Psychosocial Work Conditions and Mental Health: Examining Differences Across Mental Illness and Well-Being Outcomes

Objectives  Psychosocial work conditions are determinants of mental illness among worker populations. However, while the focus on negative aspects of mental health has generated important contributions to the development of workplace interventions, there is less evidence on the factors that support the positive aspects of mental well-being. This study aimed to examine the association between psychosocial work conditions and mental health Outcomes among a representative sample of Canadian workers; and to assess whether the relationships are consistent across measures of mental illness versus mental well-being.

Methods  Population-based data were obtained from the cross-sectional 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. Psychosocial work conditions were measured using an abbreviated version of the Job Content Questionnaire. For mental illness, we focused on major depressive episodes, generalized anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders in the past 12 months, as measured using Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria. Mental well-being was defined as having flourishing mental health, based on items from the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. Regression models provided odds ratios (ORs) and fitted probabilities for the relationship between work conditions and mental health, adjusting for covariates.


Results  Higher levels of job controlsocial support, and job security were associated with being free of disorders (ORs ranging from 1.08 to 1.15) as well as having flourishing mental health (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 1.14). Lower physical effortwas associated with decreased odds of having flourishing mental health (OR 0.89). Psychological demands were not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. The overall pattern of these relationships was consistent across the two outcome models, although there was evidence of heterogeneity on the absolute probability scale. Specifically, there was a relatively stronger relationship between job control/social support/physical demands and well-being outcomes, compared with disorder outcomes.

Conclusions  Psychosocial work conditions were associated with both negative and positive measures of mental health. However, mental illness and mental well-being may represent complementary, yet distinct, aspects in relation to psychosocial work conditions. Interventions targeting the psychosocial work environment may serve to improve both of these dimensions, although the measurement and examination of specific dimensions may be required to obtain an integrated and comprehensive understanding of mental health in the workplace.


Source : Annals of Work Exposures and Health (2019), 63(5), 546–559,

Rest breaks from work: Overview of regulations, research and practice

This report addresses the rarely discussed issue of rest breaks at work across the European Union. Based on input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents, it reveals some of the complexities involved in defining whether such breaks should be paid or unpaid, how long they should be and where they should be taken. The report compares different approaches among Member States, gives examples of judicial rulings, highlights some types of work that attract special consideration and looks into causal relationships between breaks, health and performance at work. When rest breaks are of an appropriate duration and appropriately scheduled, they can reduce some of the harmful effects of work on health and well-being while contributing to improved performance and productivity.


L’intensification du travail, et l’intensification des changements dans le travail : quels enjeux pour les travailleurs expérimentés ?

Cet article examine, sur la base de recherches en ergonomie, en psychologie du travail et en démographie du travail, les enjeux de la confrontation entre deux tendances en cours : le vieillissement structurel de la population au travail d'une part, l'intensification du travail et celle des changements dans le travail d'autre part. Cette analyse comporte un rappel des constats sur ces évolutions elles-mêmes, et une synthèse des connaissances sur les difficultés que l'intensification du travail, ou celle des changements, peut provoquer pour les travailleurs vieillissants, mais aussi sur les stratégies opératoires qu'ils peuvent élaborer, sur la base de leur expérience, afin de maîtriser au mieux ces contraintes.

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Occupational safety and health interventions to protect young workers from hazardous work – A scoping review


Occupational injury rates are higher among young people when compared to older age groups.
Objective Identifying preventive occupational safety and health interventions that aim at protecting young workers from hazards at work while considering their ongoing physical and mental maturation.
Methods We ran a sensitive search strategy in twelve electronic databases to locate studies. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts, and later full texts for eligibility. One person extracted the details of studies and another checked for errors. Data were analyzed in an iterative process.
Results We included 39 studies. Three studies evaluated environmental interventions, 29 evaluated behavioral, one evaluated clinical and six combined more than one type of intervention. Developmental characteristics of young workers that could contribute to risk were addressed in 13 studies. Thirty-five studies were from high income countries, one was from an upper middle-income country and three were from lower middle- income countries. We found no studies from low income countries.
Conclusions There is a dearth of evidence when it comes to evaluating interventions in low and lower middle income countries and adapting interventions developed in high income countries to the needs of low and middle income ones. A higher and more integrated participation of young workers themselves, parents and other key social actors such as policy makers, employers and occupational safety and health regulators is required to optimally protect young workers. We recommend developing and evaluating interventions that specifically address the risks that youth face at work due to their ongoing developmental process. Further we need systematic reviews of the interventions identified in this review such as for young workers in the service sector.

Source : Safety Science (2019) 113, 389-403


Quebec Serve and Protect Low Back Pain Study: What About Mental Quality of Life?

Background As of now, the impact of low back pain (LBP) and its chronic state, chronic low back pain (CLBP), on mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has never been investigated among police officers. The present investigation aims at studying this relationship using a biopsychosocial model.

Methods Between May and October 2014, a Web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Quebec police officers (Quebec, Canada). Mental HRQOL was measured using the role emotional (RE) and the mental health (MH) domains of the SF-12v2 Health Survey. The impact of CLBP on mental HRQOL (as opposed to acute/subacute LBP or no LBP) was studied with a multivariate linear regression model.

Results Our results underscore how frequent CLBP is among police officers and how burdensome it is. Considering the importance of good physical and mental health for this occupational population, police organizations should be aware of this issue and contribute to the efforts toward CLBP prevention and management in the workplace. 

Conclusion Our results underscore how frequent CLBP is among police officers and how burdensome it is. Considering the importance of good physical and mental health for this occupational population, police organizations should be aware of this issue and contribute to the efforts toward CLBP prevention and management in the workplace

Source : Douma, N.B., Côté, C. et Lacasse, A. (2019). Safety and Health at Work, 10, (1), 39-46.

Occupational Safety and Health Among Young Workers in the Nordic Countries: A Systematic Literature Review

This review aimed to identify risk factors for occupational accidents and illnesses among young workers in the Nordic countries and to attain knowledge on specific vulnerable groups within the young working force that may need special attention. We conducted a systematic review from 1994 to 2014 using five online databases. Of the 12,528 retrieved articles, 54 met the review criteria and were quality assessed, in which data were extracted focusing on identifying occupational safety, health risk factors, and vulnerable groups among the young workers. The review shows that mechanical factors such as heavy lifting, psychosocial factors such as low control over work pace, and organizational factors such as safety climate are all associated with increased injury risk for young Nordic workers. Results show that exposures to chemical substances were associated with skin reactions, e.g., hand eczema. Heavy lifting and awkward postures were risk factors for low back pain, and high job demands were risk factors for mental health outcomes. The review identified young unskilled workers including school drop-out workers as particularly vulnerable groups when it comes to occupational accidents. In addition, apprentices and young skilled workers were found to be vulnerable to work-related illnesses. It is essential to avoid stereotyping young Nordic workers into one group using only age as a factor, as young workers are a heterogeneous group and their vulnerabilities to occupational safety and health risks are contextual. Politicians, researchers, and practitioners should account for this complexity in the education, training and organization of work, and workplace health and safety culture.

Source : Hanvold, T.N., Kines, P., Nykänen, M., Thomée, S., Holte, K.A., Vuori, J., Wærsted, M., Veiersted, K.B. (2019) Safety and Health at Work.  10(1), 3-20.

Long working hours and depressive symptoms: moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic status, and job resources

Purpose Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found inconsistent associations between working hours and depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible moderators of this association, using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey.

Methods A total of 16,136 Japanese employees (men 83.5%; women 16.5%) responded to a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about overtime working hours during the previous month and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale), as well as moderating factors including gender, age, marital status, socioeconomic status, commuting time, sleeping hours per day, job control and worksite social support (Job Content Questionnaire), neuroticism (Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised), and social desirability (Social Desirability Scale) (response rate, 85%). We conducted sequential regression analyses to investigate the main effects and interaction effects of all moderating variables.

Results The association between overtime working hours and depressive symptoms was significantly moderated by gender (interaction effect: β = 0.03), age (β = − 0.02), manager (β = 0.03), sleeping hours (β = − 0.02), job control (β = − 0.03), and neuroticism (β = 0.02). Among workers engaged in 80 + hours of overtime, higher depressive symptoms were reported by women, younger employees, non-managers, employees with low job control, low worksite social support, and high neuroticism. A significant main effect of long overtime working hours on depressive symptoms was also observed even after controlling for all independent variables (β = 0.02).

Conclusions Long overtime working hours is associated with depressive symptoms. We also found significant heterogeneity in the association according to employee characteristics, which may explain the inconsistent findings in previous literature.

Source : Tsuno, K., Kawachi, I., Inoue, A., Nakai, S.,  Tanigaki, T., Nagotami, H. et N. Kawakami.  International Archives of Occupational  and Environmental Health (2019).

Short rest between shifts (quick returns) and night work is associated with work-related accidents



Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether less than 11 h between shifts (i.e., quick returns, QRs) and night shifts is associated with self-reported work-related accidents, near accidents or dozing off at work in a sample of nurses.

Methods The study was based on cross-sectional data from 1784 nurses (response rate = 60%; mean age = 40.1 years, SD = 8.4; 91% female). Negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between the shift exposures, and eight different self-reported work-related items on accidents, near accidents and dozing off at work, controlling for demographics and work factors.

Results The number of QRs during a year was positively associated with seven of the eight items on work-related accidents, near-accidents and dozing off at work, and number of night shifts was positively associated with five items. Some of the key findings were that QRs were associated with nurses causing harm to themselves (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.009; 95% CI = 1.005–1.013), causing harm to patients/others (IRR = 1.006; 95% CI = 1.002–1.010) and causing harm to equipment (IRR = 1.004; 95% CI = 1.001–1.007); while night shifts were associated with nurses involuntarily dozing off at work (IRR = 1.015; 95% CI = 1.013–1.018), dozing off while driving to/from work (IRR = 1.009; 95% CI = 1.006–1.011), and harming patients/others (IRR = 1.005; 95% CI = 1.001–1.009).

Conclusion QRs and night shifts were both associated with the self-reported work-related accidents, near-accidents and dozing off at work. Studies that can establish the causal relationship between QRs and accidents are called for.



Source : Vedaa, Ø., Harris, A., Erevik, E.K. et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health (2019).

Caractérisation des effets des expositions aux facteurs psychosociaux sur la santé mentale et l'état de santé général perçu - Analyses à partir de l'enquête "Santé et itinéraire professionnel"

Basée sur l'enquête nationale " Santé et itinéraire professionnel ", cette étude avait l'objectif d'apporter des réponses quant à la nature des effets de 17 facteurs psychosociaux sur la survenue de troubles de la santé mentale et sur la dégradation de l'état de santé général perçu. L'effet se produit-il au moment de l'exposition ou après un certain temps ? La santé mentale et la santé générale perçue sont elles plus altérées dans le cas d'une exposition prolongée ?
Les troubles de santé surviennent-ils si l'exposition est réduite ou disparaît ? Selon les facteurs psychosociaux et le genre, les résultats suggèrent un effet principalement à court terme de l'exposition psychosociale plutôt qu'un effet décalé sur la survenue de troubles de la santé. Aucun sur-risque en cas d'exposition répétée comparée à une exposition actuelle ponctuelle n'a été mis en évidence.

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Associations Between Systemic Quality of Life and Burnout Among French Canadian Workers

Burnout has very often been studied from a work-life specific perspective. However, a recent field of research leads to wonder about the impact that life events can have on the development of burnout. This study therefore investigated the associations between five domains of systemic quality of life and the three dimensions of burnout proposed by Maslach and colleagues. An analysis of correlations and multiple hierarchical regressions were performed on a sample of 202 French Canadian workers. These analyses report inverse associations between quality of life and burnout, with strong negative correlations between quality of life domains and burnout dimensions. The results also suggest that physical health and psychological health are strongly associated with the burnout dimensions and that systemic quality of life significantly adds variance into the risk factors model of emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment. This study provides empirical data supporting the belief that burnout is not work-life specific; burnout seems to have interactions with other life domains. These results point to the importance of raising awareness about the different life domains involved in the development of burnout, whether at the level of organizations, workers or practitioners.

Source : Vachon, M., Papineau, M., Dupuis, G. et al. (2019). Social Indicators Research, 142(3) 1193–1210

Breaking Point: Violence Against Long-Term Care Staff

Direct resident care in long-term care facilities is carried out predominantly by personal support workers and registered practical nurses, the majority of whom are women. They experience physical, verbal, and sexual violence from residents on a regular basis. To explore this widespread problem, fifty-six staff in seven communities in Ontario, Canada, were consulted. They identified such immediate causes of violence as resident fear, confusion, and agitation and such underlying causes as task-driven organization of work, understaffing, inappropriate resident placement, and inadequate time for relational care. They saw violence as symptomatic of an institution that undervalues both its staff and residents. They described how violence affects their own health and well-being—causing injuries, unaddressed emotional trauma, job dissatisfaction, and burnout. They outlined barriers to preventing violence, such as insufficient training and resources, systemic underfunding, lack of recognition of the severity and ubiquity of the phenomenon, and limited public awareness.

Source : New Solutions : A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, 10.1177/1048291118824872

The role of collective affective commitment in the relationship between work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion among nurses: a multilevel modeling approach

Work–family conflict (WFC) is a crucial problem in nursing because of the demanding conditions of the job, such as strenuous shifts, physical and emotional workload, and intense patient involvement. Using a multilevel approach, this study investigated the moderating role of collective affective commitment as a protective resource in the relationship between WFC and emotional exhaustion.

Source : BMC Nursing18(1), 2/18/2019. 10.1186/s12912-019-0329-z

Too sick or not too sick?: The importance of stress and satisfaction with supervisor support on the prevalence of sickness presenteeism

In a sample of 3,274 full-time Belgian workers, this article found that 62% of workers went to work while being sick (sickness presenteeism) at least once over the past 12 months. Of all workers who did not show sickness presenteeism themselves, another 6 out of 10 saw or heard about sickness presenteeism in their own organization. This turns sickness presenteeism into an important physical and mental health risk, demanding new policy measures from organizational and governmental decision makers. Women were more likely to report sickness presenteeism than men and junior workers were more prone to sickness presenteeism than senior workers. Education did not explain the choice for sickness presenteeism. Satisfaction with the supervisor had a direct negative effect on sickness presenteeism. Finally, indirect effects were found between satisfaction with the supervisor and sickness presenteeism via the prevalence of stress. While previous studies showed that good supervisor support could make sick workers more productive when they show up at work anyway, this study shows that good supervisor support lowers the probability that sick workers turn up at work at all.

Source : International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, Mars 2019. 10.1080/10803548.2019.1570720


Technologies numériques et travail médico-social : retour d’expérience à partir d’une recherche action formation

Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche, « Les technologies NUmériques au SERvice des USagers dans les établissements sociaux et médico-sociaux » (NUSERUS, septembre 2015 - décembre 2018), qui a pour objectif de recenser et d'analyser les dispositifs sociotechniques utilisés dans les établissements ou services sociaux ou médico-sociaux (ESSMS), notre réflexion se focalise sur les innovations numériques et sociales qui se développent dans ces organisations. Nous mettons en oeuvre une Recherche Action Formation (RAF) composée de deux phases successives, en partenariat avec le CREAI PACA et Corse (Centre inter-régional d'études, d'actions et d'informations en faveur des personnes en situation de vulnérabilité Paca et Corse).

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Workplace bullying among healthcare professionals in Sweden: a descriptive study

Workplace bullying is a taboo event which occurs worldwide, although the prevalence varies significantly between and within countries. Nurses have been regarded an occupational risk group for bullying at the work place. Bullying in health and social care contexts is sometimes reported as frequent and, other times, as not occurring, which sparked our interest in mapping the occurrence of bullying in the health and social care system in Sweden. Thus, the purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of bullying, and to discuss cultural traditions and environmental factors that affect bullying in workplaces. The sample (n = 2810) consisted of employees at inpatient wards at four hospitals, and employees at municipal eldercare wards in Sweden. A questionnaire including NAQ‐22 R was distributed and subsequently analysed with descriptive statistics using SPSS. The youngest group of respondents scored higher than the older groups. Using contrasting estimates of bullying, the prevalence varied between 4.1 and 18.5%, with the lowest prevalence in regards to self‐reported exposure. According to the cut‐off scores, NAQ‐22 R, 8.6% of the respondents were occasionally exposed to bullying while 2.3% were considered to be victims of severe bullying. Work‐related negative acts were more common than personal negative acts. The variations in prevalence of bullying as a result of contrasting estimation strategies are discussed from perspective of the ‘law of Jante’, the ‘tall poppy syndrome’ and shame. Bullying deteriorates the working conditions which may have an impact on quality of patient care.

Source : Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences (2019).

Un outil en ligne gratuit pour aider les travailleurs de nuit à mieux gérer leur sommeil

La professeure Marie Dumont, de l’UdeM, lance un outil en ligne gratuit destiné aux travailleurs de nuit pour les aider à mieux gérer leur sommeil. Il repose sur ses 30 ans de recherche sur le sujet.

Accessible gratuitement, «Mieux vivre le travail de nuit» comprend quatre modules que l’usager peut parcourir à son rythme. «Basé sur des connaissances scientifiques plutôt que sur des opinions comme c’est souvent le cas sur Internet, il propose également plusieurs ressources et références qui permettront à ceux qui le désirent d’aller plus loin», indique Marie Dumont, qui est professeure au Département de psychiatrie et d'addictologie de la Faculté de médecine de l’Université de Montréal. Le premier module permet d’évaluer l’effet du travail de nuit sur la personne, tandis que, dans le deuxième, elle apprend à connaître son cycle du sommeil. Le troisième module aide à désigner les obstacles à un bon sommeil et le dernier à choisir ses stratégies pour mieux vivre le travail de nuit.

«Ainsi, l’outil se veut à la fois interactif et adapté à la réalité de chacun pour que le travailleur puisse prendre son sommeil en main et à sa façon: les notes qu’il intègre à son carnet personnalisé lui permettent de mieux comprendre sa situation et de moduler les stratégies qui lui conviennent», poursuit Mme Dumont. À noter que le carnet personnalisé est confidentiel, puisqu’aucune information n’est enregistrée ni conservée par l’outil en ligne.

La spécialiste de la compréhension de l’horloge biologique ajoute que l’outil qu’elle a créé a été testé auprès de travailleurs de nuit, qui l’ont évalué favorablement. La plupart ont rapporté que le plan d’action proposé était réaliste et donnait envie de l’essayer. «L’une des choses les plus importantes, lorsqu’on cherche à modifier ses habitudes de vie, c’est d’y aller graduellement, recommande-t-elle. Si l’on essaie de tout changer en même temps, on risque de ne pas y parvenir.»

Source :

Prevention through job design: Identifying high-risk job characteristics associated with workplace bullying.

Work environment hypothesis, a predominant theoretical framework in workplace bullying literature, postulates that job characteristics may trigger workplace bullying. Yet, these characteristics are often assessed by employees based on their experience of the job. This study aims to assess how job characteristics, independently assessed via Occupational Information Network (O*NET), are related to perceived job characteristics reported by employees, which, in turn, are associated with self-reported workplace bullying. Multilevel mediation analyses from 3,829 employees in 209 occupations confirmed that employees, whose work schedules are more irregular and whose work involves a higher level of conflictual contact (as assessed by O*NET), report experiencing higher job demands, which are associated with higher exposure to bullying. Moreover, employees working in jobs structured to allow for more discretion in decision-making (as assessed by O*NET) report experiencing more job autonomy and are less likely to experience bullying. The results offer some clues as to how the way in which a job is structured is related to how that job is perceived, which in turn is associated with exposure to bullying. Our findings also suggest that a job design perspective to redesign certain job characteristics may offer an additional viable approach to prevent workplace bullying. 

Source : Li, Y., Chen, P. Y., Tuckey, M. R., McLinton, S. S., & Dollard, M. F. (2019). Prevention through job design: Identifying high-risk job characteristics associated with workplace bullying. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(2), 297-306.

Risques psychosociaux : peu d'employeurs agissent sur les causes

Selon une étude menée par la DGFAP, les politiques de prévention des risques psychosociaux combinant des actions de type secondaire et tertiaire sont les plus répandues, dans le secteur public comme dans le privé.

Cette étude menée en 2016 s'est intéressée aussi bien à la vision des employeurs qu'à celle des salariés. Selon les employeurs, près de 90 % des agents du secteur public et près de 70 % des salariés du secteur privé travaillent dans un établissement ayant pris, au cours des trois dernières années, des mesures pour prévenir les risques psychosociaux au travail. Ces actions ne sont pas toujours menées dans le cadre d'une démarche formalisée d'évaluation des risques. En effet, seule la moitié des établissements ont élaboré ou mis à jour, au cours des douze derniers mois, un document unique d'évaluation des risques professionnels incluant les risques psychosociaux. De ce fait, la prévention primaire tendant à modifier l'origine du risque en travaillant sur l'organisation du travail est peu présente. Les politiques de prévention des risques psychosociaux sont plus axées sur la prévention secondaire portant sur la sensibilisation et identification des risques, voire tertiaire pour favoriser le retour au travail du salarié une fois le risque réalisé. Autre enseignement de cette étude, les établissements où l'employeur déclare une faible exposition de ses salariés, petits ou moyens établissements du secteur privé, ont plus souvent une très faible activité en matière de prévention. Les établissements de taille moyenne notamment de la fonction publique hospitalière et de l'enseignement ou les grands établissements des services du secteur privé mènent une politique active et variée dans le domaine de la prévention, même si l'exposition des salariés est également relativement faible.

Les établissements signalant une exposition forte de leurs salariés aux risques psychosociaux peuvent être classés en trois groupes.
Dans le premier groupe, on retrouve surtout de petits et moyens établissements publics qui sont relativement peu actifs dans la prévention malgré des expositions signalées par les employeurs. Les risques psychosociaux constatés concernant en particulier le travail dans l'urgence, les conflits de valeurs et l'intensité du travail.
Le deuxième groupe comprend de petits établissements de la fonction publique de l'État et de la fonction publique territoriale et se distingue par une concentration des « risques généralisés » (pour plus de 50 % des salariés), notamment de ceux liés aux tensions sociales, et par une insuffisance de prévention pour y faire face.
Enfin, les établissements du troisième groupe, constitué plus souvent de grands établissements du public dans lesquels les salariés sont massivement exposés à un « risque localisé » (de 10 à 50 % des salariés) mais à tous les risques psychosociaux, se caractérisent par un climat social en tension et mènent une politique active de prévention des risques.

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Organizational change and employee mental health: A prospective multilevel study of the associations between organizational changes and clinically relevant mental distress

Objective The aim of the present paper was to elucidate the relationship between exposure to separate, multiple or repeated organizational change at both individual- and work-unit level and subsequent clinically relevant mental distress amongst employees two years after change had taken place.

Methods A full panel, prospective design was utilized. Data were collected at two time-points two years apart, by self-administered, online questionnaires. Organizational change was measured by six items pertaining to separate types of change. Mental distress was measured using HSCL-10, with cut-off set to ≥1.85 to identify clinically relevant distress. Baseline sample consisted of 7985 respondents, of whom 5297 participated at follow-up. A multilevel analytic strategy was chosen as data were nested within work-units. Effects associated with exposure to organizational change at both individual- and work-unit level were estimated.

Results Separate change: At the individual level, company reorganization [odds ratio (OR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01?1.65], downsizing (1.51, 95% CI 1.12?2.03) and layoffs (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01?2.12) were prospectively associated with mental distress. At work-unit level, company reorganization (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.04) was associated with mental distress, but the statistically significant association diminished when adjusting for the work factors job control, job demands and support. Multiple changes: At the individual level, exposure to multiple organizational changes at baseline were associated with mental distress at follow-up (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.28?2.38). Repeated change: At the individual level, exposure to repeated organizational change was associated with mental distress at follow-up (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.29?2.63).

Conclusions Exposure to organizational changes at the individual level indicated an elevated risk of subsequent clinically relevant mental distress following both separate, multiple and repeated organizational changes. These associations were also present at work-unit level, but diminished when adjusting for certain work factors, indicating a possible mediating effect.

Source : Flovik, L., Knardahl, S. et JO Christensen. (2019) Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.


L’amélioration des conditions de travail des aidants par le prisme de la conciliation des temps sociaux : vecteur d’un meilleur climat organisationnel et de la rétention des employés

Cet article rend compte d'une recherche menée auprès d'un vaste échantillon de 1910 employeurs québécois par l'entremise d'une enquête électronique. Les résultats permettent de dégager les perceptions des employeurs à l'égard de la main-d'œuvre proche aidante, ainsi que les mesures et les pratiques que ces employeurs déploient afin de s'ajuster aux besoins de leurs salariés et d'aider ces derniers à articuler leurs responsabilités de soins avec celles du travail, ces deux sphères étant des vases communicants.

Source : Gagnon, M., Beaudry, C. et J. Bois . (2018). Ad Machina 

Compassion Fatigue in Palliative Care Nursing. A Concept Analysis

Parue dans le Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, cette étude visait à définir la fatigue de compassion dans le contexte des soins infirmiers palliatifs. À la suite de la réalisation d'une revue de la littérature, les auteurs ont été en mesure de proposer une définition du concept. Pour les soins infirmiers palliatifs, la fatigue de compassion a été définie comme étant l'état dans lequel l'empathie et la compassion sont perdues. Cet état est démontré par des caractéristiques émotionnelles et psychologiques, intellectuelles et professionnelles, physiques, sociales et spirituelles qui entraînent désintérêt, détresse morale et épuisement. Selon les chercheurs, ces résultats faciliteront l'identification et la prise en charge de la fatigue de compassion dans un contexte professionnel.

Source : Cross, L. A. (2019). Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing


Une démarche paritaire de prévention pour contrer les effets du travail émotionnellement exigeant dans les centres jeunesse

Certains secteurs d'activité sont particulièrement touchés par des problèmes qui affectent la santé et la sécurité des travailleurs. C'est le cas, entre autres, des centres jeunesse où le travail est généralement caractérisé par une demande émotionnelle élevée, attribuable aux contacts fréquents avec des enfants et des familles en crise, et par le manque de ressources nécessaires pour gérer cette demande émotionnelle. On reconnaît d'ailleurs de plus en plus les effets attribuables au « travail émotionnellement exigeant » (TÉE), que ce soit sur le plan de la santé physique ou psychologique (stress post-traumatique, troubles musculosquelettiques, détresse psychologique, absentéisme, roulement de personnel, etc.). Des effets qui touchent les travailleurs, mais aussi, les organisations qui les emploient. L'importance de développer des interventions organisationnelles afin d'agir de façon préventive sur les effets potentiels de l'exposition au TÉE est donc bien documentée, mais il existe peu de connaissances spécifiques sur les interventions à mettre en place pour prévenir les effets de ce travail émotionnellement exigeant.

L'étude, qui visait à combler en partie cette lacune, avait pour objectif principal d'implanter et d'évaluer une intervention préventive paritaire visant à contrer les effets du TÉE chez les travailleurs des centres jeunesse. L'équipe de recherche visait plus particulièrement à 1) cerner les contraintes psychosociales (facteurs de risque) présentes dans l'organisation ciblée ainsi que les facteurs de protection; 2) développer des interventions appropriées pour à la fois diminuer les contraintes psychosociales au travail et optimiser les facteurs de protection existants; 3) évaluer le processus d'implantation de l'intervention; 4) mesurer les effets de l'intervention. La population étudiée se compose de travailleurs d'un centre jeunesse ainsi que des cadres de premier niveau qui supervisent les équipes en contact étroit avec la clientèle.

L'étude s'est déroulée en trois phases : a) la phase de développement, durant laquelle a eu lieu l'identification des cibles concrètes d'intervention, b) la phase d'implantation où les interventions privilégiées ont été mises en place, c) la phase d'évaluation durant laquelle le processus d'intervention et les effets de la démarche d'intervention ont été appréciés. Des méthodes de recherche quantitatives et qualitatives ont été utilisées pour réaliser ces trois phases. Des interventions spécifiques ont été développées par un groupe paritaire mis sur pied dans le contexte de la démarche : le Groupe de soutien à l'intervention (GSI)...

Au-delà des projets développés par le GSI, par exemple l'obtention d'un local pour les employés, l'accès à une ressource spécialisée du programme d'aide aux employés ou la constitution d'un programme de pairs aidants, l'équipe de recherche a également pu observer que la démarche globale de recherche-intervention, amorcée dès 2012, semble avoir eu un effet particulièrement « porteur » pour le milieu. Cet effet porteur s'explique par le fait qu'il y ait eu, par l'ensemble des acteurs du milieu (travailleurs, syndicats, gestionnaires et direction), une reconnaissance formelle de l'exposition des travailleurs – et des personnes qui les encadrent – à un contexte de travail émotionnellement exigeant et, conséquemment, une volonté partagée d'agir de façon préventive.

L'originalité de la présente recherche reposait sur une démarche participative d'intervention en milieu de travail appuyée sur des assises théoriques et méthodologiques rigoureuses, laquelle a fait l'objet d'un processus d'évaluation systématique à l'aide d'un modèle d'évaluation reconnu. Bien qu'elle ait été réalisée dans un centre jeunesse, les connaissances théoriques et pratiques développées pourront être utiles dans de nombreux autres milieux de travail touchés par le travail émotionnellement exigeant tels les centres d'hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD), les milieux hospitaliers, les services d'urgence ou le secteur des déficiences intellectuelle et physique, par exemple.

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Boomers with and without chronic conditions have similar needs for workplace supports

IWH study of older workers finds those in good health similar to those with arthritis or diabetes in using—and benefiting from—programs such as flex-time and telework

But an older workforce does present other challenges related to health and accommodation issues. Research to date has shown that age-related chronic health conditions such as diabetes and arthritis can create problems for workplaces in the form of increased absenteeism and lost productivity.

To understand some of those challenges, a study led by Institute for Work & Health (IWH) Senior Scientist Dr. Monique Gignac focused on the need for, and use of, workplace supports and accommodation practices, as well as differences in work outcomes when such supports are available.

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Job satisfaction and mental health of temporary agency workers in Europe: a systematic review and research agenda

The current systematic literature review aimed to analyse the associations between temporary agency work (TAW), job satisfaction, and mental health in Europe, as well as to outline a future research agenda. Twenty-eight scientific articles were identified by searching different data bases (i.e. PSYNDEX, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science) for the time span from January 2000 to December 2016. Our review reveals first that TAW is not consistently negatively related to job satisfaction. However, job insecurity and working conditions are important mediators in the relation of TAW and lowered job satisfaction. Second, TAW is not consistently related to all investigated types of mental health impairments. However, when focusing on specific outcomes and comparing temporary agency workers to permanent employees, we still find consistent evidence regarding higher levels of depression and fatigue among temporary agency workers. Inconsistent associations between TAW, job satisfaction and mental health can partly be attributed to unfavourable methodological aspects of the included primary studies. To address these aspects, future research should consider applying a standard measurement of TAW, including a minimum of meaningful confounding variables, improving the operationalisation of outcome variables and the study design.

Source : L. Hünefeld, L.,  Gerstenberg, S. et Hüffmeier, J. (2019). Work & Stress 2019. pages 1-29

Relationship between psychosocial strains at the workplace, depression, and cognitive deficiencies

The subject of mental disorders and work is of high priority for occupational safety and health, in particular where job stresses lead to depression and impairment of work ability. Factors potentially contributing to depression and work ability impairment include psychosocial work characteristics (PWC), burnout, cognitive deficits, and aging. Referencing the Job-Demand Resources (JD-R) model, burnout is viewed as mediating the association between PWC and depressive symptoms, but the mediating relationship between PWC and work ability remains to be tested. Further, cognitive deficits may be a marker for chronic problems with burnout, depression and work ability. The current project studied how these factors relate to one another, based on a sample of 402 working nurses in a large private health system in the United States. 

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