Prévention et performance d’entreprise

Panorama des approches et des points de vue sur la prévention et la performance d'entreprise
La question de la contribution de la prévention à la performance des entreprises prend une place importante dans le débat public.  Les discours qui en font l'objet reposent sur des démonstrations et des argumentaires très divers qui peuvent parfois prêter à confusion. Il s'agit dans ce document de proposer un panorama des approches et des points de vue pour en éclaircir la portée. Ce panorama se base sur des références et témoignages de médias grand public (médias professionnels et de prévention) et des compilations d'études.
Afin de structurer le foisonnement d'éléments intervenant dans les discours, ce document propose une approche structurée selon une progression du point de vue. Après avoir établi le contexte du questionnement sur le lien entre prévention et performance d'entreprise, les différentes méthodologies d'approches économiques sont présentées, avec les hypothèses et logiques correspondantes. Un focus est fait sur la prise en compte de la productivité. L'intérêt de l'approche économique est présenté, ainsi que ses limites qui peuvent aboutir à une réception négative du discours. La notion de performance est alors élargie, en la confrontant aux composantes humaines et sociales de l'entreprise, amenant ainsi la notion de « performance durable ». Le « capital humain » est essentiel dans la nécessité d'une adaptation continuelle de la production et du service, et la viabilité de l'entreprise à long terme dépend de sa capacité à suivre les évolutions du monde qui l'entoure. Ce point de vue permet alors d'expliciter les leviers de la prévention dans la performance de l'entreprise, centrés sur la compétence et l'implication des salariés, et sur l'accompagnement  de l'entreprise dans son intégration sociale.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/PDF/Actualites/prevention-performance-entreprise/prevention-performance-entreprise.pdf

Diagnosis of poor safety culture as a major shortcoming in OHSAS 18001-certified companies

The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The in-depth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.

Source: Ghahramani, Abolfazl. (2017). Industrial Health, 55(2), 138-148.
http://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2015-0205

Perceived organizational support and employees’ well-being

The mediating role of organizational dehumanization
Perceived organizational support (POS) has been found to predict important organizational outcomes such as increasing employees' well-being. In this research, we examine a new underlying mechanism of the relationship between POS and employees' well-being, that is, employees' perceptions that their organization dehumanizes them. This proposition was tested across two studies. Using an experimental design manipulating POS in a laboratory setting, Study 1 indicated that in the high POS condition, the subsequent feelings of being dehumanized by the organization were lower than in the low POS condition. More importantly, organizational dehumanization perceptions were found to mediate the POS condition and satisfaction link. Furthermore, using a sample of 1209 employees, results of Study 2 indicated that organizational dehumanization mediates the relationship between POS and three indicators of employees' well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and psychosomatic strains). Implications for research on both organizational support theory and dehumanization theory are discussed.

Source: Caesens, G., Stinglhamber, F., Demoulin, S., & De Wilde, M. (2017). European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2017.1319817

Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study

Shift work, which interferes with circadian rhythms, has evident acute effects on cognitive performance; however, its long-term impact on cognitive development remains unclear. This longitudinal study concluded shift work during midlife impacts neither cognitive performance at retirement nor cognitive trajectories across late life.

Source: Bokenberger, K., Ström, P., AK, D. A., Åkerstedt, T., & Pedersen, N. L. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3638

Employees’ drug purchases before and after organizational downsizing

A natural experiment on the Norwegian working population (2004–2012)
Private sector employees in Norway exposed to major organizational downsizing during the period 2004–2012 had elevated odds of purchasing antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, insulins, cardiovascular- and thyroid drugs around the time of downsizing, compared to the situation three years earlier. We suggest a strengthening of preventive health initiatives and systematic involvement from occupational health services in downsizing processes.

Source: Kaspersen, S. L., Pape, K., Carlsen, F., Ose, S. O., & Bjorngaard, J. H. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3637

The challenges of ageing at work displayed in country infographics

A comprehensive overview of occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects related to the challenges of an ageing workforce is presented in country infographics  uploaded on our visualisation tool on ageing and OSH .
The 31 country infographics depict thought-provoking facts and figures about the working conditions and health, labour market participation and policies linked to ageing at work in the corresponding European country. One more infographic illustrates the full EU landscape of the subject.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/oshnews/challenges-ageing-work-displayed-country-infographics

The Effects of Trivialization of Workplace Violence on Its Victims

Profession and Sex Differences in a Cross-Sectional Study among Healthcare and Law Enforcement Workers
BACKGROUND: Workers from the law enforcement and healthcare sectors tend to normalize or mute their victimization from workplace violence (WPV).
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the impact of the trivialization of WPV on psychological consequences for workers who have been affected by a WPV incident. The second aim is to assess the moderating effect of sex on the trivialization of WPV. The third and overarching aim is to assess the moderating effect of professional identity on the relations between individual and organizational factors and psychological consequences following a WPV incident.
METHODS: The findings are based on a convenience sample of 377 (204 female and 173 male) workers from the law enforcement and healthcare sectors. Individual factors (sex, age, professional identity, prior victimization, witnessing WPV, injuries, and trivialization of violence) and perceived support factors (colleagues' support and employer's support) were used as predictor variables of psychological consequences in hierarchical linear regression models. Sex was used as a moderator of trivialization while professional identity was used as a moderator of all predictors.
FINDINGS: When individual and social support factors were controlled for, normalizing violence was negatively associated with psychological consequences while perceiving a taboo associated with complaining about WPV was positively associated for all participants. When these relations were moderated by the sex of the participants and then by their professional identity, normalization was found to decrease psychological consequences only for male healthcare workers. IMPLICATIONS: To help employees cope with WPV, organizations should promote strategies adapted to profession and sex differences. For male healthcare workers, normalization as a cognitive coping strategy should be formally recognized. For both professions and sexes, organizational strategies that counter the perceived taboo of complaining about violence should be reinforced.

Source: Geoffrion, S., Goncalves, J., Boyer, R., Marchand, A., & Guay, S. (2017). Annals of work exposures and health.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx003

The psychosocial work environment is associated with risk of stroke at working age

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relation between the risk of first-ever stroke at working age and psychological work environmental factors.
Methods: A consecutive multicenter matched 1:2 case–control study of acute stroke cases (N=198, age 30–65 years) who had been working full-time at the time of their stroke and 396 sex- and age-matched controls.  Stroke cases and controls answered questionnaires on their psychosocial situation during the previous 12 months. The psychosocial work environment was assessed using three different measures: the job–control–demand model, the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) score, and exposures to conflict at work.
Results: Among 198 stroke cases and 396 controls, job strain [odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05–1.62], ERI (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01–1.62), and conflict at work (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.07–2.88) were independent risk factors of stroke in multivariable regression models.
Conclusions: Adverse psychosocial working conditions during the past 12 months were more frequently observed among stroke cases. Since these factors are presumably modifiable, interventional studies targeting job
strain and emotional work environment are warranted.

Source: Jood K, Karlsson N, Medin J, Pessah-Rasmussen H, Wester P, Ekberg K. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3636

Night-shift work is associated with increased pain perception

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine whether shift workers exhibit increased perception of experimentally induced pain after working night shifts.
Methods: The study was a paired cross-over design with two sleep conditions, after at least two nights of habitual sleep and after two consecutive night shifts at work. Fifty-three nurses in rotating shift work participated.
The sensitivity to electrically induced pain, heat pain, cold pain, pressure pain and pain inhibition was determined experimentally in each sleep condition. Sleepiness and vigilance were also assessed.
Results: Night-shift work (NSW) increased the sensitivity to electrically induced pain and heat pain (P≤0.001). Relative to habitual sleep, electrically induced pain increased by 22.3% and heat pain increased by 26.5%. The sensitivity to cold and pressure pain did not change, changes relative to habitual sleep was <5% (P>0.5). Pain inhibition was 66.9% stronger after NSW versus after habitual sleep (P<0.001). Sleepiness (measured with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) increased from 4.1 after habitual sleep to 6.9 after NSW (P<0.001). Vigilance decreased after NSW, measured as a 0.03-second decrease in reaction time (P<0.005).
Conclusions: Changes in pain sensitivity after NSW is measurable with clinically relevant effect sizes and may be an important marker for studies comparing the physiological effects of different shift work schedules. Explanations for the differential effect on different pain modalities should be a focus for future studies.

Source: Matre, D., Knardahl, S., & Nilsen, K. B. (2017). Scandinavian journal of work, environment and health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3627

Évaluer les interventions de prévention des RPS - TMS

Ce guide pratique accompagne étape par étape les intervenants dans leur démarche d'évaluation. Il propose des apports méthodologiques sur l'évaluation, des exemples illustratifs et une grille regroupant les conséquences potentielles des démarches de prévention des risques psychosociaux (RPS) et trouble musculosquelettiques (TMS). Il est accompagné du " Document d'évaluation de mon intervention " que l'intervenant pourra renseigner au fur et à mesure de sa démarche.
La démarche proposée permet de mesurer un large éventail des effets qu'une intervention produit et de les analyser au regard des méthodes mises en oeuvre et de la singularité des contextes rencontrés. Elle permet ainsi de mettre en valeur toute la richesse, la diversité et la complexité des interventions de prévention. 

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=CC%2018

Workplace Bullying and Presenteeism

The Path Through Emotional Exhaustion and Psychological Wellbeing
Objective: Workplace bullying is an increasing phenomenon that concerns managers and employees. However, few studies have investigated how workplace bullying relates with work-related exhaustion and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the intervening variables of emotional exhaustion and psychological wellbeing in the direct and indirect relationships between workplace bullying and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism.
Method: In a cross-sectional study, we tested a structural equation model using web survey data of 353 workers from a service company, with the variables: workplace bullying (Quine, 1999), emotional exhaustion (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI), psychological wellbeing (GHQ-28), and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism (SPS-6). All variables presented acceptable psychometric evidence.
Results: The final model revealed a reasonable fit. Workplace bullying was significantly and positively related to emotional exhaustion, which in turn, was significantly related to the loss of psychological wellbeing. Workplace bullying, emotional exhaustion, and the loss of psychological wellbeing were negatively related to concentration (avoiding distraction). Emotional exhaustion and psychological wellbeing mediated the studied structural relationships.
Conclusions: Our study contributes to theory and practice, since occupational health professionals should be aware that burnout and the loss of wellbeing may be related to workplace bullying and that productivity loss due to presenteeism may be a warning sign. Leaders can understand the underlying mechanism that explains employees' productivity loss due to presenteeism by addressing workplace bullying and its negative relation with emotional exhaustion and wellbeing.

Source: Neto, M., Ferreira, A. I., Martinez, L. F., & Ferreira, P. C. (2017). Annals of work exposures and health.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx022

Participation des travailleurs à la gestion de la sécurité et de la santé au travail

Informations qualitatives tirées de la deuxième édition de l'enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents (ESENER-2)
Cette étude est principalement consacrée à la question de la représentation des intérêts des travailleurs dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité du point de vue des représentants eux-mêmes, de leurs collègues, ainsi que de leurs employeurs et dirigeants. Elle est basée sur des entretiens approfondis réalisés avec ces participants dans 143 établissements différents dans sept États membres de l'UE: la Belgique, l'Espagne, l'Estonie, la Grèce, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni et la Suède.
Dans la grande majorité des cas, il s'agit d'établissements qui ont participé à l'enquête ESENER-2. Ils proviennent, dans des proportions similaires, de trois grands secteurs – le secteur privé de la production, le secteur public et le secteur des services privés – et appartiennent à trois catégories de taille, à savoir aux petites, moyennes et grandes entreprises. L'examen des publications, des entretiens supplémentaires réalisés auprès d'informateurs provenant d'organisations clés et une évaluation quantitative complémentaire des données pertinentes de l'enquête ESENER-2 ont accompagné cette analyse.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/worker-participation-management-occupational-safety-and-health/view

Influence of organizational context on nursing home staff burnout

A cross-sectional survey of care aides in Western Canada
Purpose: Our study examined care aide characteristics, organizational context, and frequency of dementia-related resident responsive behaviours associated with burnout. Burnout is the experience of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Care aide burnout has implications for turnover, staff health, and quality of care.
Design and methods: We used surveys collected from 1194 care aides from 30 urban nursing homes in three Western Canadian provinces. We used a mixed-effects regression analysis to assess care aide characteristics, dementia-related responsive behaviours, unit and facility characteristics, and organizational context predictors of care aide burnout. We measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Short Form.
Results: We found that care aides were at high risk for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, but report high professional efficacy. Statistically significant predictors of emotional exhaustion included English as a second language, medium facility size, organizational slack-staff, organizational slack-space, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of cynicism were care aide age, English as a second language, unit culture, evaluation (feedback of data), formal interactions, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of professional efficacy were unit culture and structural resources. Greater care aide job satisfaction was significantly associated with increased professional efficacy.
Implications: This study suggests that individual care aide and organization features are both predictive of care aide burnout. Unlike care aide or structural characteristics of the facility elements of the organizational context are potentially modifiable, and therefore amenable to intervention.

Source: Chamberlain, S. A., Gruneir, A., Hoben, M., Squires, J. E., Cummings, G., & Estabrooks, C. A. (2017). International Journal of Nursing Studies.
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.02.024

Effort–reward imbalance at work and risk of depressive disorders

A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Objective: The aim of this review was to determine whether employees exposed to effort–reward imbalance (ERI) at work have a higher risk of depressive disorders than non-exposed employees.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies examining the association of ERI at baseline with onset of depressive disorders at follow-up. The work was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and a detailed study protocol was registered before literature search commenced (Registration number: CRD42016047581). We obtained a summary estimate for the association of ERI with risk of depressive disorders by pooling the study-specific estimates in a meta-analysis. We further conducted pre-defined sensitivity analyses.
Results: We identified eight eligible cohort studies, encompassing 84 963 employees and 2897 (3.4%) new cases of depressive disorders. Seven of the eight studies suggested an increased risk of depressive disorders among employees exposed to ERI. The pooled random-effects estimate was 1.49 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.23–1.80, P<0.001], indicating that ERI predicts risk of depressive disorders. The estimate was robust in sensitivity analyses stratified by study quality, type of ERI ascertainment and type depressive disorder ascertainment, respectively.
Conclusions: Employees exposed to ERI were at increased risk of depressive disorder. Future studies on ERI and depressive disorders should examine if this association is stronger or weaker when ERI is measured repeatedly during follow-up and with other methods than self-report or when depressive disorders are ascertained with clinical diagnostic interviews.

Source: Rugulies, R., Aust, B., & Madsen, I. E. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3632

The Cost of Work-Related Stress to Society

A Systematic Review
A systematic review of the available evidence examining the cost of work-related stress (WRS) would yield important insights into the magnitude of this social phenomenon. The objective of this review was to collate, extract, and synthesize economic evaluations of the cost of WRS to society. A research protocol was developed. Included cost-of-illness (COI) studies estimated the cost of WRS at a societal level, and were published in English, French or German. Searches were carried out in ingentaconnect, EBSCO, JSTOR, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Google, and Google scholar. Included studies were assessed against 10 COI quality assessment criteria. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. These originated from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the EU-15. The total estimated cost of WRS was observed to be considerable and ranged substantially from US$221.13 million to $187 billion. Productivity related losses were observed to proportionally contribute the majority of the total cost of WRS (between 70 to 90%), with health care and medical costs constituting the remaining 10 to 30%. The evidence reviewed here suggests a sizable financial burden imposed by WRS on society. The observed range of cost estimates was understood to be attributable to variations in definitions of WRS; the number and type of costs estimated; and, in how production loss was estimated. It is postulated that the cost estimates identified by this review are likely conservative because of narrow definitions of WRS and the exclusion of diverse range of cost components.

Source: Hassard, Juliet; Teoh, Kevin R. H.; Visockaite, Gintare; Dewe, Philip; Cox, Tom. (2017). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000069

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