L’exposition des travailleurs aux risques psychosociaux a-t-elle augmenté pendant la crise économique de 2008?

À partir des deux vagues de l'enquête Santé et itinéraire professionnel (SIP), cet article étudie l'exposition des travailleurs aux risques psychosociaux (RPS) et son évolution entre 2006 et 2010, dans un contexte de crise économique.

Source: Fontaine R., Lengagne P., Sauze D., Économie et Statistique, n° 486-487, 2016/07, p. 103-128.
http://www.insee.fr/fr/ffc/docs_ffc/ES486E.pdf

Transformations du travail, conditions de travail et protection des actifs

Après une relative stabilité enregistrée entre 1998 et 2005 les changements organisationnels marquent à nouveau l'actualité économique, organisationnelle et sociale des entreprises avec des effets identifiés en matière d'intensification du travail et de contraintes de rythmes de travail.
Le travail change, le travail mute, dans un contexte intra entreprise souvent marqué par des changements techniques et organisationnels, où les enjeux de maîtrise des coûts, de délais, de qualité, d'innovations deviennent chaque jour à la fois plus prégnants et plus difficiles à concilier tant leur articulation ne va pas spontanément de soi. L'innovation est recherchée quand la conformité aux standards est demandée pour certifier un niveau de qualité défini, limitant ainsi les marges de manoeuvre et les possibilités créatives tout en soulignant
les enjeux à prendre en compte la diversité des attentes des clients…
Ces transformations sont majoritairement tirées par des enjeux économiques, des enjeux de rationalisation, souvent dans des perspectives de rentabilité à courts termes. Ces transformations progressives des organisations et du travail ont des incidences sur les conditions de travail - prises au sens de tout ce qui concoure aux conditions de la réalisation du travail - avec des effets immédiats ou différés sur la santé des salariés et sur la performance de l'entreprise et participent donc aussi de la prise en compte des enjeux de protection des actifs.

Source: http://francestrategie1727.fr/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/contribution-anact-travail.pdf

Aide et soins à domicile

Deux millions de salariés se répartissent dans autant de foyers pour y apporter l'aide et les soins nécessaires au maintien des personnes à leur domicile. Si la qualité de la relation nouée avec les bénéficiaires est source de motivation, les intervenants se retrouvent souvent seuls face à la détresse physique et psychologique de ces personnes. Et sont soumis à des contraintes physiques qui engendrent maladies et accidents. Alors que le nombre de séniors dans la population française augmente et que les besoins en intervenants à domicile iront croissant, préserver leur santé et leur sécurité est un devoir. Les acteurs institutionnels et professionnels ont pris la mesure du défi à relever en mettant en œuvre différentes actions de prévention.

Source: Hygiène et sécurité du travail, numéro 243, Juin 2016.
http://www.inrs.fr/actualites/parution-hygiene-securite-travail-243.html

La pénibilité du travail en horaires décalés

Évaluation des troubles du sommeil à l'aide de l'enregistrement polysomnographique chez des salariés en horaires décalés
En médecine du travail, les enquêtes rapportent que 20 à 40 % des salariés se plaignent de mauvais sommeil. Malheureusement, les troubles du sommeil et de la vigilance sont trop souvent sous-estimés dans le milieu du travail et souvent restent du domaine de la vie privée. En France, plus de 20 % (soit quatre à cinq millions des travailleurs salariés) sont en rythme posté ou de nuit. Afin d'étudier la pénibilité du travail en horaires décalés, nous avons entrepris une étude rétrospective concernant des personnes en activité professionnelle, adressées à l'unité du sommeil et de la vigilance du CHU d'Amiens pour un premier enregistrement polysomnographique.

Source: Gay, Otelia Szabo, Doutrellot-Philippon, Catherine, Boulet, Bernard, Rose, Dominique, & Jounieaux, Vincent. (2016). Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement, 77(3), 372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.admp.2016.03.027

Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness and Return-on-Investment of a Mindfulness-Based Worksite Intervention

Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness and return-on-investment analysis comparing a mindfulness-based worksite intervention to usual practice.
Methods: Two hundred fifty-seven governmental research institute employees were randomized to the intervention or control group. Intervention group participants received an eight-week mindfulness training, e-coaching, and supporting elements. Outcomes included work engagement, general vitality, job satisfaction, work ability, and costs. Cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal and employer's perspective, and a return-on-investment analysis from the employer's perspective.
Results: After 12 months, a significant but not clinically relevant adverse effect on work engagement was found (−0.19; 95% confidence interval: −0.38 to −0.01). There were no significant differences in job satisfaction, general vitality, work ability, and total costs. Probabilities of cost-effectiveness were low (≤0.25) and the intervention did not have a positive financial return to the employer.
Conclusion: The intervention was neither cost-saving nor cost-effective. Poor e-coaching compliance might partly explain this result.

Source: van Dongen, Johanna, van Berkel, Jantien, Boot, Cécile R.L., Bosmans, Judith E., Proper, Karin I., Bongers, Paulien,... van Wier, Marieke F. (2016). JOEM : Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 58(6), 550-560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000736

Chronic Disease Risks From Exposure to Long-Hour Work Schedules Over a 32-Year Period

Objectives: This study aims at evaluating the chronic disease risk related to prolonged work in long-hour schedules for eight major chronic diseases: heart disease, non-skin cancer, arthritis, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, chronic depression, and hypertension.
Methods: The study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 covering 32 years of job history (1978 to 2009) for 7492 respondents. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between average weekly work hours, and the reported prevalence of those conditions for each individual.
Results: Regularly working long hours over 32 years was significantly associated with elevated risks of heart disease, non-skin cancer, arthritis, and diabetes. The observed risk was much larger among women than among men.
Conclusions: Working long-hour schedules over many years increases the risk for some specific chronic diseases, especially for women.

Source: Dembe, Allard E., & Xiaoxi, Yao. (2016). JOEM : Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000810

A systematic literature review of the effectiveness of occupational health and safety regulatory enforcement

Background: We aimed to determine the strength of evidence on the effectiveness of legislative and regulatory policy levers in creating incentives for organizations to improve occupational health and safety processes and outcomes.
Methods: A systematic review was undertaken to assess the strength of evidence on the effectiveness of specific policy levers using a “best-evidence” synthesis approach.
Results: A structured literature search identified 11,947 citations from 13 peer-reviewed literature databases. Forty-three studies were retained for synthesis. Strong evidence was identified for three out of nine clusters.
Conclusions: There is strong evidence that several OHS policy levers are effective in terms of reducing injuries and/or increasing compliance with legislation. This study adds to the evidence on OHS regulatory effectiveness from an earlier review. In addition to new evidence supporting previous study findings, it included new categories of evidence–compliance as an outcome, nature of enforcement, awareness campaigns, and smoke-free workplace legislation.

Source: Tompa, Emile, Kalcevich, Christina, Foley, Michael, McLeod, Chris, Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah, Cullen, Kim, MacEachen, Ellen, Mahood, Quenby, & Irvin, Emma. (2016). American Journal of Industrial Medicine.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22605

Étude des perceptions de l'environnement de travail au cours du poste chez des travailleurs postés

Pour mieux comprendre les effets du travail en horaires postés, nous avons étudié les variations des perceptions de l'environnement de travail selon le poste travaillé et la phase du poste. Le questionnaire construit, en référence au Job Content Questionnaire, mesure les perceptions de demandes, contrôle et soutien social et deux dimensions supplémentaires : les ressources techniques et humaines et les interférences travail-hors travail. Il a été renseigné à trois reprises (une heure après le début, en milieu et une heure avant la fin du poste) pour chaque poste occupé (matin, après-midi, nuit) par 38 personnels de soins (86 observations). Les résultats montrent des demandes psychologiques globalement plus élevées en début et milieu de poste et des demandes physiques plus élevées en fin de poste. Lors du poste de nuit, les personnels perçoivent davantage d'autonomie et moins de soutien des collègues. Des interactions entre le poste et la phase du poste indiquent une augmentation des ressources sur le poste du matin, une diminution l'après-midi et des valeurs stables la nuit. Pris ensemble, ces résultats indiquent que, si le poste de nuit paraît le moins exposé à la tension professionnelle, celui du matin donne lieu à des perceptions de stress positif en milieu de poste et de faible tension en fin de poste tandis que la tension professionnelle augmente tout au long du poste de l'après-midi. Ils soulignent l'importance d'une évaluation de la charge de travail selon le poste et le moment du poste chez des personnels de soins et de considérer différentes ressources en accord avec le modèle « job demands-resources » (Demerouti et al., 2001). Bien qu'ils ne puissent être généralisés à d'autres situations de travail et doivent être discutés à la lumière de l'activité de travail, la méthodologie développée apporte des données complémentaires à celles obtenues avec une approche plus globale.

Source: Cascino, Nadine, Mélan, Claudine, & Galy, Édith. (2016). Le Travail humain, 79(2), 97-124.
http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=TH_792_0097

The role of work stressors, coping strategies and coping resources in the process of workplace bullying

A systematic review and development of a comprehensive model
Both work- and person-related factors may trigger workplace bullying. Work-related factors, such as role stressors, can create a stressful work environment leading to bullying. Additionally, person-related factors, such as emotion-focused coping, could make employees more vulnerable to bullying. In this study, we aimed to develop a comprehensive model integrating these factors. We systematically reviewed studies published between 1984 and 2014. First, we identified the most relevant work-related stressors (role conflict, workload, role ambiguity, job insecurity and cognitive demands) as predictors of being a target of workplace bullying. Second, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies that may moderate the association between stressors and targets of bullying were identified. Third, coping resources that are associated with coping strategies were indicated. Results suggested a model in which reappraisal coping, confrontive coping, practical coping, direct coping, active coping, social support (problem-focused coping) and self-care (emotion-focused coping) decrease the association between work stressors and bullying (i.e. buffer-effect). Wishful thinking, emotional coping, avoidance, recreation, social support and suppression (emotion-focused coping) increase this association (i.e. boost-effect). Coping resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, optimism, co-workers support, supervisor support, task complexity, participation in decision-making, autonomy and continuance commitment) related positively to problem-focused coping strategies and negatively to emotion-focused coping strategies.

Source: Van den Brande, Whitney, Baillien, Elfi, De Witte, Hans, Vander Elst, Tinne, & Godderis, Lode. (2016). Agression and Violent Behavior. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2016.06.004

Filière alimentaire: quels leviers pour l’amélioration des conditions de travail?

Attractivité, fidélisation, image, compétitivité… autant de préoccupations qui ont conduit la filière alimentaire à s'organiser pour développer des politiques de qualité de vie au travail. Ce numéro dédié aux initiatives de la filière alimentaire est emblématique de tout ce que les entreprises ont à gagner à s'intéresser de près aux conditions de travail de leurs salariés.

Source: Travail & Changement, no 264, juillet-août-septembre 2016.
http://www.anact.fr/filiere-alimentaire-quels-leviers-pour-lamelioration-des-conditions-de-travail

Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention for New Nurses

Nurses continue to sustain musculoskeletal injuries even with increased emphasis on safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) and organizational cultures of safety to protect health care workers. Analysis of data from 2011-2014 registered nurse graduates explored hospital safety culture, SPHM education/training, and incidence of new-nurse musculoskeletal injury. Results indicated hospitals provided some type of SPHM education and training, but 46% of study participants were not informed or aware of national SPHM standards or guidelines. Merely 13.9% of participants stated a written “no manual lifting policy” had been implemented; only 32.9% indicated staffing was adequate for SPHM tasks; and only 39.4% stated the hospital had all of the equipment needed to perform SPHM safely. Thirty-nine percent of participants had already sustained a musculoskeletal injury with an additional 35% sustaining but not reporting an injury. More actions are needed to ensure a decrease in musculoskeletal injuries for new nurses.

Source: Vendittelli, D., Penprase, Barbara, & Pittiglio, Laura. (2016). Workplace Health & Safety.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2165079916654928

Psychosocial Working Conditions and Suicide Ideation

Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Survey of Working Australians
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between psychosocial working factors such as job control, job demands, job insecurity, supervisor support, and workplace bullying as risk factors for suicide ideation.
Methods: We used a logistic analytic approach to assess risk factors for thoughts of suicide in a cross-sectional sample of working Australians. Potential predictors included psychosocial job stressors (described above); we also controlled for age, gender, occupational skill level, and psychological distress.
Results: We found that workplace bullying or harassment was associated with 1.54 greater odds of suicide ideation (95% confidence interval 1.64 to 2.05) in the model including psychological distress. Results also suggest that higher job control and security were associated with lower odds of suicide ideation.
Conclusions: These results suggest the need for organizational level intervention to address psychosocial job stressors, including bullying.

Source: Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Witt, Katrinal; LaMontagne, Anthony D. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: June 2016, Volume 58, Issue 6, p. 584-587.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000700

Les effets du numériques sur les conditions de travail

TNS Sofres a réalisé une enquête pour l'Anact. Ses résultats dressent un état des lieux des attentes exprimées par les salariés et dirigeants français sur les enjeux de la transformation numérique en entreprise.

Source: http://www.npdc.aract.fr/spip.php?article505

Important factors in common among organizations making large improvement in OHS performance

Results of an exploratory multiple case study
This exploratory study sought to identify the factors important to large improvement in workplace occupational health and safety (OHS) performance. Mixed methods were used to systematically identify 12 organizations in a workers' compensation database that had made large and intentional improvement in workplace OHS performance in Ontario, Canada, during 1998–2008 (i.e., “breakthrough change” (BTC) cases). Four of these organizations were selected for in-depth case study (two manufacturers, a grocery and a social agency). Cross-case analysis and consideration of existing literature led to a 12-element conceptual model with organizational learning at its core. Four elements were involved in the initiation of BTC: external influence, organizational motivation to improve OHS, new OHS knowledge and a knowledge transformation leader. Five other elements were involved in the process of BTC: responsiveness to OHS concerns, positive social dynamics, continuous improvement pattern, simultaneous operational improvement, and supportive internal context. Finally, three elements are outcomes of BTC: integrated OHS knowledge, decreased OHS risk, and decreased injury and illness. These concepts can be used in future research regarding workplace improvement in OHS performance.

Source: Robson, L. S., Amick III, B. C., Moser, C., Pagell, M., Mansfield, E., Shannon, H. S., ... & South, H. (2016). Safety science, 86, 211-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.02.023

Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

A Danish cohort study
Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence.
Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from colleagues. Using time-to-event models, we calculated hazard ratios (HR) and differences and examined interaction as departure from multiplicativity and additivity.
Results: During 40 165 person-years of follow-up, we identified 2313 episodes of long-terms sickness absence. Sleep problems predicted risk of long-term sickness absence [HR 1.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.38–1.73]. This association was statistically significantly stronger among participants with high quantitative demands and weaker among those with high supervisor recognition (P<0.0001).
Conclusions: High quantitative demands exacerbated the association of sleep problems with risk of long-term sickness absence whereas high supervisor recognition buffered this association. To prevent long-term sickness absence among employees with sleep problems, workplace modifications focusing on quantitative demands and supervisor recognition may be considered. Workplace interventions for these factors may more effectively prevent sickness absence when targeted at this group. The efficacy and effectiveness of such interventions needs to be established in future studies.

Source: Madsen IEH, Larsen AD, Thorsen SV, et al. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3571

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