This study employs a recently developed conceptual framework and measurement tool that moves beyond defining occupational health and safety (OH&S) vulnerability using population or occupational characteristics, and instead examines how work and workplace characteristics shape an individual worker's risk of injury (Smith et al., 2015). The measurement tool captures information on four dimensions of OH&S vulnerability: (1) exposure to workplace hazards; (2) workplace safety policies and procedures; (3) worker awareness of health and safety-related rights and responsibilities; and (4) worker empowerment to act to protect themselves and colleagues. The conceptual framework posits that in isolation exposure to workplace hazards, or poor access to protective policies and procedures, awareness or empowerment places workers at increased risk of injury but that the greatest risk arises for workers who are both exposed to hazards and experience one or more deficits in resources to manage these hazards. We contend that ‘vulnerability' arises from exposure to on-the-job hazards in conjunction with inadequate access to resources (policies and procedures, awareness or empowerment) to mitigate the effects of these risks.
Source: A. Morgan Lay, Ron Saunders, Marni Lifshen, F. Curtis Breslin, Anthony D. LaMontagne, Emile Tompa et Peter M. Smith. (2017). Safety Science, 85–93.
The present study offers an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of brief mental health and well-being interventions in organizational settings and comparison of their effects with corresponding interventions of common (ie, longer) duration. It discusses the findings in the light of quality appraisal of included studies and emphasizes the need for further research with methodologically rigorous study designs and enhanced reporting of methods.
Source: Ivandic, I., Freeman, A., Birner, U., Nowak, D., & Sabariego, C. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
A randomized-controlled trial in China
This is the first large scale randomized controlled trial documenting the effectiveness of a participatory approach to occupational health and safety training in reducing work injuries and re-injuries among industrial workers. This approach can be adopted and tried out in other settings, and is expected to help reduce the huge burdens of work injuries to workers, their families and society.
Source: Yu, I. T., Yu, W., Li, Z., Qiu, H., Wan, S., Xie, S., & Wang, X. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
Broadening our view, responding together
In 2009, Professor Klaus Wahl of Germany published an interesting, comprehensive analytical model of aggression and violence that links microcosmic and macrocosmic levels (Figure 1). The level of the microcosm encompasses genes, the brain and psychic processes, bio-physiological survival mechanisms and various types of aggression. The level of the macrocosm encompasses the environment, socialization and situation-induced social dynamics. Between these two poles lies the interplay of an individual's personality and society determines the phylogeny (development or evolution of a particular group of individuals) and the ontogeny (origination and development of an individual) of violent behavior. This model – although probably not yet well known beyond the boundaries of German- speaking countries – allows for a comprehensive understanding of the “big picture” of aggression and violence at the societal and the personal level and may thus be appealing to persons working within the health sector.
Source: Needham, Ian, McKenna, Kevin, Frank, Odile, & Oud, Nico. (2016). Violence in the Health Sector: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector: Broadening our view, responding together, 26-28 October 2016, Dublin, Ireland. Amsterdam : Netherlands : KAVANAH, 480 p.
Les présentations de la journée du 22 novembre 2016 organisée par l'INRS sur les horaires atypiques sont disponibles sur le site de l'événement.
Comment perçoivent-ils leurs conditions de travail et quels avantages en retirent-ils?
Ce texte examine la situation des jeunes travailleurs embauchés par les agences de placement au Québec. Il est fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche menée par le biais d'entrevues semi-dirigées auprès de 40 jeunes de la grande région de Québec. Nos analyses montrent que les jeunes travailleurs d'agence sont fortement scolarisés, ont de faibles revenus et sont en importante proportion des immigrants et des étudiants. Une grande hétérogénéité et un niveau de qualification élevé sont deux caractéristiques importantes de cette catégorie de travailleurs et l'intermittence du travail et les temporalités saccadées sont des constantes de leur parcours dans ce secteur du marché du travail. En ce qui a trait aux perceptions des conditions de travail, les jeunes interrogés exposent des visions diverses et hétéroclites. Le rôle d'intermédiation de l'agence, qui met en contact les chercheurs et les demandeurs d'emploi est identifié comme le principal avantage du recours aux agences. Quant aux inconvénients, ils ont trait principalement aux incertitudes qui découlent du travail temporaire. Dans l'ensemble, on constate un positionnement relativement « optimiste » des jeunes face au recours aux agences qui relève de plusieurs facteurs liés au contexte du marché du travail et aux étapes du parcours de vie mais également d'un individualisme plus accentué et d'une adhésion plus marquée de cette classe d'âge aux normes du modèle productif post-fordiste.
An integrated application of Geller and Health Belief Models
As the most of work-related accidents results from unsafe behaviors, there is clearly a need for research in this area. The purpose of this study was to assess safety culture among operation personnel of an Oil Refinery Company (ORC) in Tehran and design and implement a Safety Culture Promotion Intervention Program (SCPIP) based on an integration of Geller and HBM models. In this quasi-experimental study, as the first phase, 190 operational employees of an ORC were recruited. The data were analyzed and the SCPIP was designed. In the second phase, 90 employees were elected for the intervention (45 for the experimental group and 45 for the control group). The evaluation of SCPIP was conducted 2 months after intervention. The environmental factors were in a good condition. About 44% of the behavioral factors and about two thirds of the cognitive factors were rated as moderate/weak. Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups by the total cognitive factors and the HBM constructs. After intervention these differences were significant (p ? 0.001). After implementing the intervention in the experimental group, the HBM total score was remarkably improved (Mean Difference = 11.25, t = 10.100, p = 0.001). The integrative application of the Geller and HBM Models was helpful in assessing the cognitive predictors of safety culture among the personnel of the ORC. SCPIP was useful in improving the employees' perceptions on safety culture in the occupational setting. HBM may be utilized to promote the human component of Geller model.
Source: Haghighi, M., Taghdisi, M. H., Nadrian, H., Moghaddam, H. R., Mahmoodi, H., & Alimohammadi, I. (2017). Safety Science, 93, 76-85.
Qualitative evidence from the second European survey of enterprises on new and emerging risks (ESENER-2)
The study focuses on the representation of workers' interests in health and safety as experienced by representatives themselves, by their fellow workers and by their employers and managers. It is based on in-depth interviews with these participants in 143 different establishments in seven EU member states: Belgium, Estonia, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Les risques pour la santé des travailleurs des agences de location de personnel
La croissance du marché de l'emploi atypique contribue à la précarisation des conditions de vie et de travail d'un nombre important de travailleurs. Bien que toutes les formes d'emploi atypique ne soient pas nécessairement précaires, elles offrent généralement une moins bonne protection sociale et des salaires moins élevés. Le travail par l'intermédiaire des agences de location de personnel, une forme d'emploi atypique, a augmenté significativement au Québec et au Canada au cours des dernières années, ce qui laisse à penser que le nombre de travailleurs touchés par des conditions d'emploi précaires a subi la même croissance.
Étant donné le manque de connaissances sur l'impact sanitaire de la précarité d'emploi et sur son potentiel d'accroître les inégalités sociales de santé sur l'île de Montréal, le directeur de santé publique de Montréal consacre son rapport de l'année 2016 aux travailleurs d'agence de location de personnel. Ce rapport vise deux objectifs : peindre un portrait des conditions de travail du personnel d'agence et proposer une feuille de route susceptible de les améliorer.
A case-crossover study in two Danish emergency departments
In spite of numerous prevention efforts occupational injuries continue to be a global challenge. A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of eight specific transient risk factors for acute occupational injuries. The study identified several transient risk factors that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries, particularly for equipment and work practice-related factors.
Source: Østerlund AH, Lander F, Nielsen K, Kines P, Möller J, Lauritsen J. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health.
Evidence on the association between shift work and mortality is limited. We found significantly enhanced all-cause, cardiovascular and diabetes mortality among nurses with night and evening shifts. We present novel finding of an increase in mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and potentially psychological disorders among night, evening, and rotating shift workers.
Source: Jørgensen JT, Karlsen S, Stayner L, Hansen J, Andersen ZJ. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health.
A group randomized intervention study using diary data
The results of this present study show beneficial effects on sleep and stress due to a worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers, including increased sleep duration during workdays. The paper may contribute to unresolved questions about the possible positive effects of implementing 6-hour workdays on employee's long-term health and work performance.
Source: Schiller H, Lekander M, Rajaleid K, Hellgren C, Åkerstedt T, Barck-Holst P, Kecklund G. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health.
The negative outcomes of experiencing workplace bullying are well documented, but a strong theoretical explanation for this has been relatively neglected. We draw on cognitive appraisal theory to suggest that individuals' appraisals of and responses to negative acts at work will moderate the impact of said acts on wellbeing and performance outcomes. In a large study (N = 3,217) in Southeast Asia, we examine moderators in the form of (a) the extent to which individuals identify themselves as being bullied and (b) the coping strategies that individuals use to deal with negative acts. We find that these factors do moderate the impact of experiencing negative acts, in particular work-related negative acts. When individuals are subject to work-related negative acts but do not see themselves as being bullied they report higher levels of performance than those who do identify themselves as being bullied. Problem-focused coping was found to be effective for those sometimes targeted, but for persistent targets was detrimental to wellbeing. The present research has important implications for bullying research in examining factors that contribute to outcomes of bullying.
Source: Hewett, R., Liefooghe, A., Visockaite, G., & Roongrerngsuke, S. (2016). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.
The 5th International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector was held on October 26-28, 2016. This year's theme was "Broadening our view – responding together."
A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results. Analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the hospital's nursing population). The overall prevalence of MSP was 70% in the past year and 64% in the past month. Lower back (57%) and neck (56%) were the body areas most commonly painful in the past year. Higher quantitative and emotional demands, work pace, low justice and respect in the workplace, influence on work organisation, and role conflicts were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among nurses. All mental health problems and most strongly somatic stress symptoms were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems, especially somatic stress symptoms, have an important impact on the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among university hospital nurses.
Source: Freimann, T., Pääsuke, M., & Merisalu, E. (2016). Pain Research and Management.
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