Worsening Workers' Health by Lowering Retirement Age: The Malign Consequences of a Benign Reform

In 2003, the retirement age of Swiss construction workers was lowered from 65 to 60. This reform has been intended to improve their health. Our study shows the opposite outcome. The human capital theory suggests that investments in employees’ productivity by the employer and the employees themselves depend on the time remaining until their retirement. Hence, we hypothesize that pension reforms that reduce employees’ working horizon decrease investments in work-related human capital, which translates into a higher prevalence of sickness absences, a longer absence duration, and worse health. By econometrically comparing pre- and post-reform cohorts of construction workers with other blue-collar workers, we find that among 56–60-year-old construction workers, their sickness absences increase from 3.2% to 5.6%, their sickness duration increases by 33%, and their probability of having health problems increases from 9% to 12.7% due to the reform.

Source: Bauer, A. B., et Eichenberger, R. (2018). Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).

Guide de bonnes pratiques pour favoriser l'embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés

L'embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés sont une partie de la solution à la rareté attendue de la main-d'œuvre, d'autant plus que ces travailleurs montrent déjà une tendance à être de plus en plus actifs sur le marché du travail. En effet, l'un des faits marquants qui se dégagent des tendance du marché du travail depuis un certain nombre d'années est la hausse continue de la participation des travailleurs expérimentés. Après la vague de prises de retraite anticipée durant les années 1980 et au début des années 1990, leur présence sur le marché du travail s'est accrue. En 2016, le taux d'activité des travailleurs expérimentés de 55 ans et plus était de 33,6 % au Québec, comparativement à 22,2 % en 2000.

Source: https://www.bnq.qc.ca/fr/normalisation/sante-au-travail/travailleurs-experimentes.html

Situation awareness in young novice ambulance drivers: So much more than driving

Background: The intractable problem of young novice driver road crashes, and the critical role of emergency responders in attending road crashes, is well-recognised as is the critical role of situation awareness skills (SAS, ie. an understanding of ‘what is going on’ in a specific situation). Emergency responders may be young novice drivers and young novice ambulance drivers, therefore SAS will be required for safe road use. This project explored the SA demands upon young novice ambulance drivers (‘drivers’) in Queensland, Australia.
Method: A synthesis of literature regarding SAS relevant to drivers was followed by a hierarchical task analysis (HTA) and a perceptual cycle model (PCM) to explicate the complex emergency ambulance driver dispatch and response system and SAS requirements.
Results: Inadequate SA is a likely contributor to risks for drivers, patients, and other road users. The HTA revealed a plethora of opportunities for inadequate SAS to negatively impact safety. The PCM highlighted complex environmental information modifies driver ‘world’ schema (eg., medical procedures) which in turn directs their actions (eg., attending to radio/pager) that in a cyclical manner relies upon complex environmental information, etcetera.
Discussion and concluding remarks: Emergency responder SA appears quite different to ‘ordinary drivers’, suggesting well-developed road-related schema are required before young novice ambulance drivers are behind the wheel in a highly-emotive, time-critical situation. Drivers are not simply ‘driving’; they are engaged in a breadth of tasks while driving (e.g., accessing dynamic case details) which, for safety, rely upon adequate SAS, therefore training programs should target SAS development.

Source: Scott-Parker, B., Curran, M., Rune, K., Lord, W. et Salmon, P. M. (2018). Safety science, 108, 48-58.

Framework for Considering Productive Aging and Work

Objectives: The U.S. population is experiencing a demographic transition resulting in an aging workforce. The objective of this article is to elucidate and expand an approach to keep that workforce safe, healthy, and productive.
Methods: This article elucidates the framework for the National Center for Productive Aging at Work of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Subject matter experts used a snowball method to review published literature to substantiate elements in the framework.
Results: Evidence-based literature supports a productive aging framework for the workforce involving the following elements: 1) life span perspective; 2) comprehensive and integrated approaches to occupational safety and health; 3) emphasis on positive outcomes for both workers and organizations; and 4) supportive work culture for multigenerational issues.
Conclusion: The productive aging framework provides a foundational and comprehensive approach for addressing the aging workforce.

Source: Schulte, P. A., Grosch, J., Scholl, J. C. et Tamers, S. L. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(5), 440-448.

Promotion de la santé mentale au travail

La santé mentale et le bien-être de la main-d'oeuvre européenne sont de plus en plus reconnus comme une question importante pour les parties prenantes du travail en Europe.
Ce document d'orientation a essentiellement pour vocation de présenter un intérêt pratique pour toutes les parties prenantes concernées en la matière (employeurs, syndicats, décideurs politiques et professionnels). Il
adopte donc une approche pratique, axée sur la fourniture d'un cadre intégré pour la promotion de la santé mentale au travail et d'exemples de bonnes pratiques.

Source: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=fr&pubId=8098&type=2&furtherPubs=no

Age, burnout and physical and psychological work ability among nurses

Background: The ageing of the US labour force highlights the need to examine older adults' physical and psychological ability to work, under varying levels of occupational burnout.
Aims: To examine how age and burnout interact in predicting physical and psychological work ability.
Methods: Using a cohort of actively working nurses, we assessed factors on the Work Ability Index at 12-month follow-up and determined how these were related to age and exhaustion-related burnout at baseline.
Results: The study group consisted of 402 nurses aged 25–67 (mean = 41.7). Results indicated age by burnout interactions in which decrements in physical work ability with greater age were observed at all but the lowest level of burnout (1.5 SD below mean: β = −0.14, 95% CI −0.36, 0.07; 1 SD below: β = −0.23, 95% CI −0.39, −0.06; mean: β = −0.39, 95% CI −0.50, −0.29; 1 SD above: β = −0.56, 95% CI −0.70, −0.42; 1.5 SD above: β = −0.64, 95% CI −0.83, −0.46). In contrast, we observed decrements in psychological work ability with age at higher levels of burnout only (1 SD above: β = −0.20, 95% CI −0.35, −0.05; 1.5 SD above: β = −0.30, 95% CI −0.49, −0.11); at lower levels of burnout, older age was associated with improvements in this (1 SD below: β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03, 0.35; 1.5 SD below: β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 0.50).
Conclusions: Findings indicated physical and psychological dimensions of work ability that differed by age and occupational burnout. This emphasizes the need for interventions to reduce burnout and to address age-related strengths and vulnerabilities relating to physical and psychological work ability.

Source: Hatch, D. J., Freude, G., Martus, P., Rose, U., Müller, G. et Potter, G. G. (2018). Occupational Medicine, 68(4), 246-254.

Safety climate and safety outcomes

A meta-analytic comparison of universal vs. industry-specific safety climate predictive validity
Previous research has demonstrated that safety climate is a robust predictor of safety-related outcomes. However, there is little consensus about the optimal strategy to measure safety climate. One of the main issues has been whether safety climate measures should be universal or industry-specific. As such, this study was designed to examine the criterion-related validity of universal and industry-specific safety climate measures by conducting a meta-analytic comparison of their relationships with a variety of safety-related outcomes (i.e. safety behaviour, risk perceptions, accidents and injuries, and other adverse events). With 120 independent samples (N = 81,213), we found that the industry-specific safety climate measures displayed better predictive power when predicting safety behaviour and risk perceptions than the universal safety climate measures. On the other hand, the universal safety climate measures displayed better predictive power when predicting other adverse events (but not accidents and injuries) than the industry-specific safety climate measures. We discuss these findings in light of the intended use of organisational safety climate surveys.

Source: Jiang, L., Lavaysse, L. M. et Probst, T. M. (2018). Work & Stress.

Effects of night duty events on blood pressure and autonomic modulation in physicians

Background: The dynamic effects of duty events on the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) of physicians on duty are unknown.
Methods: A study was conducted among 12 physicians on night duty. BP and HRV with and without the effect of a duty event were compared. The risk of higher BP and impaired HRV after a phone call were calculated.
Results: Physicians had higher mean BP (122.4 ± 11.1; 76.9 ± 7.1 mmHg) within 30 min after a phone calls than without a phone call (113.5 ± 5.3; 69.0 ± 3.8) and higher sympathetic tone (low frequency normalized units (LFnu) 68.5 ± 8.9; high frequency normalized units (HFnu) 27.7 ± 8.7) within 10 min of a phone call than without a phone call (62.9 ± 8.51; 33.5 ± 8.4). Elevated BP and sympathetic tone recovered to baseline levels 30 min after a phone call.
Conclusions: Among physicians on night duty, sympathetic tone and BP might be elevated by clinical events, and these effects last for 30 min.

Source: Lee, H. H., Chen, B. Y., Pan, S. C., Lo, S. H., Chen, P. C. et Guo, Y. L. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine.

Conception des laboratoires d'analyses biologiques

Ce guide a pour but d'aider les personnes chargées de la conception ou de la rénovation d'un laboratoire d'analyses biologiques à réaliser leur projet dans le respect des mesures de prévention des risques, plus particulièrement des risques biologiques. Différents types de laboratoires d'analyses biologiques sont évoqués d'analyses industrielles.
Ce document dépeint les activités des laboratoires et décrit les fonctionnalités, les aménagements et les exigences de conception spécifiques à chaque pièce.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%20999

Association of changes in work shifts and shift intensity with change in fatigue and disturbed sleep: a within-subject study

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether changes in work shifts and shift intensity are related to changes in difficulties to fall asleep, fatigue, and sleep length.
Methods: Questionnaire responses of hospital employees (N=7727, 93% women) in 2008, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were linked to daily-based records of working hours during three months preceding each survey. We used conditional logistic regression and longitudinal fixed-effects analyses to investigate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each 25% within-individual change in the proportion of working hour characteristics in relation to changes in fatigue, difficulties to fall asleep, and 24-hour sleep length.
Results: Change in night but not in morning or evening shifts was associated with parallel changes in odds for longer sleep length (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.28–1.64) and fatigue during free days (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.16–1.64). Similarly, short shift intervals and having >2 but not >4 consecutive night shifts were associated with increased odds of fatigue during work (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.19–1.72 and OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05–1.19, respectively) and difficulties to fall asleep. Among workers aged ≥50 years, the associations were the strongest between night shifts and longer sleep (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.52–3.81) and between higher proportion of short shift intervals and fatigue during free days (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.10–2.54).
Conclusions: Among shift workers with fatigue or sleep problems, decreasing the proportion of night shifts and quick returns and giving preference to quickly forward-rotating shift systems may reduce fatigue.

Source: Härmä, M., Karhula, K., Ropponen, A., Puttonen, S., Koskinen, A., Ojajärvi, A., ... et Kivimäki, M. (2018). Scand J Work Environ Health.

La violence en milieu de travail

La violence en milieu de travail peut prendre différentes formes (physique, sexuelle, verbale, psychologique). Elle peut se manifester entre personnes appartenant à une même organisation (collègues, supérieurs hiérarchiques, subordonnés), ou être commise à l'endroit d'un travailleur par une personne sans lien d'emploi avec l'organisation.
Au Québec, en milieu de travail, le harcèlement psychologique est un phénomène beaucoup plus fréquent que la violence physique.
Les travailleurs en contact avec le public sont davantage exposés au harcèlement psychologique, au harcèlement sexuel et à la violence physique. Au Québec, les travailleurs du secteur des soins de santé et des services sociaux sont les plus exposés à ces trois formes de violence, suivis par les travailleurs du secteur des services gouvernementaux ou parapublics et par ceux du secteur de l'enseignement, mais les auteurs du harcèlement psychologique sont majoritairement des personnes appartenant à une même organisation.
Les risques psychosociaux du travail (c'est-à-dire liés à l'organisation du travail, aux pratiques de gestion, aux conditions d'emploi et aux relations sociales), les contrats de travail atypiques et précaires, ainsi que la normalisation de la violence dans la culture organisationnelle sont trois facteurs organisationnels associés à la violence en milieu de travail.
La violence en milieu de travail peut entraîner différentes conséquences pour les victimes, et ce, peu importe le statut de l'auteur de la violence, qu'il soit un supérieur, un collègue ou une personne externe à l'organisation. Les conséquences de la violence psychologique sur la santé peuvent être aussi sévères que celles associées à la violence physique.
En plus des dispositions prévues dans la réglementation qui encadrent la prévention des agressions, les stratégies organisationnelles permettant de réduire les risques psychosociaux du travail semblent être prometteuses pour prévenir la violence en milieu de travail. Des pratiques de gestion visant à augmenter la latitude décisionnelle, la participation des travailleurs, le soutien du supérieur immédiat, l'entraide et la coopération entre collègues, et la reconnaissance des efforts et du travail réalisé, tout en contrôlant la charge de travail, sont des exemples de stratégies organisationnelles à favoriser pour agir en prévention.

Source: Pelletier, M., Lippel, K. et Vézina, M. (2018). Dans Rapport québécois sur la violence et la santé (256-280). Montréal: INRS.

Live Longer, Work Longer: The Changing Nature of the Labour Market for Older Workers in OECD Countries

Population ageing poses stark dilemmas for labour markets, social protection systems and cultural norms. It will put strong downward pressure on labour supply, leading to falling real incomes and huge financial pressures on social protection systems unless there is an offsetting increase in employment rates. This is especially true for older workers whose employment rates are well below those of prime-age adults. In this paper, I examine how the labour market for older workers has evolved in OECD countries since 1990, what are the main forces at work, what are the main obstacles to working longer and how might public policies help overcome them. I also speculate about the future for older workers faced with the challenges and opportunities posed by the gig economy.

Source: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/11510/live-longer-work-longer-the-changing-nature-of-the-labour-market-for-older-workers-in-oecd-countries

Differences in safety training among smaller and larger construction firms with non-native workers

Evidence of overlapping vulnerabilities
Collaborative efforts between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) led to a report focusing on overlapping occupational vulnerabilities, specifically small construction businesses employing young, non-native workers. Following the report, an online survey was conducted by ASSE with construction business representatives focusing on training experiences of non-native workers. Results were grouped by business size (50 or fewer employees or more than 50 employees). Smaller businesses were less likely to employ a supervisor who speaks the same language as immigrant workers (p<.001). Non-native workers in small businesses received fewer hours of both initial safety training (p=.005) and monthly ongoing safety training (p=.042). Immigrant workers in smaller businesses were less likely to receive every type of safety training identified in the survey (including pre-work safety orientation [p<.001], job-specific training [p<.001], OSHA 10-hour training [p=.001], and federal/state required training [p<.001]). The results highlight some of the challenges a vulnerable worker population faces in a small business, and can be used to better focus intervention efforts. Among businesses represented in this sample, there are deficits in the amount, frequency, and format of workplace safety and health training provided to non-native workers in smaller construction businesses compared to those in larger businesses. The types of training conducted for non-native workers in small business were less likely to take into account the language and literacy issues faced by these workers. The findings suggest the need for a targeted approach in providing occupational safety and health training to non-native workers employed by smaller construction businesses.

Source: Cunningham, T. R., Guerin, R. J., Keller, B. M., Flynn, M. A., Salgado, C. et Hudson, D. (2018). Safety Science, 103, 62-69.

Enhancing the detection of injuries and near-misses among patient care staff in a large pediatric hospital

Objective: Compared to other industries, healthcare has one of the highest rates of non-fatal occupational injury/illness. Evidence indicates these rates are underestimated, highlighting the need for improved injury surveillance. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating active data collection in a passive injury surveillance system to improve detection of injuries in a healthcare establishment.
Methods: Using digital voice recorders (DVR), pediatric healthcare providers prospectively recorded events throughout their shift for two weeks. This sample-based active injury surveillance was then integrated into an institutional surveillance system (ISS) centered on passive data collection initiated by employee reports.
Results: Injuries reported using DVR during two-week intervals from February 2014 to July 2015 were 40.7 times more frequent than what would be expected on the basis of the usual ISS reports. Psychological injuries
(eg, stress, conflict) and near-misses were captured at a rate of 16.1 per 1000 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.1–18.3] and 35.6 per 1000 days (95% CI 32.7–38.8), respectively. Finally, 68% (95% CI 65–72%) of
participants preferred using DVR either as an alternative or complement to the existing ISS.
Conclusions: This study showed that it is feasible to improve injury surveillance in a healthcare establishment by integrating active data collection based on voice recording within a passive injury surveillance system. Enhanced surveillance provides richer information that can guide the development of effective injury prevention strategies.

Source: Macaluso, M., Summerville, L. A., Tabangin, M. E. , Daraiseh, N.M. (2018). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Quels sont les facilitateurs du maintien en emploi en santé des travailleurs seniors dans un milieu d’éducation au Québec?

Le pourcentage de travailleurs seniors âgés de 45 ans et plus augmente sans cesse sur le marché du travail au Québec. Dans le secteur de l'éducation, une large portion de la main-d'œuvre est âgée de 45 ans et plus (41 %) et un tiers du personnel aura quitté son poste entre 2009 et 2018 (Grenier, 2009). Des statistiques récentes montrent aussi que les lésions tant de nature physique que psychologique des travailleurs québécois du secteur de l'éducation sont souvent associées à une perte de temps indemnisée par la Commission des normes, de l'équité, de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CNESST). Ces lésions touchent davantage des travailleurs seniors qui occupent diverses fonctions (p. ex., enseignants, personnel administratif) (Busque, 2012). L'objectif général de cette étude est d'identifier les déterminants du maintien en emploi en santé des travailleurs seniors âgés de 45 ans et plus œuvrant dans une commission scolaire (CS) québécoise.
Cette étude a permis de mieux comprendre comment les conditions de travail caractérisées par la présence de facteurs psychosociaux favorisent la santé psychologique des travailleurs seniors et les encouragent à rester en emploi à la CS plutôt que de décider à prendre une retraite hâtive. Les résultats de la Phase 1 ont mis en évidence que les travailleurs en fin de carrière montrent de plus hauts niveaux de stresseurs ressentis au travail et d'amotivation comparativement à ceux qui se trouvent dans l'étape intermédiaire de leur carrière. Pour les travailleurs retraités, l'autonomie et la flexibilité des horaires contribuaient à leur satisfaction au travail et à leur motivation introjectée. Ces aspects positifs de la santé psychologique au travail, à leur tour, ont déterminé leur choix de se maintenir en emploi à la CS, et ce, jusqu'à leur retraite régulière. Comparativement au groupe qui a opté pour une retraite hâtive avec des pénalités financières, celui des travailleurs qui ont choisi une retraite régulière se caractérise par des niveaux plus élevés de satisfaction au travail et de satisfaction envers l'établissement.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100983/n/facilitateurs-maintien-emploi-sante-travailleurs-seniors-milieu-education-quebec

Risk of injury after evening and night work

Findings from the Danish Working Hour Database
Objectives: Evening and night work have been associated with higher risk of injury than day work. However, previous findings may be affected by recall bias and unmeasured confounding from differences between day, evening and night workers. This study investigates whether evening and night work during the past week increases risk of injury when reducing recall bias and unmeasured confounding.
Methods: We linked daily working hours at the individual level of 69 200 employees (167 726 person years from 2008–2015), primarily working at hospitals to registry information on 11 834 injuries leading to emergency room visits or death. Analyses were conducted with Poisson regression models in the full population including permanent day, evening and night workers, and in two sub-populations of evening and night workers, with both day and evening or night work, respectively. Thus, the exchangeability between exposure and reference group was improved in the two sub-populations.
Results: Risk of injury was higher after a week with evening work [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26–1.37] and night work (IRR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25–1.41) compared with only day work.
Similar, although attenuated, estimates were found for evening work among evening workers (IRR 1.18, 95% CI 1.12–1.25), and for night work among night workers (IRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.20).
Conclusion: There is an overall increased risk of injury after a week that has included evening or night work compared with only day work. Though attenuated, the higher risk remains after reducing unmeasured confounding.

Source: Nielsen, HB, Larsen, AD, Dyreborg, J, Hansen, ÅM, Pompeii, LA, Conway, SH, Hansen, J, Kolstad, HA, Nabe-Nielsen, K. et Garde, AH. (2018). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Long working hours and depressive symptoms

Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data
Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms.
Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies.
Results: We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1–5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13–2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70–1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70–1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small.
Conclusions: This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.

Source: Virtanen, M., Jokela, M., Madsen, I. E., Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Lallukka, T., Nyberg, S. T., ... et Burr, H. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 44(3), 239-250.

Pour quelles raisons la formation aux techniques sécuritaires de manutention ne fonctionne-t-elle pas?

Revue critique de la littérature
La formation en manutention fait l'objet de nombreuses demandes de la part des milieux de travail. Or, malgré leur abondante diffusion, ces formations voient leur efficacité remise en cause par cinq méta-analyses publiées entre 2007 et 2014. La consultation de ces revues de la littérature ne permet pas de comprendre les raisons pour lesquelles il en est ainsi puisque les formations recensées – et dont on tente d'évaluer l'efficacité – n'y sont pas décrites, ou alors elles ne le sont que sommairement. Le fait de disposer de plus d'informations sur les caractéristiques des formations en manutention permettrait certainement de mieux expliquer leur manque d'efficacité rapportée, et ainsi pouvoir proposer des voies d'amélioration. C'est le but que se sont fixé les auteurs de cette étude.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100981/n/raisons-formation-techniques-securitaires-manutention-revue-critique-litterature

Prise en charge de la SST dans les mines souterraines : témoignages de cadres et de représentants des travailleurs

Cette étude exploratoire vise à mieux connaître les rôles des cadres et représentants des travailleurs de mines souterraines québécoises, les éléments du contexte qui peuvent agir comme leviers ou obstacles à leurs actions en SST et à amorcer des réflexions sur ce qui peut les soutenir dans leurs rôles. Cette étude s'appuie sur une exploration de la littérature et sur une analyse secondaire des données recueillies lors d'un projet de recherche portant sur les conditions d'intégration des nouveaux travailleurs dans les mines (Ledoux, Beaugrand, Jolly, Ouellet, et Fournier, 2015).
Le projet de recherche a été réalisé grâce à la participation de cent quinze cadres, représentants des travailleurs, mineurs et opérateurs œuvrant dans des mines à ciel ouvert et souterraines québécoises. Les données, recueillies au moyen d'entretiens semi-dirigés d'une durée d'environ une heure et d'observations, ont été exploitées pour produire un premier rapport de recherche centrée sur la description des processus d'intégration (Ledoux et al., 2015). Des témoignages en lien avec l'exercice des rôles et des responsabilités des cadres et des représentants des travailleurs en matière de SST ont aussi été consignés lors des entretiens, mais ce sujet n'a pu être exploité à fond lors de la production du premier rapport (Ledoux et al., 2015). Il a donc été proposé à l'Association paritaire pour la santé et la sécurité du travail du secteur minier (APSM) d'en dresser un portrait, ce qui a donné lieu à ce second rapport.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100982/n/sst-mines-souterraines

Health warning for employers: Supporting older workers with health conditions

Research shows that employers are not properly supporting older workers experiencing long-term physical and mental health conditions.
As the number of working age people with long-term health conditions rises, Government and employers need to improve workplaces and support systems to help people to manage their health conditions and continue to work.
The report was based on research with over 1,000 people who are managing a health condition at work. It found that older workers are more likely than younger workers to be managing multiple long-term conditions and that health conditions are the main driver of older workers exiting the labour market before they reach state pension age.
Employers must take responsibility for creating an open, positive culture around health at work, in which it is normal for employees to discuss their health conditions, without fear of reprisal, judgement or job loss. With these changes, the negative experiences we heard about through our research can be avoided, and more people in later life will be able to continue working well, for longer.

Source: https://www.ageing-better.org.uk/publications/health-warning-employers

The integration of safety and health into education

Le Réseau européen pour l'éducation et la formation à la sécurité et à la santé au travail ENETOSH offre une plateforme permettant un échange systématique d'expérience sur les questions relatives à l'éducation et à la formation à la sécurité et à la santé. Réunissant des experts de la sécurité et de la santé au travail et de l'éducation, le réseau ENETOSH dispose actuellement de 888 exemples de bonne pratique sur l'intégration des enjeux de la sécurité et de la santé dans les processus d'éducation et d'apprentissage à différentes étapes de la vie.
Cette étude contribue à montrer comment s'effectue dans la pratique l'intégration des enjeux de la sécurité et de la santé dans les processus d'éducation et d'apprentissage aux différents niveaux du système éducatif éducation préscolaire/scolaire, formation professionnelle initiale, enseignement supérieur et éducation et formation dans le milieu professionnel). L'étude facilite l'accès aux exemples de bonne pratique, identifie les bons modèles et donne des conseils pour l'action future des praticiens, des multiplicateurs et des décideurs.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/oshnews/new-enetosh-report-integration-safety-and-health-education

Prévention des risques professionnels dans le commerce de détail non alimentaire

En partenariat avec un service de santé au travail, la branche professionnelle du commerce de détail non alimentaire a engagé une démarche de prévention des risques professionnels en valorisant l'engagement des différents préventeurs et plus particulièrement celui du médecin du travail. À partir d'une étude des risques professionnels propres à ce secteur et d'une synthèse de leur tendance évolutive, il a été possible d'élaborer et de mettre en place des actions de prévention spécifiques. Une première évaluation des actions a été effectuée afin de cerner les voies de progrès et d'amélioration.

Source: Févotte, A., Trouvet, B. (2018). Références en santé au travail (153). 

Post-traumatic Reactions and Their Predictors among Workers Who Experienced Serious Violent Acts

Are There Sex Differences?
Background: Serious violent acts (e.g. physical violence, robbery, sexual aggression and death threats) are among the most visible and notable examples of workplace violence. Although women are commonly found to be at higher risk for post-traumatic reactions following workplace violence, little is known as regards sex differences concerning the types of post-traumatic reactions and their predictors.
Objective: This study aimed to describe sex differences in the post-traumatic reactions of serious violent acts and the predictors of such reactions.
Methods: The study was conducted among a convenience sample of 2889 French-speaking workers from Quebec, Canada by using a self-administrated survey. Linear regression modelings and post-hoc comparisons of coefficients according to the sex of the respondents were used to achieve the objective.
Results: Preliminary results confirmed that while men are more exposed to violence at work, women experience a greater number of post-traumatic reactions. Women were more affected by flashbacks, avoidance, and hypervigilance than men. The results also showed that being victimized by a male aggressor was associated with a greater number of post-traumatic reactions for women, whereas being victimized by an insider (e.g. colleague, supervisor, employee) was associated with a greater number of post-traumatic reactions for both sexes.
Implications: These findings highlight the necessity to better consider sex as a potential determinant of mental health in studies on workplace violence.

Source: Geoffrion, S., Goncalves, J., Marchand, A., Boyer, R., Marchand, A., Corbière, M. et Guay, S. (2018). Annals of work exposures and health, 62(4), 465-474.

949 Shiftwork and breast cancer: epidemiology, burden, and implications for prevention

Introduction: Approximately one in five workers globally work night, evening, or rotating shifts. Shiftwork involving circadian disruption is a probable carcinogen for breast cancer. Our objective was to synthesise the current state of the epidemiological literature, report on shiftwork-associated breast cancer burden in Canada, and discuss implications for prevention.
Methods: A search was conducted for meta-analyses accompanied by a systematic review, published from 2010–2017, that included at least one meta-risk estimate (mRE) for breast cancer associated with any permanent/rotating night work exposure metric. For each included meta-analysis, heterogeneity values were extracted and an eight-point checklist was used to evaluate quality. An attributable fraction (AF) range for breast cancer, based on mREs from high quality meta-analyses and Canadian shiftwork survey data, was calculated using Levin's equation.
Results: Seven meta-analyses collectively included 30 cohort and case-control studies spanning 1996–2016. Most reported statistically significant heterogeneity. In 5 meta-analyses that scored ≥6 points on the quality assessment checklist, mREs for ever/never night shiftwork exposure ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.25, n=9 studies) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.13 to 1.73, n=9 studies). Using these mREs as lower and upper values in Levin's equation, the AF for breast cancer among the 1.5 million Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts during 1961–2001 ranged from 2.04%–5.23%. This corresponds to an estimated 460–1180 annual incident breast cancers probably due to shiftwork; nearly half (200–510) are diagnosed among women in health care and social assistance.
Discussion: Summaries of 20 years of epidemiological evidence support shiftwork as a probable breast carcinogen, but considerable heterogeneity between studies poses a challenge for precisely evaluating breast cancer risk and burden. Given the potentially substantial burden of breast cancer due to shiftwork, applied research on workplace-based prevention of circadian disruption is acutely needed to identify effective solutions for sectors where shiftwork prevalence is high.

Source: Pahwa, M., Labrèche, F., Harris, M. A., Kim, J., Song, C. et Demers, P. A. (2018). Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

Z1003.1-18 - Psychological health and safety in the paramedic service organization

This is the first edition of CSA Z1003.1, Psychological health and safety in the paramedic service organization.
This Standard provides paramedic service organizations and other key stakeholders with guidance on good practice for the identification and assessment of hazards and management of psychological health and safety (PHS) risks for paramedic service organizations and the promotion of improved psychological health and safety.

Source: http://shop.csa.ca/fr/canada/occupational-health-and-safety-management/z10031-18/invt/27043982018

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