Bus Operators’ Responses to Job Strain: An Experimental Test of the Job Demand–Control Model

The research aim was to test the Job Demand–Control (JDC) Model demands × Control interaction (or buffering) hypothesis in a simulated bus driving experiment. The buffering hypothesis was tested using a 2 (low and high demands) × 2 (low and high decision latitude) design with repeated measures on the second factor. A sample of 80 bus operators were randomly assigned to the low (n = 40) and high demands (n = 40) conditions. Demands were manipulated by increasing or reducing the number of stops to pick up passengers, and decision latitude by imposing or removing restrictions on the Rapid Transit Bus (BRT) operators' pace of work. Outcome variables include physiological markers (heart rate [HR], heart rate variability [HRV], breathing rate [BR], electromyography [EMG], and skin conductance [SC]), objective driving performance and self-report measurements of psychological wellbeing (psychological distress, interest/enjoyment [I/E], perceived competence, effort/importance [E/I], and pressure/tension [P/T]). It was found that job decision latitude moderates the effect of job demands on both physiological arousal (BR: F(1, 74) = 4.680, p = .034, SC: F(1, 75) = 6.769, p = .011, and EMG: F(1, 75) = 6.550, p = .013) and psychological well-being (P/T: F(1, 75) = 4.289, p = .042 and I/E: F(1, 74) = 4.548, p = .036). Consistently with the JDC model buffering hypothesis, the experimental findings suggest that increasing job decision latitude can moderate the negative effect of job demands on different psychophysiological outcomes. This finding is useful for designing organizational and clinical interventions in an occupational group at high risk of work stress-related disease.

Source: Cendales-Ayala, Boris; Useche, Sergio Alejandro; Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, May 23, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000040

La transmission professionnelle: mettre à distance les idées reçues

La transmission des savoirs professionnels en situation de travail est devenue un enjeu essentiel des politiques publiques ces dernières années. Mais en entrevoit-on toutes les dimensions? Celle-ci est en effet souvent envisagée comme se jouant uniquement dans la rencontre de deux individus, un ancien et un jeune, et visant au transfert, à sens unique, de savoirs spécifiques au sein de ce binôme.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/connaissance-de-lemploi/la-transmission-professionnelle-mettre-distance-les-idees-recues

The Impact of Physical Work Demands on Need for Recovery, Employment Status, Retirement Intentions, and Ability to Extend Working Careers

A Longitudinal Study Among Older Workers
Objective: Prospectively investigating whether different approaches of physical work demands are associated with need for recovery (NFR), employment status, retirement intentions, and ability to prolong working life among older employees from the industry and health care sector.
Methods: A subsample from the Maastricht Cohort Study was studied (n?=?1126). Poisson, Cox, and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate outcomes.
Results: Perceiving physical work demands as strenuous was associated with higher NFR. Continuous physical strain was associated with being out of employment 4 years later. Employees with the highest amount of physical work demands perceived they were less able to prolong working life, although no significant associations between physical work demands and retirement intentions were found.
Conclusions: Overall, physical work demands were associated with adverse outcomes, with divergent insights for the different approaches of physical work demands.

Source: Gommans, Fleur G.; Jansen, Nicole W.H.; Mackey, Martin G.; Stynen, Dave; de Grip, Andries; Kant, IJmert. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2016, Volume 58, Issue 4, p. e140-e151.

Does Worksite Culture of Health (CoH) Matter to Employees?

Empirical Evidence Using Job-Related Metrics
Objectives: This study examines the relationships between the workplace culture of health (CoH), job satisfaction, and turnover intention. We also examined the moderating effect of job classification.
Methods: Structural equation modeling analysis was performed on data from employees of a Korean life insurance company (N=880).
Results: Workplace CoH directly influenced job satisfaction (β=0.32; P<0.001) and was indirectly associated with intention to leave. Job satisfaction was directly associated with intention to leave (β=−0.42; P<0.001). The relationship between job satisfaction and intention to leave was stronger for managerial employees than for non-managerial employees.
Conclusions: This study showed that a workplace CoH is related to job satisfaction and intention to leave. Supporting health at the workplace has implications beyond health that benefit both employees and the organization.

Source: Kwon, Youngbum; Marzec, Mary L. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: May 2016, Volume 58, Issue 5, p. 448-454.

How do different definitions of night shift affect the exposure assessment of night work?

The aim is to show how different definitions affect the proportion of shifts classified as night shifts. The Danish Working Hour Database was used to calculate number of night shifts according to eight definitions. More than 98% of the total night shifts were night shifts by use of both the reference definition (at least 3 h of work between 24:00 and 05:00) and definitions using a period during the night. The overlap with definitions based on starting and ending time was less pronounced (64–71 %). The proportion of classified night shifts differs little when night shifts are based on definitions including a period during the night. Studies based on other definitions may be less comparable.

Source: Garde AH, Hansen J, Kolstad HA, et al. Chronobiology International, 2016.

L’effet des contraintes physiques du travail sur les maladies cardiovasculaires chez les femmes

Enquête Santé et itinéraire professionnel, vagues 2006 et 2010, France
En France, les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) représentent la première cause de mortalité chez les femmes. Le rôle du milieu professionnel dans l'apparition de ces pathologies est peu documenté. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer l'effet de l'exposition aux contraintes physiques du travail sur la déclaration de MCV chez les femmes.

Source: http://www.invs.sante.fr/beh/2016/7-8/2016_7-8_7.html

Improving safety climate through a communication and recognition program for construction

A mixed methods study
We evaluated the efficacy of a novel safety communication and recognition program (B-SAFE), designed to encourage improvement of physical working conditions and hazard reduction in construction. Using mixed methods, we determined that B-SAFE led to many positive changes, including an improvement in safety climate, awareness, team-building, and communication. The study has important implications for both research and practice.

Source: Sparer EH, Catalano PJ, Herrick RF, Dennerlein JT. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2016.

An employee who was not there

A study of job boredom in white-collar work
Job boredom is an amotivational state at work, where employees lack interest in their work activities and have difficulties concentrating on them. Although recent research suggests that job boredom may concern a wide range of industries, studies investigating the experience and its emergence in white-collar work are scarce. Thereby the purpose of this paper is to contextualize job boredom by exploring the experience and its preconditions in white-collar work.

Source: Lotta K. Harju, Jari J. Hakanen, (2016). Personnel Review, Vol. 45, Issue 2, p.374-391.

Systematic review: complementary therapies and employee well-being

Background: A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear.
Aims: To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being.
Methods: We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues.
Results: We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Conclusions: Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined.

Source: Ravalier, J.M., Wegrzynek, & Lawton, S. (2016). Occupational Medicine

Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing

A literature review
Objectives: To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee's performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse events and client satisfaction) and wellbeing (including burnout, job satisfaction, absenteeism, intention to leave the job) in all sectors including healthcare.
Review methods: The search was conducted between January and March 2015. Studies were drawn from all occupational sectors (i.e. health and non health), meeting the inclusion criteria: involved participants aged ≥18 who have been working shifts or serve as control group for others working shifts, exploring the association of characteristics of shift work with at least one of the selected outcomes. Reference lists from retrieved studies were checked to identify any further studies.
Results: 35 studies were included in the review; 25 studies were performed in the health sector. A variety of shift work characteristics are associated with compromised employee's performance and wellbeing. Findings from large multicentre studies highlight that shifts of 12 h or longer are associated with jeopardised outcomes. Working more than 40 h per week is associated with adverse events, while no conclusive evidence was found regarding working a ‘Compressed Working Week'; working overtime was associated with decreased job performance. Working rotating shifts was associated with worse job performance outcomes, whilst fixed night shifts appeared to enable resynchronisation. However, job satisfaction of employees working fixed nights was reduced. Timely breaks had a positive impact on employee fatigue and alertness, whilst quick returns between shifts appeared to increase pathologic fatigue. The effect of shift work characteristics on outcomes in the studies reviewed is consistent across occupational sectors.
Conclusions: This review highlighted the complexity that encompasses shift work, but many studies do not account for this complexity. While some consistent associations emerge (e.g. 12 h shifts and jeopardised outcomes), it is not always possible to conclude that results are not confounded by unmeasured factors.

Source: Dall'Ora, Chiara, Ball, Jane, Recio-Saucedo, Alejandra, & Griffiths, Peter. (2016). International Journal of Nursing Studies, 57, 12-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.01.007

What is the preferred number of consecutive night shifts?

Results from a crossover intervention study among police officers in Denmark
Among police officers in Denmark, we studied (i) how many consecutive night shifts participants preferred at baseline; (ii) preferences regarding three intervention conditions (two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts followed by the same number of days off/day shifts: ‘2 + 2', ‘4 + 4', ‘7 + 7') at follow-up; (iii) characteristics of participants preferring each of these intervention conditions. Questionnaire data from a crossover intervention study were used (baseline: n = 73; follow-up: n = 68). At baseline, 49% preferred four consecutive night shifts. At follow-up, 57% preferred ‘4 + 4', 26% preferred ‘2 + 2' and 26% preferred ‘7 + 7'. Participants, who preferred longer spells of night work experienced that night work was less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types compared with participants who preferred shorter spells of night work. The participants' preferences are likely to be influenced by their previous shift work experience.

Source: Nabe-Nielsen K, Jensen MA, Hansen ÅM, et al. Ergonomics, 2016.

Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

A prospective study of 1876 senior employees
PURPOSE: Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement in a longitudinal study. METHODS: Data about work environment, health, and background factors came from the DANES 2008 questionnaire survey. We followed members of the Danish early retirement scheme for up to 4 years in national registers-focusing on the age range, 60-64 years, where early retirement was possible. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to analyze the rate of early retirement. RESULTS: The study included 16 psychosocial work environment factors. The following 10 psychosocial factors were significant predictors of early retirement in covariate adjusted analyses: Low job satisfaction, low influence in job, low possibilities for development, low role clarity, perceived age discrimination, low recognition from management, low workplace justice, poor trust in management, poor leadership quality, and poor predictability. No significant association with early retirement was found for work pace, quantitative demands, emotional demands, role conflicts, social community between colleagues, and trust between colleagues. CONCLUSION: Older employees with high job satisfaction, influence, possibilities for development, positive management relations, and jobs with no age discrimination remained longer at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees' decision on early retirement.

Source: Thorsen SV, Jensen PH, Bjørner JB. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2016.

A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Investigating the Impact of a Workplace Resilience Program During a Time of Significant Organizational Change

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a short-term resilience intervention as measured by the Resilience at Work (RAW) scale.
Methods: A 5-week resilience program was implemented with 28 volunteers and assessed by the 20-item RAW scale. The scale was administered electronically and participants were match paired into either a treatment or control group. Statistical analysis was conducted using a 2?×?2 group (Treatment, control) × time (pre, post) analysis of variance with repeated measures.
Results: Postintervention time point RAW total score was significantly greater in the treatment group (P?<?0.01) and statistical significance was also achieved for four of the seven subscales.
Conclusion: Employee resilience can be improved via specific educational and skills training requiring a total time commitment of just 5?hours, making this intervention feasible for most working environments.

Source: Rogerson, Shane; Meir, Rudi; Crowley-McHattan, Zac; McEwen, Kathryn; Pastoors, Rachel. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2016, Volume 58, Issue 4, p. 329-334.

Effort-reward imbalance at work and the risk of antidepressant treatment in the Danish workforce

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that high effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work is a risk factor for the onset of self-reported depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined whether ERI predicts risk of treatment with antidepressant medication in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. METHODS: We linked survey data on ERI and covariates of 4541 participants from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2000 with the Danish National Prescription Registry that includes all legally purchased prescription drugs at pharmacies in Denmark since 1995. Participants with a history of antidepressant treatment or with self-reported depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Using Cox proportional hazard analyses we examined the prospective association between ERI at baseline and incident antidepressant treatment while adjusting for potential confounders. Time of follow-up was 5 years. RESULTS: A total of 309 (6.8%) participants started antidepressant treatment during follow-up. Exposure to ERI at baseline was not related to risk of antidepressant treatment (hazard ratio: 0.91, 95% CI=0.81-1.03 after adjustment for potential confounders). LIMITATIONS: The use of antidepressant treatment as an indicator for onset of depression might have led to misclassification, because (a) antidepressants are also used to treat other conditions than depression and (b) a considerable proportion of individuals with depression are not treated with antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: ERI did not predict incident antidepressant treatment, contradicting previous findings on ERI and self-reported depression. To clarify the association of ERI with risk of depression, we recommend further prospective studies using non-self-reported measures of ERI, clinical assessments of depression, or both.

Source: Nielsen MB, Madsen IEH, Aust B, et al. Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 196, 15 May 2016, p. 248-251.

Bien-être et qualité de vie au travail, risques psychosociaux: de quoi parle-t-on ?

Pas un débat sur la santé au travail sans que les termes de bien-être au travail, de qualité de vie au travail ou de risques psychosociaux ne soient employés. Mais que recouvrent exactement ces notions? D'où sont-elles issues? À quels objectifs de prévention des risques répondent-elles? Cet article examine les spécificités, les différences et les complémentarités de ces approches.

Source: Vincent Grosjean, Sandrine Guyot. Hygiène et sécurité du travail, mars 2016, no 242.

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