A systematic review of published and unpublished activities
There are a number of published studies on workplace suicide prevention activities, and an even larger number of activities that are not reported on in academic literature. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic assessment of workplace suicide prevention activities, including short-term training activities, as well as suicide prevention strategies designed for occupational groups at risk of suicide. The search was based on Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Guidelines. The databases used for the searches were the Cochrane Trials Library and PubMed. A range of suicide prevention websites were also searched to ascertain the information on unpublished workplace suicide prevention activities. Key characteristics of retrieved studies were extracted and explained, including whether activities were short-term training programmes or developed specifically for occupations at risk of suicide. There were 13 interventions relevant for the review after exclusions. There were a few examples of prevention activities developed for at-risk occupations (e.g. police, army, air force and the construction industry) as well as a number of general awareness programmes that could be applied across different settings. Very few workplace suicide prevention initiatives had been evaluated. Results from those that had been evaluated suggest that prevention initiatives had beneficial effects. Suicide prevention has the potential to be integrated into existing workplace mental health activities. There is a need for further studies to develop, implement and evaluate workplace suicide prevention programmes.
Source: Milner A, Page K, Spencer-Thomas S, Lamotagne AD. Health Promot. Int. 2014.
Available evidence was reviewed to develop a better understanding of how to improve the management of wood dust exposure in small and medium-sized construction and manufacturing enterprises (SMEs).
There was a paucity of research, with most papers exploring the factors that broadly influence health and safety (H&S) management in SMEs.
Factors that influence SMEs' behaviours, included:
i) limited resources (particularly for small construction and wood working companies),
ii) a poor awareness of the importance of ill-health prevention,
iii) risk control advice from third parties,
iv) management/peer H&S attitudes, and
v) negative attitudes towards risk controls. Higher levels of H&S awareness and better training provisions were some of the most noteworthy differences found in large compared to small construction companies. Lone working and managing a transient workforce were challenges identified for woodworking and large construction companies respectively.
Objective: To provide empirical knowledge about the antecedents and outcomes of workaholism among municipal middle managers within the framework of the job demands–resources model.
Methods: We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data (n = 118) on job demands, job resources, work engagement, workaholism, and mental health problems.
Results: Workaholism correlated positively with both work engagement and mental health problems. Job demands affected workaholism and mental health problems more strongly than did job resources. The results indicate that workaholism does not mediate the effects of certain work characteristics on mental health problems, but rather that workaholics create excessive job demands that harm their health.
Conclusions: Preventing workaholism should be a central concern of municipal stakeholders because workaholic behavior among middle managers may harm organizational performance and employee health and middle managers' own health.
Source: Midje, Hilde H.; Nafstad, Ingunn T.; Syse, Jonn; Torp, Steffen. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: October 2014, Volume 56, Issue 10, p. 1042–1051.
BACKGROUND: The majority of day laborers in the USA are Latinos. They are engaged in high-risk occupations and suffer high occupational injury rates.
OBJECTIVES: To describe on-the-job injuries reported by Latino day laborers, explore the extent that demographic and occupational factors predict injuries, and whether summative measures for total job types, job conditions, and personal protective equipment (PPE) predict injuries.
METHODS: A community survey was conducted with 327 participants at 15 corners in Houston, Texas. Hierarchical and multiple logistic regressions explored predictors of occupational injury odds in the last year.
RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of respondents reported an occupational injury in the previous year. Education, exposure to loud noises, cold temperatures, vibrating machinery, use of hard hats, total number of job conditions, and total PPE significantly predicted injury odds.
CONCLUSION: Risk for injury among day laborers is not only the product of a specific hazard, but also the result of their exposure to multiple occupational hazards.
Source: Fernández-Esquer ME, Fernández-Espada N, Atkinson JA, Montano CF. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health, 2014.
Listening to parents
BACKGROUND: Survey research indicates that a surprising number of 12 to 14 year olds in North America engage in some form of paid work, and work-related injuries for this age group are reported at rates similar to older teens. Parents exhibit significant involvement in many aspects of their teens' work and may influence perceptions of work safety, yet few studies have explored this phenomenon from a qualitative perspective with parents of working 12 to 14 year olds.
METHODS: This paper focuses on parental perceptions and understandings of work safety based on focus groups conducted with urban Canadian parents of young teens who work for pay. Parents discussed the types of job held by their 12 to 14 year olds, the perceived costs and benefits to working at this age, and their understanding of risk and supervision on the job. A grounded theory approach was used to thematically analyze the focus group transcripts.
RESULTS: Parents in this study held favourable attitudes towards their 12 to 14 year olds' working. Parents linked pro-social moral values and skills such as responsibility, work ethic, time management, and financial literacy with their young teen's employment experience. Risks and drawbacks were generally downplayed or discounted. Perceptions of workplace safety were mitigated by themes of trust, familiarity, sense of being in control and having discretion over their 12 to 14 year olds' work situation. Further, parental supervision and monitoring fell along a continuum, from full parental responsibility for monitoring to complete trust and delegation of supervision to the workplace.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that positive parental attitudes towards working overshadow occupational health and safety concerns. Parents may discount potential hazards based on the presence of certain mitigating factors.
Source: Usher AM, Breslin C, Maceachen E, Koehoorn M, Laberge M, Laberge L, Ledoux E, Wong I. BMC Public Health, 2014; 14: 1021.
A 10-year panel study
Objectives: Empirical studies have consistently shown the negative impact of involuntary retirement on mental well-being. However, few studies have thus far investigated the degree to which post-retirement work affects late-life outcomes. The present study improves our understanding of the impact of retirement on the self-efficacy and life satisfaction among older adults by focusing on the combined impact of retirement voluntariness and participation in post-retirement work.
Methods: By using panel data on retirement behavior in the Netherlands, we estimate fixed effects and multilevel models to explain (intra-)individual changes in self-efficacy and life satisfaction over a 10-year period in which most participants made the transition to retirement.
Results: The results indicate that involuntary retirement is associated with decreases in both self-efficacy and life satisfaction in later life. Whereas involuntary retirees who participate in bridge jobs show no changes in life satisfaction, those involuntary retirees without bridge jobs experience a decline in life satisfaction. In addition, we found enhanced levels of life satisfaction for voluntary retirees in bridge employment. The association with self-efficacy was less pronounced.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the characteristics of the retirement process influence changes in mental well-being in later life. Specifically, bridge employment alleviates the negative consequences of involuntary retirement and even seems to enhance post-retirement well-being for voluntary retirees.
Source: Dingemans E, Henkens K. 2014. Scand J Work Environ Health.
Destinée à un public de chercheurs, de praticiens et de consultants, cette nouvelle revue ambitionne d'approfondir et de renouveler le regard porté sur les évolutions du travail.
La Revue des conditions de travail chemine sur deux voies :
1. La première est issue des expérimentations du réseau Anact-Aract (notamment dans les PME) et des consultants en entreprise.
2. La seconde prend appuie sur des contributions scientifiques issues des nombreuses disciplines convoquées par le travail et les conditions de son exercice.
La Revue a pour objectifs de croiser problématiques générales, acquis théoriques et connaissances issues de la pratique afin de proposer des pistes de réflexion et d'amélioration sur ce qui, aujourd'hui, conditionne la qualité du travail et de son environnement.
De quoi parle-t-on ?
Agressions verbales, physiques, attitudes méprisantes, atteintes dégradantes, déni de reconnaissance... La violence au travail, dite externe, est une réalité pour de nombreux salariés. Que recouvre exactement le terme de " violences externes " ? Quelles en sont les différentes formes ? De quels " maux " sont-elles l'expression ? Quelles préventions peut-on mobiliser ? Cet article apporte des éclairages sur le sujet.
Source: Hygiène et sécurité du travail, no 236, septembre 2014.
Objectives: To provide an overview of the health status of young US workers across four domains: functional health, physical and psychological health, health behavior, and health care utilization.
Methods: Pooled data from the 2004 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for 11,279 US workers aged 18 to 24 years, representing an estimated 16.9 million workers annually. Thirty-nine health indicators were examined and compared across nine occupational groups.
Results: Compared with other occupational groups, craft workers and laborers and helpers had the highest prevalence of risky health behaviors, including current smoking and risky drinking, as well as fewer reported visits to a primary care physician in the past year.
Conclusions: Young workers engage in risky health behaviors, and may benefit from targeted workplace interventions to mitigate the potentially negative long-term effects on health and well-being.
Source: Ocasio, Manuel A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Hollenbeck, Julie; Fernandez, Cristina A.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lin, Jenelle; Caban Martinez, Alberto J.; Kachan, Diana; Christ, Sharon L.; Sestito, John P.; Lee, David J. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: October 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 10 - p 1011–1018.
A systematic literature review of the conséquences
Workplace violence is an important health and safety issue. Healthcare workers are particularly at risk of experiencing workplace violence. Despite the research that was conducted in this domain, little is known about the consequences of being a victim of workplace violence, specifically in the healthcare sector. Therefore, this article aims to review the literature regarding the consequences of exposure to workplace violence in the healthcare sector. Sixty-eight studies were included in the review and they were evaluated according to 12 criteria recommended for systematic reviews. The studies identified seven categories of consequences of workplace violence: (1) physical, (2) psychological, (3) emotional, (4) work functioning, (5) relationship with patients/quality of care, (6) social/general, and (7) financial. Psychological (e.g., posttraumatic stress, depression) and emotional (e.g., anger, fear) consequences and impact on work functioning (e.g., sick leave, job satisfaction) were the most frequent and important effects of workplace violence. In conclusion, this paper recommends further research, particularly longitudinal studies, in order to better grasp the direct and indirect effects of workplace violence.
Source: Lanctôt N., & Guay S. (2014). The aftermath of workplace violence among healthcare workers: A systematic literature review of the consequences, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 492–501.
Les enseignements du croisement d'une approche quantitative et qualitative
Ce document propose un premier tableau statistique représentatif des dispositifs de prévention des risques professionnels mis en œuvre dans les entreprises en France au milieu des années 2000, tableau qui faisait jusqu’alors défaut.
L’exploitation des données de l’enquête REPONSE 2004-2005 dégage quatre grands types de dispositifs, qui témoignent de la diversité des acceptions que peut prendre la notion de « prévention », selon l’activité de travail et sa dangerosité, la taille des établissements et leur secteur. Cependant, l’analyse statistique des dispositifs déclarés n’épuise pas toutes les sources de cette diversité. L’observation directe auprès d’entreprises de la découpe de volaille révèle d’autres éléments de structuration des pratiques. Le jeu du droit, qu’on ne pouvait que très partiellement saisir dans l’enquête statistique, apparaît plus nettement sur le terrain. Il y est possible de suivre l’activité effective des CHSCT et l’usage qui est fait du document unique.
Mais le seuil des pratiques minimales est à rechercher dans d’autres formes d’action publique que dans le droit lui-même. L’observation des entreprises et les données statistiques révèlent l’importance du rôle des Caisses régionales de l’assurance maladie (Cram), garantes des droits à réparation. Elles assurent, par leurs actions de conseil en entreprise, la diffusion des pratiques de prévention, parallèlement à la gestion du système de tarification.
Prevalence and strategies for prevention
The report on psychosocial risks at work is a joint publication from the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) and the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound). It draws on the complementary work of the two agencies, which is reflected in their different roles. Acknowledging the complexity of the relationship between health and work, the report presents comparative information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks among workers and examines the associations between these risks and health and well-being. It also looks at the extent to which establishments take action to tackle psychosocial risks and describes interventions that can be adopted in companies. An overview of policies in six Member States is included.
Entre mesure et action
L'approche bien-être au travail voudrait que la préservation de la motivation et de l'implication des salariés soit prise en compte au même titre que leur santé. Le respect de la singularité de chacun garantirait un travail plus créatif, innovant et consensuel et favoriserait alors l'efficacité économique. Après un rappel théorique sur les notions de risques psychosociaux, d'autorégulation des systèmes organisationnels, de feed-back, deux modalités d'interventions sont explicitées en termes de méthodologie et de mise en œuvre. Ces démarches peuvent aider à résoudre des situations de blocage ou conduire à des améliorations concertées touchant à l'organisation. Le cadre non normatif retenu pour les supports au dialogue renforce chez les salariés les possibilités de développer des solutions novatrices et des manières d'agir collectivement, permettant de travailler dans un plus grand "bien-être".
Source: Grosjean V., Formet N., Althaus V., Kop J.L, Brangier É. Références en santé au travail, septembre 2014, no 139, p. 29-39.
This report examines the evidence and policy lessons that can be drawn from the findings of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) carried out in 2010. The focus is on the links between working conditions and labour market participation in the light of the EU's longstanding policy pursuit of more and better jobs. The report also assesses how the EWCS is valued by policy users and researchers, and where its further development or usage could enhance EU policy on employment and social developments.
Le workaholisme est une addiction comportementale dont certains facteurs de risque peuvent être liés à l'organisation du travail. Les études et enquêtes menées dans différents secteurs d'activité montrent que cette pathologie entraîne des conséquences pour le salarié lui-même, sa famille mais aussi son entourage professionnel. L'équipe pluridisciplinaire de santé au travail a un rôle important dans l'étude du poste de travail, le repérage du salarié workaholique, son orientation vers un réseau de soins et son maintien dans l'emploi. L'article présenté ici porte sur une revue de la littérature et sur l'interrogation de quelques médecins du travail.
Source: T. Burcoveanu, Références en santé au travail, septembre 2014, no 139, p. 143-151.
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