by 2 researchers, and data were analyzed using a random-effects model with effect sizes based on the Hedges' g statistic. We computed an overall intervention effect size and performed moderator analyses. Twenty-seven unique samples were included in the meta-analysis, representing 1,894 mental health workers. Interventions had a small but positive effect on provider burnout (Hedges' g = .13, p = .006). Moderator analyses suggested that person-directed interventions were more effective than organization-directed interventions at reducing emotional exhaustion (Qbetween = 6.70, p = .010) and that job training/education was the most effective organizational intervention subtype (Qbetween = 12.50, p < .001). Lower baseline burnout levels were associated with smaller intervention effects and accounted for a significant proportion of effect size variability. The field has made limited progress in ameliorating mental health provider burnout. Based on our findings, we suggest that researchers implement a wider breadth of interventions that are tailored to address unique organizational and staff needs and that incorporate longer follow-up periods.

Source: Dreison, Kimberly C.; Luther, Lauren; Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Sliter, Michael T.; McGrew, John H.; Salyers, Michelle P. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Sep. 19, 2016.

Mindfulness Interventions in the Workplace

A Critique of the Current State of the Literature
There is growing research interest regarding the significance of mindfulness in the workplace. Within this body of knowledge, research investigating the effects of mindfulness interventions on employee health and well-being has strong practical implications for organizations. A sound understanding of the current state of the workplace mindfulness intervention literature will help inform the suitability of these interventions within the workplace domain, and how to improve the conduct and communication of intervention-oriented research. Accordingly, in this article, we systematically review 40 published articles of mindfulness interventions in the workplace to identify ways in which these interventions could be improved, and how to overcome methodological concerns that threaten study validity. Studies selected for review were published peer-reviewed, primary empirical research studies written in English, with a focus on a workplace mindfulness intervention. We discuss a range of issues evident within this body of literature, including conceptualizations of mindfulness; the adaptation of protocols to work settings; internal validity in relation to random allocation and control conditions; the use of manipulation checks; attrition, adherence, acceptability, and maintenance of interventions; utilizing objective cognitive measures; examining organizational and well-being outcomes; and establishing boundary conditions. Overall, this review provides a resource to inform scholars to advance this line of inquiry and practitioners who are considering implementing a mindfulness intervention for employees.

Source: Jamieson, Stephanie D.; Tuckey, Michelle R. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Sep 19, 2016,.

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