How businesses and workers gain access to work health and safety information has been identified as an area of interest in the Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 2012–2022 under the action area of Health and safety capabilities: Improved work health and safety capabilities.
The report presents findings on how employers, sole traders (operators of non-employing businesses) and workers source information about work health and safety as measured by the Perceptions of Work Health and Safety Survey 2012 and the Health and Safety at Work: Your experience and costs Survey 2014. How employers provide information to their workers is also examined.
Introduction: La souffrance psychique en lien avec le travail prend de plus en plus d'importance dans les pathologies d'origine professionnelle. Or, celle-ci ne figure dans aucun tableau de maladie professionnelle reconnue par les différents régimes de sécurité sociale.
Méthode: À partir des données issues du Programme de surveillance des maladies à caractère professionnel (MCP), les taux annuels de prévalence de la souffrance psychique en lien avec le travail ont été calculés pour la période 2007 à 2012. Des régressions logistiques univariées et multivariées ont été réalisées pour tester l'association entre la souffrance psychique en lien avec le travail et l'âge, la catégorie sociale et le secteur d'activité.
Résultats: Le taux de prévalence de la souffrance psychique liée au travail était 2 fois plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes, quelle que soit l'année (3,1% chez les femmes contre 1,4% chez les hommes en 2012). Ce taux a augmenté sur la période 2007-2012, aussi bien chez les femmes que chez les hommes. L'âge et la catégorie sociale étaient fortement associés à la souffrance psychique, contrairement au secteur d'activité.
Discussion-conclusion: L'augmentation des taux de prévalence de la souffrance psychique en lien avec le travail sur la période 2007-2012 s'accompagne d'une dégradation constatée des conditions de travail et d'une médiatisation croissante de cette problématique. Les secteurs d'activité semblent impactés par la souffrance psychique au travers de leur pyramide sociodémographique.
We estimate the effect of employer downsizing on older workers' health outcomes using different approaches to control for endogeneity and sample selection. With the exception of the insrumental variables approach, wich provides large imprecise estimates, our results suggest that employer downsizing increases the probability that older workers rate their health as fair or poor; increases the risk of showing symptoms of clinical depression; and increases the risk of being diagnosed with stroke, arthritis, and psychiatric or emotional problems. We find weaker evidence that downsizing increases the risk of showing high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a measure of general inflammation. We find that downsizing affects health by increasing job insecurity and stress, but that its effects remain statistically significant after controlling for these pathways, suggesting that other mechanisms such as diminished moral and general demotivation also affect worker health. Our findings suggest that employers ought to consider action to offset the detrimental health effects of reducing personnel on their remaining (older) workers.
Results From a Pan-Canadian Survey
Objective: When workers experience domestic violence (DV) at home, impacts are felt in the workplace; however, little research is available on this topic.
Methods: We conducted an online survey regarding the impacts of DV at work.
Results: A total of 8429 people completed the survey. More than a third of respondents reported experiencing DV; among them, more than a third reported that DV affected their ability to get to work, and more than half reported that it continued at or near work. Most reported that DV negatively affected their performance. Almost all respondents, regardless of DV experience, believed that it impacts victims' work lives.
Conclusions: This research identifies the scope and impact of DV on workers and workplaces. The data should assist governments, unions, and employers to enact and evaluate proactive practices to address the impact of DV in the workplace.
Source: Wathen, C. Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer; MacQuarrie, Barbara. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2015, Volume 57, Issue 7, p. e65-e71.
The research explored farmers' perceptions of the extent to which attendance at a Farming Safety and Health Awareness Day (SHAD), established by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), had changed their awareness, attitudes and behaviour in relation to health and safety.
Using a mixture of quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) approaches provided an opportunity to explore not only how farmers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour had changed immediately after the SHAD, but also whether any observed changes were sustained three months after attending a SHAD.
Objective: To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress.
Methods: This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors.
Results: Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation.
Conclusions: By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.
Source: Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: June 2015, Volume 57, Issue 6, p. 6170-626.
Adolescent workers may not be aware that violence is a safety concern in the workplace. As part of a larger mixed-methods pilot study, investigators used a self-administered survey and individual interviews with 30 adolescent workers from a chain of food service stores in a Midwestern metropolitan area to explore experiences of workplace violence (WPV) and ways of learning WPV-specific information. Participants reported experiencing verbal and sexual harassment and robberies. Most participants reported awareness of WPV-specific policies and procedures at their workplace; the ways participants reported learning WPV-specific information varied. Findings support the need for occupational safety training to assist adolescent workers prevent and mitigate potential WPV.
Source: Smith CR, Gillespie GL, Beery TA. Workplace Health Saf. 2015.
OBJECTIVES: The current study examines and compares the relationship between both macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators, and work-related injuries among construction workers in Denmark using emergency department (ED) injury data and also officially reported injuries to the Danish Working Environment Authority (WEA).
METHODS: The correlations between ED and WEA injury data from the catchment area of Odense University Hospital during the period 1984-2010 were tested separately for variability and trend with two general macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product and the Danish unemployment rate) and two construction industry-specific indicators (gross value added and the number of employees).
RESULTS: The results show that injury rates increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions. However, the regression coefficients were generally weak for both the ED (range 0.14-0.20) and WEA injuries (range 0.13-0.36). Furthermore, although there is some variability in the strength of the relationship of the different business cycle indicators, the relationships are generally not stronger for the WEA injuries than for the ED injuries, except for general unemployment. Similarly, no substantial differences in strength of relation between industry-specific and macroeconomic indicators were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that there was no difference in the relationship between business cycle indicators, and WEA and ED injury data. This indicates that changes in reporting behaviour do not seem to play a major role in the relation between the business cycle and workplace injuries in a Danish context.
Source: Nielsen KJ, Lander F, Lauritsen JM. Occup. Environ. Med. 2015; 72 (4): 271-276.
La notion de génération représente-t-elle une façon pertinente d'aborder la question des relations entre l'âge et le travail, la santé et le parcours professionnel des salariés ? Réponse dans le nouveau numéro de la revue des conditions de travail.
The study was designed to identify any trends of injury type as it relates to the age and trade of construction workers. The participants for this study included any individual who, while working on a heavy and highway construction project in the Midwestern United States, sustained an injury during the specified time frame of when the data were collected. During this period, 143 injury reports were collected. The four trade/occupation groups with the highest injury rates were laborers, carpenters, iron workers, and operators. Data pertaining to injuries sustained by body part in each age group showed that younger workers generally suffered from finger/hand/wrist injuries due to cuts/lacerations and contusion, whereas older workers had increased sprains/strains injuries to the ankle/foot/toes, knees/lower legs, and multiple body parts caused by falls from a higher level or overexertion. Understanding these trade-related tasks can help present a more accurate depiction of the incident and identify trends and intervention methods to meet the needs of the aging workforce in the industry.
Source: Choi SD. Saf. Health Work, 2015; 6 (2), p. 151-155.
Enquêtes Conditions de travail
Ce numéro de Synthèse.Stat' présente d'une part les exigences auxquelles les salariés sont soumis, les indicateurs d'intensité du travail, d'autre part l'utilisation des technologies de l'information et de la communication.
Les résultats sont issus des enquêtes Conditions de travail. Conformément aux principes de cette enquête depuis sa création en 1978, c'est le point de vue et les connaissances du salarié sur son travail qui sont recueillis.
Les résultats sont systématiquement ventilés par sexe, âge, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, secteur d'activité, type d'employeur (distinguant les trois versants de la fonction publique).
Afin de présenter des évolutions, lorsque le questionnaire est resté à l'identique, les résultats sont fournis pour les années 1984, 1991, 1998, 2005 et 2013.
A Mixed-Methods Analysis
Importance: When clinicians work with symptoms of infection, they can put patients and colleagues at risk. Little is known about the reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) work while sick.
Objective: To identify a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why attending physicians and APCs work while sick.
Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a mixed-methods analysis of a cross-sectional, anonymous survey administered from January 15 through March 20, 2014, in a large children's hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Data were analyzed from April 1 through June 1, 2014. The survey was administered to 459 attending physicians and 470 APCs, including certified registered nurse practitioners, physician assistants, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported frequency of working while experiencing symptoms of infection, perceived importance of various factors that encourage working while sick, and free-text comments written in response to open-ended questions.
Results: Of those surveyed, we received responses from 280 attending physicians (61.0%) and 256 APCs (54.5%). Most of the respondents (504 [95.3%]) believed that working while sick put patients at risk. Despite this belief, 446 respondents (83.1%) reported working sick at least 1 time in the past year, and 50 (9.3%) reported working while sick at least 5 times. Respondents would work with significant symptoms, including diarrhea (161 [30.0%]), fever (86 [16.0%]), and acute onset of significant respiratory symptoms (299 [55.6%]). Physicians were more likely to report working with each of these symptoms than APCs (109 [38.9%] vs 51 [19.9%], 61 [21.8%] vs 25 [9.8%], and 168 [60.0%] vs 130 [50.8%], respectively [P < .05]). Reasons deemed important in deciding to work while sick included not wanting to let colleagues down (521 [98.7%]), staffing concerns (505 [94.9%]), not wanting to let patients down (494 [92.5%]), fear of ostracism by colleagues (342 [64.0%]), and concern about continuity of care (337 [63.8%]). Systematic qualitative analysis of free-text comments from 316 respondents revealed additional reasons why attending physicians and APCs work while sick, including extreme difficulty finding coverage (205 [64.9%]), a strong cultural norm to come to work unless remarkably ill (193 [61.1%]), and ambiguity about what constitutes "too sick to work" (180 [57.0%]).
Conclusions and Relevance: Attending physicians and APCs frequently work while sick despite recognizing that this choice puts patients at risk. The decision to work sick is shaped by systems-level and sociocultural factors. Multimodal interventions are needed to reduce the frequency of this behavior.
Source: Szymczak JE, Smathers S, Hoegg C, Klieger S, Coffin SE, Sammons JS. JAMA Pediatrics, 2015.
A Job Demand-Control survey
Background: The nurse stress literature reports an overwhelming culture of acceptance and expectation of work stressors, ironically linked to the control of the workplace to effectively and proactively manage stress. The stressors involved in delivering “stress management” have been well studied in nursing-related workplaces, especially in acute care settings in accordance with the Karasek Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model. However, little is known about the effects of specificity of an acute care unit and the level of qualifications on stress experienced by nurses.
Methods: A survey using the JDCS model was conducted among 385 nurses working in three different acute care units (anesthesiology, emergency and intensive care unit) from a university hospital. Specific questions explored variables such as gender, acute care units, level of qualification and working experience.
Results: Two hundred questionnaires were returned. A high level of job strain was highlighted without a gender effect and in the absence of isostrain. Nurses from acute care units were located in the high stress quadrant of the JDCS model. Conversely, other nurses were commonly located in the “active” quadrant. Independent of acute care settings, the highest level of education was associated with the highest job strain and the lowest level of control.
Conclusions: In an acute care setting, a high level of education was a key factor for high job stress and was associated with a perception of a low control in the workplace, both of which may be predictors of adverse mental health. In particular, the lack of control has been associated with moral distress, a frequently reported characteristic of acute care settings. To enhance the personal and professional outcomes of the advanced registered nurses, strategies for supporting nurses manage daily stressors in acute care are urgently required.<>
Source: Trousselard, Marion, Dutheil, Frédéric, Naughton, Geraldine, Cosserant, Sylvie, Amadon, Sylvie, Dualé, Christian, & Schoeffler, Pierre. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2015.
La situation économique des établissements où travaillent les salariés du secteur privé détermine en partie les risques psychosociaux auxquels ils sont exposés.
Les salariés d'établissements « en crise » connaissent une plus grande insécurité de l'emploi, mais aussi un travail plus intense, des marges de manœuvre réduites et des rapports sociaux plus tendus que ceux des établissements « stables » ; leur santé mentale apparaît même fragilisée.
Les salariés des établissements dits « flexibles » signalent également une intensité du travail et une insécurité économique plus élevées.
Les salariés des établissements « en croissance » déclarent logiquement moins d'insécurité économique mais aussi moins de tensions au travail, tandis que ceux des établissements « restructurés » indiquent ressentir plus d'inquiétude pour leur emploi.
A systematic literature search was carried out to investigate the relationship between quick returns (i.e., 11.0 hours or less between two consecutive shifts) and outcome measures of health, sleep, functional ability and work-life balance. A total of 22 studies published in 21 articles were included. Three types of quick returns were differentiated (from evening to morning/day, night to evening, morning/day to night shifts) where sleep duration and sleepiness appeared to be differently affected depending on which shifts the quick returns occurred between. There were some indications of detrimental effects of quick returns on proximate problems (e.g., sleep, sleepiness and fatigue), although the evidence of associations with more chronic outcome measures (physical and mental health and work-life balance) was inconclusive.
Source: Vedaa Ø, Harris A, Bjorvatn B, Waage S, Sivertsen B, Tucker P, Pallesen S. Ergonomics, 2015.
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