Entre contraintes économiques et changements sociétaux, les trois fonctions publiques vivent une profonde mutation. Devant les tensions croissantes et la perte de repères ressentie par les agents, la question des conditions de travail et de la qualité de vie au travail s'impose.
Source: Travail & Changement, avril-mai-juin 2015,numéro 359.
A Total Worker Health Intervention for Home Care Workers
Objective: To develop a team-based Total Worker Health™ (injury prevention + health promotion) intervention for home care workers and estimate intervention effects on workers' well-being and health and safety behaviors.
Methods: Home care workers (n = 16) met monthly in teams for education and social support using a scripted, peer-led approach. Meeting process measures and pre-/postintervention outcome measures were collected.
Results: Knowledge gains averaged 18.7% (standard deviation = 0.04), and 62.0% (standard deviation = 0.13) of participants reported making safety or health changes between meetings. Workers' well-being improved significantly (life satisfaction, d = 0.65, P < 0.05; negative affect, d = 0.64, P < 0.05), and the majority of other safety and health outcomes changed in expected directions.
Conclusions: COMPASS is a feasible intervention model for simultaneously preventing injuries and promoting health among home care workers.
Source: Olson, Ryan; Wright, Robert R.; Elliot, Diane L.; Hess, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sharon; Buckmaster, Annie; Luther, Kristy; Wipfli, Brad. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Médicine: April 2015, Volume 57, Issue 4, p. 406-416.
A Cohort Study of 21,834 Workers in Norway (The HUNT Study)
Objective: To examine the associations between psychosocial working conditions and sickness absence.
Methods: Data for 21,834 employed adults from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) were linked to the sickness benefit register and sickness absence during 1 year after survey participation was analyzed with logistic regression.
Results: A one unit change on a 0 to 3 self-reported job demand scale was associated with a fully adjusted 24% and 25% increased odds of sickness absence in men and women, respectively. A one unit change on a 0 to 3 scale for self-reported support at work was associated with a fully adjusted 13% and 17% reduced odds of sickness absence in men and women, respectively.
Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that demands, and to some extent support, at work might influence sickness absence—also when adjusting for a detailed categorization of occupations.
Source: Strømholm, Tonje; Pape, Kristine; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Krokstad, Steinar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2015, Volume 57, Issue 4, p. 386-392.
Changes in Well-Being, Productivity, Health Risk, and Perceived Employer Support After Implementation of a Well-Being Improvement Strategy
Objective: To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy.
Methods: This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community.
Results: Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity.
Conclusions: This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.
Source: Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E.; Rula, Elizabeth Y. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2015, Volume 57, Issue 4, p. 367-373.
In many countries economic and social concerns associated with ageing populations have focused attention onto flexible forms of working as key to encouraging people to work longer and delay retirement. This article argues that there has been a remarkable lack of attention paid to the role of gender in extending working lives and contends that this gap has arisen because of two, inter-related, oversights: little consideration of relationships between gender and flexible working beyond the child-caring phase of life; and the prevailing tendency to think of end of working life and retirement as gender-neutral or following a typical male trajectory. The findings of a qualitative study of people aged 50+ in the UK challenge some of the key assumptions underpinning the utility of flexible work in extending working lives, and provide insight into the ways in which working in later life is constructed and enacted differently for men and women.
Source: Wendy Loretto, Sarah Vickerstaff. Work Employment & Society. April 2015, vol. 29, no 2, p. 233-249.
Teachers can be vulnerable to secondary traumatic stress (STS) because of their supportive role with students and potential exposure to students' experiences with traumas, violence, disasters, or crises. STS symptoms, similar to those found in posttraumatic stress disorder, include nightmares, avoidance, agitation, and withdrawal, and can result from secondary exposure to hearing about students' traumas. This article describes how STS presents, how teachers can be at risk, and how STS can manifest in schools. A US Department of Education training program is presented, and thoughts on future directions are discussed.
Source: Hydon S, Wong M, Langley AK, Stein BD, Kataoka SH. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am. 2015; 24: 319-333.
A prospective cohort study on need for recovery, disability, and retirement intentions
Objectives: This study investigates whether different shift work schedules, compared to day work, are associated with need for recovery (NFR), future disability, and retirement intentions for employees employed within different economic sectors over the course of their careers. Shift work exposure duration and the healthy worker effect are also examined.
Methods: Data from the prospective Maastricht Cohort Study was used. Subsamples of industry (N=1877, all men) and healthcare (N=818, 624 women and 194 men) workers were separately investigated. GEE and Cox regression analyses were performed to investigate NFR longitudinally. Future disability was investigated using Cox regression, and retirement intentions were investigated using logistic regression analysis.
Results: Three-shift industry workers were at risk of becoming a case of elevated NFR during follow-up, compared to industry day workers. Three- and five-shift industry workers were at risk for future disability. In healthcare, irregular shift work was a risk factor for disability among older shift workers. No significant results were found regarding retirement intentions. Findings were probably an underestimation as exposure duration to shift work and the healthy worker effect affected the results.
Conclusions: Shift work was associated with higher levels of NFR and a higher risk of disability. However, shift work is a multifaceted concept as different types of shift work schedules are differently associated with these outcomes. Different shift work types exist and shift work schedules allow for optimization, indicating that measures to prevent adverse outcomes should be tailored for different types of shift work and over the course of the work career.
Source: Gommans F, Jansen N, Stynen D, de Grip A, Kant I. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015.
A Comparison With Non-Workplace Suicides
Introduction: Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010.
Methods: Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014.
Results: Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65–74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000).
Conclusions: The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace.
Source: Hope M. Tiesman, Srinivas Konda, Dan Hartley, Cammie Chaumont Menéndez, Marilyn Ridenour, Scott Hendricks. American Journal of Preventive Médicine, 2015.
BACKGROUND: The relationship between sleep and occupational injury risk has not been adequately explored for working adolescents.
METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade public school students. Teens reported average school and weekend night sleep hours and history of work-related injury that received medical treatment. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association between sleep duration and occupational injury.
RESULTS: Of 4,144 working teens, 6.4% reported ever having an occupational injury. Teens who sleep ≤5 hr/school night had greater odds of a history of occupational injury than those sleeping 8 hr (OR:2.91, 95% CI:1.85-4.57). No significant association was observed for weekend night sleep duration.
CONCLUSIONS: Reduced school night sleep was associated with increased odds of work-related injury in adolescents. Long hours and late night schedules may contribute to decreased sleep time and potentially have other health and developmental impacts for youth.
Source: Graves JM, Miller ME. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2015.
Les conditions de travail dans les établissements de santé sont particulières : contraintes de rythme de travail élevées, exposition à des produits dangereux, tensions avec le public, confrontation à la souffrance des patients. Les enquêtes sur les conditions de travail, réalisées depuis une décennie dans le milieu hospitalier, mettent
toutefois en avant une diminution globale des contraintes de rythme et une stabilisation des contraintes horaires.
Démarche de soutien aux activités de prise et de répartition des appels d'urgence 9-1-1
La présente étude constitue un prolongement des recherches antérieures ayant pour objectif de réduire les risques psychosociaux associés aux troubles musculosquelettiques et de santé psychologique chez les préposés des centres d'urgence 9-1-1. Elle se fonde plus précisément sur la précédente recherche (Toulouse et coll., 2011) dont les résultats suggéraient la nécessité de mieux soutenir les préposés aux prises avec des situations d'appels difficiles. En effet, les résultats montraient que les situations, qui génèrent une charge de travail ou une charge cognitive plus élevée sont corrélées à l'augmentation de l'intensité des douleurs au cou et aux épaules, alors que les douleurs au bas du dos s'accroissent avec l'accentuation des émotions négatives. L'élévation de la charge de travail, de la charge cognitive ou émotionnelle est occasionnée par les difficultés de traitement de certains appels. Celles-ci proviennent des problèmes de communication qui complexifient l'application des procédures déterminant l'envoi des intervenants sur les lieux de l'évènement. Ces problèmes de communication sont inhérents aux exigences du travail des préposés aux appels d'urgence. Ils requièrent la mise en place de moyens de soutien pour aider les préposés à développer et à maintenir des compétences leur permettant de réaliser un travail efficace tout en préservant leur santé. Dans cette perspective, il devenait essentiel de connaître l'état des pratiques existantes, afin de proposer une démarche visant à les améliorer. Pour ce faire, des entrevues ont été réalisées dans dix centres d'appels d'urgence avec les gestionnaires, les formateurs et des préposés. Ces entrevues ont porté sur le soutien existant et les améliorations souhaitées concernant différentes situations difficiles telles que : appels de citoyens arrogants, en crise, aux prises avec des problèmes de santé mentale ou avec des tendances suicidaires, les appels pour lesquels le degré d'urgence est incertain, le fait de servir d'intermédiaire entre le citoyen et la police dans un évènement criminel, les situations d'urgence dramatique, la répartition d'urgence majeure.
Ce questionnaire permet l'évaluation des facteurs de stress, des stratégies d'adaptation et des atteintes à la santé.
Ce document appartient à une série publiée régulièrement dans la revue. Elle analyse les questionnaires utilisés dans les démarches de diagnostic et de prévention du stress et des risques psychosociaux au travail.
Le dossier médico-technique TC 134 "Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail" présente cette série et propose au préventeur une aide pour choisir l'outil d'évaluation le mieux adapté.
A longitudinal study among Finnish firefighters
In today´s work life, employees are expected not only to be reasonably healthy, but also to be highly engaged and work efficiently. However, at the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems is high. Therefore, understanding and enhancing employee well-being as a whole is essential.
This study examined the longitudinal effects of work characteristics, personal resources, and lifestyle on employee well-being by applying three theoretical frameworks Job Demands-Resources model, Conservation of Resources theory, and Broaden-and-Build theory. Employee well-being was understood as a multidimensional construct covering affective, cognitive, and health-related components. The data was collected with questionnaires among Finnish firefighters during a 13-year period.
Objectives: To describe the changes implemented as part of a workplace psychosocial intervention.
Methods: The intervention was conducted in a public organization employing 1630 white-collar workers. The intervention was defined as all changes implemented to reduce adverse psychosocial work factors. A logbook was held to describe the changes implemented in the intervention group and in a comparable control group (N = 1282).
Results: Social support and reward were the psychosocial factors most targeted (41% to 83%). In comparison with the control group, the intervention group implemented four times more major changes and implemented changes, improving the employees' workload.
Conclusions: Changes mainly targeted social support and reward. The intervention group implemented four times more major changes than the control group. The intervention group implemented changes targeting the workload, whereas no such changes were implemented in the control group.
Source: Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Baril-Gingras, Geneviève; Cantin, Viviane; Leroux, Isabelle; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Louis; Bourbonnais, Renée; Brisson, Chantal. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2015, Volume 57, Issue 3, p. 251–261.
A prospective longitudinal study of 75 236 construction workers
Objectives The present study aimed to investigate whether different dimensions of psychosocial stress, as measured by the job demand–control model (JDC), were associated with increased risks of ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD).
Methods A cohort of 75 236 male construction workers was followed from 1989–2004. Exposure to psychosocial stress was determined by a questionnaire answered in 1989–1993. Events of ischemic stroke and CHD were found by linkage to the Swedish Causes of Death and National Patient registers. Hazard ratios (HR) were obtained from Cox regression models, adjusted for age, smoking habits, body mass index and systolic blood pressure.
Results There were 1884 cases of CHD and 739 cases of ischemic stroke. Regarding ischemic stroke, no association was found between job demands [HR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89–1.40, highest versus lowest quintile] or job control (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.82–1.32, lowest versus highest quintile). Regarding CHD, job demands were associated to CHD (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02–1.37, highest vs. lowest quintile), but no consistent trend was seen among quintiles. The results were inconsistent in relation to job control. The division of JDC into four categories showed no significant associations with either ischemic stroke or CHD.
Conclusions This exploratory study showed no significant associations between psychosocial work environment and ischemic stroke, and the associations between job demands and control and CHD were inconsistent and weak. The combination of job control and job demand showed no significant associations with either ischemic stroke or CHD.
Source: Schiöler L, Söderberg M, Rosengren A, Järvholm B, Torén K. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015.
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