Experiences of arrangements for health, safety and welfare in the global container terminal industry (2016)

This report presents the findings of a study of the experience of health and safety in container terminals operated by national and global companies in several countries. It explores indications from a previous,
preliminary study concerning workers' experiences and the effectiveness of the management systems to support their health, safety and welfare at work. It builds on the earlier findings with a more in-depth
analysis, using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. It discusses the new findings in the context of an analysis of the relationship between corporate strategies for the governance and management of occupational health and safety (OHS) and the national regulatory and socio-economic contexts in which terminals operate and such strategies are implemented.

Source: https://www.iosh.co.uk/containerterminals

Scénarios d’accidents occasionnés par une perturbation du mouvement dans les secteurs de la construction et de la métallurgie

Pour une prévention locale et diversifiée
La prévention des lésions consécutives à des heurts, des glissades, des coincements ou toute autre perturbation du mouvement au travail constitue un enjeu considérable. Cent quarante-trois récits d'accidents survenus dans les secteurs de la construction et de la métallurgie ont été analysés au moyen d'une approche probabiliste pour en extraire les scénarios récurrents. Ces récits ont été décrits par 30 facteurs génériques puis par 8 scénarios récurrents. Les perturbations du mouvement se produisaient le plus souvent alors que le travailleur manipulait un objet. Elles s'expliquent par l'intervention notamment d'incidents techniques, de coactivité ou de contraintes liées au travail collectif, soulignant le rôle de l'organisation du travail. Les facteurs/scénarios identifiés étaient plus ou moins présents (voire absents) suivant le secteur d'activité considéré. Les résultats plaident pour une prévention locale et diversifiée, croisant les logiques de production et de sécurité et recherchant un équilibre entre une conception défensive de la sécurité et une augmentation de la résilience du système.

Source: Leclercq, S., Abdat, F., Cuny, X. et Tissot, C. (2017). Pistes, 19(2).
http://pistes.revues.org/5219

Dérives de la recherche et détresse psychologique chez les universitaires

Les professeures et professeurs des universités québécoises se montrent généralement engagés dans leur travail. Pourtant, de 20 à 25 % d'entre eux révèlent avoir vécu un problème d'ordre psychologique lié à ses conditions d'exercice. Comment reconnaître ce qui peut favoriser ou compromettre la santé psychologique et l'engagement dans une carrière professorale? Comment prévenir les malaises observés et y remédier? Pour répondre à ces questions et avoir accès aux expériences se profilant derrière les statistiques disponibles, des entretiens ont été réalisés auprès de 18 groupes de membres du corps professoral ayant accepté de lever le voile sur leurs réalités. L'article présente une partie des données issues de cette démarche en portant une attention particulière à la recherche et à ses dérives. Fatigue, désillusion et détresse sont ressenties lorsque les chercheures et chercheurs doivent se conformer à un modèle unique de performance et aux règles insensées de productivité qu'on leur impose.

Source: Leclerc, C., Bourassa, B. et Macé, C. (2017). Pistes, 19(2).
http://pistes.revues.org/5155

Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression

Systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression. 
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol. 
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.

Source: Madsen, I. E., Nyberg, S. T., Hanson, L. M., Ferrie, J. E., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., ... & Chastang, J. F. (2017). Psychological medicine, 47(8), 1342-1356.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329171600355X

Climate congruence: How espoused psychosocial safety climate and enacted managerial support affect emotional exhaustion and work engagement

The alignment between espoused (saying) and enacted (doing) psychosocial safety climate (PSC; a climate for worker psychological health) is important to consider in relation to health and work outcomes. This diary study explored the interplay (moderation and mediation processes) between espoused PSC (organizational level PSC) and daily enacted PSC (operationalized in the specific domain of managerial support) and their relationships to worker psychological health (i.e., daily emotional exhaustion) and motivation (i.e., daily work engagement). In all, 545 diary data points were collected within five consecutive days from 109 secondary school teachers across 23 schools in Selangor, Malaysia. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) in a three-level model, we found espoused PSC was positively related to daily enacted managerial support. For work engagement, espoused PSC was related to work engagement through enacted managerial support. For emotional exhaustion, enacted managerial support moderated the negative relationship between espoused PSC and daily emotional exhaustion. The expected (beneficial) effects of espoused PSC were evident when high levels aligned with high levels of enacted managerial support within schools. In this case, PSC acts as a safety signal — when high espoused PSC is coupled with repeated, unequivocal and stable support (enacted managerial support), employees may feel safe to take action in their environment to protect themselves from emotional exhaustion. These findings offer new insights regarding how managers can build PSC, by valuing employee psychological health, and translating PSC into action (integrity in saying and doing), to increase psychological health and work engagement.

Source: Dollard, M. F., & Idris, M. A. (2017). Safety science, 96, 132-142.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.03.023

A two-wave study on workplace bullying after organizational change

A moderated mediation analysis
The role of organizational change in the process leading to the development of bullying has received only little attention so far. The present longitudinal study aimed at filling this gap by examining a moderated mediation model through Structural Equation Modelling where the mediating effect of psychological strain in the relationship between workload and workplace bullying is moderated by the experience of organizational change. Data were available for 141 university employees (65.2% females). The moderating role of organizational change was tested through the multi-group method by including in the analysis two groups of employees of the same organization: employees who directly experienced organizational change (e.g. change of job tasks and supervisor) and employees who were not involved in organizational change. Bootstrap test of the indirect effects provided evidence of a mediating effect of strain in the relationship between workload and workplace bullying in the group of employees who directly experienced the organizational change process. Implications and limitations of the obtained results are discussed, together with suggestions for future research.

Source: Spagnoli, P., Balducci, C., & Fraccaroli, F. (2017). Safety Science.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.05.013

The influence of risk perception on safety

A laboratory study
Although it may be expected that employee perception of risk impacts engagement in safety behavior, previous research has been equivocal. The purpose of the present study was to clarify this relationship via a more thorough measurement of risk perception. Specifically, this study investigated the value of using a risk perception measure that makes risk perception conditional on behavior, in addition to investigating cognitive and affective risk perception. Another purpose of this study was to investigate how a lack of supervisor commitment to safety affects employees' safety behaviors. Eighty individuals participated in a laboratory study in which they performed two seemingly dangerous tasks. Supervisor commitment to safety was manipulated and safety behavior was assessed using video data. Results suggest that risk perception, when framed with regard to the risk of not performing the safety procedures, is related to safety behavior, as is supervisor commitment to safety. Implications for the findings are discussed, including the need for measures that make risk perception conditional on behavior.

Source: Taylor, W. D., & Snyder, L. A. (2017). Safety science, 95, 116-124.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.02.011

Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia

A long-term follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study
The current study investigates the unresolved question about the effect of shift work and long working hours on dementia. We did not find an increased incidence of dementia among shift workers or employees with long working hours. Such working hours may lead to acute cognitive impairments but there is no strong evidence for a chronic effect eventually leading to dementia.

Source: Nabe-Nielsen, K., Garde, A. H., Ishtiak-Ahmed, K., Gyntelberg, F., Westendorp, R. G., & Hansen, Å. M. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3660

Employment Status of Depressed Individuals in an 11-Year Follow-up

Results From the Finnish Health 2011 Survey
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the employment and mental health status of persons with depressive disorders after an 11-year follow-up, and identify individual and work-related factors that predict adverse outcomes.
Methods: Two nationally representative health surveys, Health 2000 and its follow-up, Health 2011 were used, and persons with depressive disorders at baseline (n = 275) were re-interviewed after 11 years.
Results: Information on employment status was available for all 263 participants in 2011. About 15.7% had been granted disability pension by 2011, while 55.5% were employed and 18.2% on old-age pension. High job control was the only statistically significant predictor of lower probability of disability pension (adjusted odds ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.23 to 0.77). Being unmarried (adjusted odds ratio 2.99, 95% CI 1.19 to 7.52) was associated with persistent depressive disorder.
Conclusions: Job control emerged as an important predictor of long-term employment outcomes among depressed individuals.

Source: Markkula, N., Kivekäs, T., Suvisaari, J., Virtanen, M., & Ahola, K. (2017). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(7), 603-608.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001023

Managers’ viewpoint on factors influencing their commitment to safety

An empirical investigation in five Finnish industrial organisations
Managers' strong commitment to safety is a key element of a successful safety management, culture and climate. Several studies have approached managers' commitment from the employees' point of view, but research approaching commitment from the managers' viewpoint is scarce. This qualitative study aims to identify the organisational factors that hinder or promote managers' commitment to safety and to suggest organisational measures that can be applied to support managers' commitment to safety. A total of 49 managers in five industrial organisations were interviewed. In addition, a workshop for the safety professionals of the participating companies was organised to review the interview results and to suggest organisational measures to support managers' commitment to safety.
The managers identified role overload, production demands, overly formal safety procedures, external safety goals, workforce attitudes and managers' attitudes as the most common factors hindering their commitment to safety. On the other hand, the factors that promote managers' commitment to safety are increasing managers' safety awareness, influencing managers' safety attitudes, recognising managers' safety commitment, emphasising managers' safety responsibilities, developing adequate organisational safety procedures, superiors' encouragement and support, benchmarking others' safety activities, understanding the economic effects of safety, and safety improvement. The suggested organisational measures to support managers' commitment to safety include inspirational and participative management training; appropriate safety objectives; peer, superior and top management support; campaigns and competitions; employee safety training; and simplified safety procedures and reporting. The study expands on previous studies on supervisors' safety engagement and suggests practical organisational measures to promote managers' commitment to safety.

Source: Tappura, S., Nenonen, N., & Kivistö-Rahnasto, J. (2017). Safety science, 96, 52-61.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.03.007

The role of health problems and drug treatments in accidental injury at work

This report analysed risks of workplace injury arising from epilepsy, diabetes, mental health disorders, impairments of vision and hearing, disorders of balance, and certain drug treatments known to effect brain function.

Source: https://www.iosh.co.uk/medication

Towards age-friendly work in Europe

A life-course perspective on work and ageing from EU Agencies
The ageing of the European population and workforce has implications for employment, working conditions, living standards and welfare. A new report shows how information from four agencies (Cedefop, EU-OSHA, Eurofound and EIGE) can support policy-making in drawing on the agencies' expertise in their respective areas (vocational education & training, occupational safety & health, working conditions, gender issue), covering different challenges associated with the ageing workforce.

Source: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/2220

Le bore-out ou l'ennui au travail: démêler le vrai du faux

En 2015, alors que la question du burnout 1 fait la une des médias et est débattue par les pouvoirs publics, un nouveau sujet de santé au travail fait soudainement son apparition : le bore-out ou l'ennui au travail, qui ferait encore plus de victimes que le burnout. Les médias s'en font largement écho, mettant en avant à la fois la publication d'un ouvrage sur le sujet et une plainte d'un salarié contre son ex-employeur pour bore-out consécutif à une " mise au placard ". Au-delà du caractère sensationnel du sujet, que sait-on réellement sur le bore-out ? Cet article propose de faire le point.

Source: http://www.hst.fr/dms/hst/data/articles/HST/TI-DC-17/dc17.pdf

Out of sight, out of mind?

Research into the Occupational Safety and Health of Distributed Workers
Less well-defined workforce and recent changes to more flexible working patterns are introducing challenges to today's workplaces. One of these transformations is exemplified by the way many workers spend at least some of their work time working away from a main office or location. Leading the occupational safety and health of these distributed workers is challenging, due to less opportunities for face-to-face contact and potential issues of access to safety, health and wellbeing resources.
The goal of this research is to understand the roles of both OSH practitioners and line managers play, to ensure the safety and health of distributed workers.
The research has generated a toolkit for OSH practitioners to enhance development of effective line management behaviours. It toolkit provides practical awareness in the form of top tips, case studies and much more. As part of the toolkit you'll also find materials to help you identify which type of leader you are and those abilities required to manage distributed workers.

Source: https://www.iosh.co.uk/outofsight

Nurses’ occupational physical activity levels

A systematic review
Background: Nurses' physical performance at work has implications both for nurses' occupational health and patient care. Although nurses are the largest healthcare workforce, are present 24-hours a day, and engage in many physically demanding tasks, nurses' occupational physical activity levels are poorly understood.
Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to examine nurses' occupational physical activity levels, and explore how nurses accumulate their physical activity during a shift.

Source: Chappel, S. E., Verswijveren, S. J., Aisbett, B., Considine, J., & Ridgers, N. D. (2017). International Journal of Nursing Studies.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.05.006

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