Violence and harassment in European workplaces

Extent, impacts and policies
Violence and harassment are attacks on personal dignity, the right to equal and non-discriminatory treatment and often a person's health. Workers affected by it feel insecure about their work; they are more frequently absent and may even be unable to work, with consequent impacts on productivity and corporate and public costs. Some national-level surveys point to a long-standing increase in reported violence and harassment. Certain European countries, such as the Scandinavian countries, have more coordinated, established policies on preventing and tackling violence and harassment. Awareness of the topic at the national level, its inclusion in legislation and the degree of the social partners' involvement in policies and interventions all contribute to the effectiveness of policies to address it.

Source: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/eurwork/comparative-information/violence-and-harassment-in-european-workplaces-extent-impacts-and-policies

L’approche relationnelle de soins dans les CHSLD

Mieux comprendre son implantation et explorer son impact
L'Approche relationnelle de soins (ARS) est une pratique de soins que l'ASSTSAS implante depuis une dizaine d'années dans les établissements de soins de longue durée par le biais d'une formation de formateurs et qui vise autant la qualité des services aux résidents que la santé au travail des soignants. Cette recherche est exploratoire - il s'agit de la première étude portant sur l'ARS - et collaborative de par le partenariat établi avec un organisme décideur (ASSTSAS), les 17 établissements de soins de longue durée (SLD) ayant participé à la recherche et le Comité conseil-relais qui en a encadré le déroulement, validé les résultats en plus d'en assurer une certaine diffusion.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-approche-relationnelle-soins-chsld-impact-r-857.html

Developing register-based measures for assessment of working time patterns for epidemiologic studies

Objectives: Epidemiological studies suggest that long working hours and shift work may increase the risk of chronic diseases, but the “toxic” elements remain unclear due to crude assessment of working time patterns based on self-reports. In this methodological paper, we present and evaluate objective register-based algorithms for assessment of working time patterns and validate a method to retrieve standard payroll data on working hours from the employer electronic records.
Methods: Detailed working hour records from employers' registers were obtained for 12 391 nurses and physicians, a total 14.5 million separate work shifts from 2008–2013. We examined the quality and validity of the obtained register data and designed 29 algorithms characterizing four potentially health-relevant working time patterns: (i) length of the working hours; (ii) time of the day; (iii) shift intensity; and (iv) social aspects of the working hours.
Results: The collection of the company-based register data was feasible and the retrieved data matched with the originally published shift plans. The transferred working time records included <0.01% missing data. Two percent were duplicates that could be easily removed. The 29 variables of working time patterns, generated for each year, were stable across the follow-up (year-to-year correlation coefficients from r=0.7–0.9 for 23 variables), their distributions were as expected, and correlations of the variables within the four main dimensions of working hours were plausible.
Conclusion: The developed method and algorithms allow a detailed characterization of four main dimensions of working time patterns potentially relevant for health. We recommend this method for future large-scale epidemiological studies.

Source: Härmä M, Ropponen A, Hakola T, Koskinen A, Vanttola P, Puttonen S, Sallinen M, Salo P, Oksanen T, Pentti J, Vahtera J, Kivimäki M. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3492

Santé et sécurité au travail dans les petites entreprises : quelle prévention ?

L'Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité pour la prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles (INRS) a fait réaliser par l'institut Viavoice une enquête sur les petites entreprises (moins de 50 salariés, représentant aujourd'hui 98 % des entreprises relevant du régime général de la Sécurité Sociale) et les risques professionnels.
L'INRS a commandité en 2007 et 2010 deux enquêtes sur les risques professionnels dans les petites entreprises de moins de 50 salariés. Une troisième vient d'être réalisée suivant les mêmes modalités, permettant de suivre leur évolution sur les questions de prévention des risques professionnels.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/header/presse/cp-enquete-tpe.html

Development of a Health Risk Management Maturity Index (HeRMMIn) as a performance leading indicator within the construction industry

Safety cultural maturity reflects an organisation's degree of readiness to tackle safety risks. Until recently, no equivalent model for occupational health (OH) had been developed. The current research aimed to develop an OH management maturity index for the construction industry and use the index to survey OH management maturity in the industry.
Index development entailed an initial evidence synthesis and subject expert consultation to establish the index's theoretical basis/scope. This identified the key constituents of OH maturity as: senior management commitment; continuous improvement; communication; fairness; learning; foresight and employee involvement. Knowledge of OH issues was the criterion for separating 5 levels of maturity from ‘unknowing' to ‘enlightened'. The index was piloted to assure reliability, validity and usability before conducting a main survey with the sector.
The survey results revealed good levels of OH maturity but must not be interpreted to imply that the sector is performing well already and there is no room for improvement. Maturity scores were significantly higher for those with access to an OH provider and a specific OH policy. Key areas important for improving OH culture maturity included: the role of Principal/Tier 1 contractors, the business case for OH management and the importance of visible senior management commitment to OH.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1045.htm

Accueil et formation à l’embauche des étudiants occupant un emploi pendant l’année scolaire

Le cumul études-travail a crû de manière significative au cours des 30 dernières années au Québec. Plusieurs entreprises, notamment dans le secteur des services, comptent sur les étudiants pour pourvoir une partie de leurs besoins en main-d’œuvre. Ces emplois permettent aux étudiants de développer une première expérience professionnelle, mais ils les exposent également, tôt dans leur parcours professionnel, à certains risques professionnels qui peuvent avoir des impacts sur leur santé et leur sécurité. Les conditions d’accueil et d’intégration des nouveaux travailleurs sont de plus en plus reconnues comme une cible de prévention pertinente.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-accueil-formation-etudiants-emploi-annee-scolaire-r-865.html

Psychosocial Factors at Work and Occupational Injury

Results From the French National SUMER Survey
Objective: This study aims at exploring the associations between psychosocial work factors and occupational injury.
Methods: The study was based on 46,962 employees of the French national representative survey SUMER 2010. The associations between psychosocial work factors and occupational injury/absence duration for injury within the last year were studied using weighted logistic and negative binomial regression models adjusted for covariates.
Results: Verbal abuse and low predictability for both sexes, psychological demands for women and low reward, physical violence, and bullying for men were associated with occupational injury. Low decision latitude and psychological demands for women were associated with absence duration for injury.
Conclusions: Some psychosocial work factors may play a role in occurrences of occupational injury, but the role is unclear in relation to absence duration for injury.

Source: Lesuffleur, Thomas; Chastang, Jean-François; Sandret, Nicolas; Niedhammer, Isabelle. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2015, Volume 57, Issue 3, p. 262–269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000345

Psychosocial stress at work and cardiovascular diseases

An overview of systematic reviews
Purpose: Based on information reported in systematic reviews (SRevs), this study aimed to find out whether psychosocial stress at work leads to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality.
Methods: A systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE (until 2014) used a string based on PICOS components. A manual search was followed. Applying the predefined criteria, two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, selected full texts, and validated their quality. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between reviewers. Studies of low quality were excluded. Contents of enrolled SRevs were extracted by one reviewer; a second reviewer evaluated their accurateness.
Results: The search resulted in 462 records. Six SRevs based on 81 studies (total population: ~1,468,670) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, four of “very good” (++) and two of “good” (+) quality. Excluded records were filed, and reasons for exclusion were documented in all cases. Different stress models were used to measure the work-related stress; the “demand-control model” was most commonly used. The two enrolled meta-analysis confirmed a modest (1.32, 95 % CI 1.09–1.59; Virtanen et al. 2013) to moderate evidence (1.45, 95 % CI 1.15–1.84; Kivimäki et al. 2006), predominantly among men, for the association between psychosocial stress at work and CV outcomes. Due to lacking information, it was not possible to give evidence on the dose–response relationship.
Conclusions: Same to a SRev, an overview of SRev is used to summarize literature and identify areas in which research is needed. This overview can be used to: (a) Disseminate an up-to-date information on work-related stress as a risk factors for CV morbidity and mortality to government, health care providers, workers, and other stakeholders; (b) Encourage governments to better regulate the working conditions and consider work-related psychosocial stress as a hazardous factor that leads to CV diseases or mortality; and (c) Analyze gaps in the literature and provide a summary of research needs.

Source: Fishta, Alba, & Backé, Eva-Maria. (2015). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-015-1019-0

Development of a Health Risk Management Maturity Index (HeRMMIn) as a performance leading indicator within the construction industry

Safety cultural maturity reflects an organisation's degree of readiness to tackle safety risks. Until recently, no equivalent model for occupational health (OH) had been developed. The current research aimed to develop an OH management maturity index for the construction industry and use the index to survey OH management maturity in the industry.
Index development entailed an initial evidence synthesis and subject expert consultation to establish the index's theoretical basis/scope. This identified the key constituents of OH maturity as: senior management commitment; continuous improvement; communication; fairness; learning; foresight and employee involvement. Knowledge of OH issues was the criterion for separating 5 levels of maturity from ‘unknowing' to ‘enlightened'. The index was piloted to assure reliability, validity and usability before conducting a main survey with the sector.
The survey results revealed good levels of OH maturity but must not be interpreted to imply that the sector is performing well already and there is no room for improvement. Maturity scores were significantly higher for those with access to an OH provider and a specific OH policy. Key areas important for improving OH culture maturity included: the role of Principal/Tier 1 contractors, the business case for OH management and the importance of visible senior management commitment to OH.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1045.htm

Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in paramedics

Purpose: Occupational stress and obesity are very prevalent in emergency workers. Some studies have also associated high tobacco consumption rates with occupational stress. Each of these factors is known to increase cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stress, overweight and tobacco consumption in paramedics.
Methods: This cross-sectional study of paramedics consisted in a self-report survey of 44 questions divided into two sections. The first section collected demographic information and the second evaluated occupational stressors. The questions were designed to determine the prevalence of work-related psychosocial factors, overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) and tobacco consumption (cig/day ≥ 1). The demand-control-social support model and the effort–reward model were used to estimate job strain, iso-strain and imbalance in effort and reward.
Results: More than 88 % of paramedics reported at least one cardiovascular risk factor, with males reporting more risk factors than females. Ninety percent of male paramedics reported occupational stress, 12 % reported smoking, and 79 % were overweight or obese by self-report. The prevalence of occupational stress and smoking was similar for female paramedics, but with a lower prevalence of overweight (37 %).
Conclusion: By self-report, nine out of ten paramedics are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Both individual and organizational efforts should be made to educate and support paramedics and their organizations in reducing these workers' cardiovascular risk.

Source: Hegg-Deloye, S., Brassard, P., Prairie, J., Larouche, D., Jauvin, N., Poirier, P., Tremblay, A., & Corbeil, P. (2015). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-015-1028-z

L’intervention psychosociale auprès des agriculteurs

Promouvoir l'accès et l'acceptabilité des services
Pas d'agriculture sans agriculteurs, le message est fort, évocateur et diffusé ici, en Australie et ailleurs dans
le monde. Il traduit une préoccupation quant aux conditions de vie des agriculteurs et interpelle les
réponses sociales qui peuvent soutenir leur santé et leur bien-être. C'est précisément cet aspect qui
est au coeur du présent article.

Source: http://www.qualaxia.org/fdownload.php?fn=Quintessence-V07N01-fr.pdf&ct=dqt&tp=pdf

Une nouvelle approche est nécessaire pour lutter contre les problèmes de santé mentale au travail, selon l’OCDE

Il ressort d'un nouveau rapport de l'OCDE que les services de santé et de l'emploi devraient intervenir plus tôt, mettre à contribution les principaux acteurs et faire en sorte de travailler ensemble afin d'aider les personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux à trouver du travail et à le garder.
Le rapport Bien-être mental, bien-être au travail – Santé mentale et emploi : de l'observation à la pratique (en anglais) estime qu'entre 30 et 40 % environ des cas de maladie et invalidité dans les pays de l'OCDE sont liés à des troubles mentaux. Le coût total des problèmes de santé mentale est évalué à environ 3,5 % du PIB en Europe.

Source: http://www.oecd.org/fr/emploi/une-nouvelle-approche-est-necessaire-pour-lutter-contre-les-problemes-de-sante-mentale-au-travail.htm

Long-Haul Truck Driver Health Survey Results

The most recent issue of CDC Vital Signs highlights a few of the safety risks faced by truck drivers. Truck drivers also face health risks that can affect their livelihood. Limited illness and injury data for long-haul truck drivers prompted the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to conduct the National Survey of Long-Haul Truck Driver Health and Injury. Results were published in the American Journal of Industrial MedicineExternal Web Site Icon.
Long-haul truck drivers (LHTD) drive heavy and tractor-trailer trucks with freight delivery routes requiring them to sleep away from home most nights. In 2010, NIOSH researchers collected data from 1,670 long-haul truck drivers at 32 truck stops across the 48 contiguous United States. The survey asked questions about self-reported health conditions and health and safety risk factors.

Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2015/03/03/truck-driver-health/

Work Health and Safety Perceptions: Manufacturing Industry

This report summarises research findings for the manufacturing industry from several existing Safe Work Australia data sources. The report presents areas where the manufacturing industry is doing well and areas for improvement. It focuses on:
•self-reported exposure to hazards and workplace control measures
•self-reported work health and safety activities undertaken in manufacturing workplaces
•work health and safety perceptions and attitudes that may act as barriers and enablers to work health and safety.
The perceptions of both manufacturing workers and manufacturing employers are included.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/news/pages/manufacturing-industry

What are the significant factors associated with burnout in doctors?


Background Burnout syndrome is well established as a condition that affects a significant proportion of practising doctors. Although much literature exists on the prevalence of burnout, only specific variables associated with this condition have been analysed.
Aims To identify and categorize key factors that are associated with burnout across various medical specialities and geographical locations.
Methods Three electronic databases were searched for literature on the factors associated with burnout published in the past 5 years. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in three stages. We analysed and critically appraised each paper individually, identifying the common themes.
Results Forty-seven papers were included from the 395 identified by our primary search. Younger age, female sex, negative marital status, long working hours and low reported job satisfaction were found to be predictive of burnout syndrome across the literature. Participation in ‘wellness programmes' was related to lower burnout incidence. Causation could not be established however, due to the limited number of longitudinal studies.
Conclusions More prospective studies are required to assess causation. Despite this, our thematic analysis revealed consistent findings across many papers. This information can be used to inform prevention and interventions to tackle burnout. The associated factors should not be addressed individually, as they are inter-related.

Source: E. Amoafo, N. Hanbali, A. Patel and P. Singh. Occupational Médicine, Volume 65,  Issue 2, p.  117-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqu144 

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