Working for everyone

The Government’s encouragement of extending working lives has been one of the most significant policy developments in recent years. Due to increased longevity and demographic pressures, there has been the recognition that more of the population need to be working until later in their lives to ensure economic sustainability, both for themselves and for government finances. This report presents research from the renEWL research consortium on extending working lives beyond the age of 50, and will provide an evidence base for policy makers. This is vital to ensure that these changes planned by Government are fair, effective, and targeted.
There is growing evidence of the need to extend working lives in the UK. Demographic shifts, including population ageing and increased life expectancy has meant that in a relatively short amount of time, public policy has shifted from encouraging older workers to retire earlier, to encouraging them to work past the traditional retirement age. The culmination of this policy shift has been the increase of the State Pension Age, and the commitment by the government to review it every Parliament.
For some groups of the population however, extending the length of time spent in employment is currently unrealistic. Health problems, shorter life expectancy and commitments such as informal caring mean that many drop out of the labour market before the current retirement age. Therefore, for these groups there is a need to ensure working lives are as full as possible, and to provide necessary support to ensure these groups are not unfairly disadvantaged.
It is the role of policy makers, employers, and individuals to enact these necessary changes. The extending working lives agenda intersects many policy areas, from the economy, to health and social care, to work and pensions. But policy decisions need to be informed by the latest evidence. The evidence included in this report is some of the most contemporary and in-depth research on extending working lives and enabling fuller working lives in the UK. It is indispensable to policy makers with an interest in securing a future labour force that is economically sustainable, productive, and healthy.


Night-shift work and hematological cancers

A population based case-control study in three Nordic countries
Objective: The aim of this case–control study was to assess the effect of night-shift work on the risk of hematological cancers.
Methods: The study included 39 371 leukemia, 56 713 non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 9322 Hodgkin lymphoma, and 26 188 multiple myeloma cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Sweden, and Iceland. Five controls for each case were selected from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort, matched by year of birth, sex and country. Night-shift exposure was assessed by using the NOCCA job-exposure matrix (JEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from conditional logistic regression models.
Results: Overall, night work was not associated with a risk of hematological cancers. We observed a small but non-significantly increased risk for leukemia (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.99–1.16), especially for acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.97–1.36) among workers exposed to a high level of cumulative night work exposure. Night work exposure was not associated with lymphatic cancers and multiple myeloma.
Conclusion: This study did not support associations between night-shift work and hematological cancers.

Source: Talibov, M., Pukkala, E., Martinsen, J. I., Tryggvadottir, L., Weiderpass, E. et Hansen, J. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.

Burnout risk profiles among French psychologists

The aims of this study were 1) to show that the use of different cut-off scores available in the literature can lead to erroneous conclusions, adding to the emerging literature highlighting the problems associated with its use, and 2) to propose an alternative technique − Cluster Analysis − to assess the risk of burnout as well as to identify profiles at risk of burnout.
Burnout was measured among 664 French psychologists using the French-Canadian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Dion & Tessier, 1994). Our participants were classified as high on each dimension of the MBI using different cut-off scores available in the literature and using the Cluster Analysis method.
The study showed that the use of cut-off scores can indeed be misleading as conclusions may be very different according to the cut-off used. Cluster analysis allowed us to highlight four distinct burnout risk profiles: “High risk of burnout”, “Risk of burnout through high emotional exhaustion”, “Risk of burnout through low personal accomplishment”, and “No risk of burnout”. Several variables appeared as predictors of occupational burnout such as working in a company or having several different types of contracts, showing the discriminative power of clusters. Finally, a discussion is proposed on the meaning of the identified clusters and the use of this analysis in research and practice.

Source: Berjot, S., Altintas, E., Grebot, E. et Lesage, F. X. (2017). Burnout research, 7, 10-20.

A cross-Canada knowledge transfer and exchange workplace intervention targeting the adoption of sun safety programs and practices

Sun Safety at Work Canada
Outdoor workers have a higher risk for skin cancers and heat stress. Workplaces need solutions relevant to their needs, proven to be effective in the real-world, and trialed in workplace settings. This article examines a workplace-based knowledge transfer and exchange intervention project, called Sun Safety at Work Canada. The objective was to have sun exposure included as a hazard within the workplaces' health and safety management systems. Knowledge brokers from the research team engaged intensively and supported workplaces in the municipal and electrical-utility sectors to enhance sun safety for their outdoor workers. They provided assessment and feedback, sun safety resources, and sun safety training. The adoption of sun safety programs and practices was evaluated three times, in 12 workplaces, across three Canadian provinces. The intervention, interview questions and analyses were based upon an Organization Implementation Model. This article focuses on the barriers and facilitators to the adoption of sun safety, elements of the knowledge transfer and exchange intervention, and influences from the external environment. Over 40?h of interview data with workplace champions and key informants were analyzed using matrix-based methods and thematic coding. Barriers and facilitators to adoption included: the priority given to sun exposure as an occupational hazard; the workplaces' available resources; the ability to engage key supervisors and workers; aspects of the intervention; and assistance from the knowledge brokers. The lack of provincial occupational health and safety legislation specific to ultraviolet exposure, and the regional climate also affected adoption. This intervention process is applicable to other hazards in occupational settings.

Source: Haynes, E., Kramer, D. M., Strahlendorf, P., Holness, D. L., Kushner, R. et Tenkate, T. (2018). Safety Science, 102, 238-250.

Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles
A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. In addition, we carried out a dose–response analysis to quantitatively estimate the accumulative effect of night shift work on the risk of breast cancer. A positive relationship was revealed between long-term night shift work and the risks of breast [OR = 1.316; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.196–1.448], digestive system (OR = 1.177; 95% CI, 1.065–1.301), and skin cancer (OR = 1.408; 95% CI, 1.024–1.934). For every 5 years of night shift work, the risk of breast cancer in women was increased by 3.3% (OR = 1.033; 95% CI, 1.012–1.056). Concerning the group of nurses, long-term night shift work presented potential carcinogenic effect in breast cancer (OR = 1.577; 95% CI, 1.235–2.014), digestive system cancer (OR = 1.350; 95% CI, 1.030–1.770), and lung cancer (OR = 1.280; 95% CI, 1.070–1.531). This systematic review confirmed the positive association between night shift work and the risks of several common cancers in women. We identified that cancer risk of women increased with accumulating years of night shift work, which might help establish and implement effective measures to protect female night shifters.

Source: Yuan, X., Zhu, C., Wang, M., Mo, F., Du, W., et Ma, X. (2018). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 27(1), 25-40.

Firefighter attitudes, norms, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes in an era of increased cancer risk

Firefighters' are exposed to carcinogens such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during fires and from their personal protective equipment (PPE). Recent research has shown that decontamination processes can reduce contamination on both gear and skin. While firefighter cultures that honor dirty gear are changing, little is known about current attitudes and behaviors toward decontamination in the fire service. Four hundred eighty-five firefighters from four departments completed surveys about their attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes. Overall firefighters reported positive attitudes, beliefs, and perceived norms about decontamination, but showering after a fire was the only decontamination process that occurred regularly, with field decontamination, use of cleansing wipes, routine gear cleaning, and other behaviors all occurring less frequently. Firefighters reported time and concerns over wet gear as barriers to decontamination.

Source: Harrison, T. R., Wendorf Muhamad, J., Yang, F., Morgan, S. E., Talavera, E., Caban-Martinez, A. et Kobetz, E. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene.

Quelle vulnérabilité des travailleurs européens face aux conditions de travail dégradées?

Les mutations organisationnelles et technologiques engendrent des risques de dégradation des conditions de travail susceptibles d'affecter le bien-être et la santé des travailleurs. Le projet InGRID, financé dans le cadre du programme européen Horizon 2020 pour la recherche et l'innovation, développe de nouvelles méthodes pour mieux identifier les travailleurs qui font face à ces risques.
À partir de données recueillies entre 1995 et 2015 pour les quinze pays fondateurs de l'Union européenne, ce 4-pages dresse le portrait des travailleurs les plus vulnérables au cumul de conditions de travail dégradées et illustre les différences entre pays européens.
Si, dans l'ensemble, ces pays se caractérisent par des niveaux de vulnérabilité stables, certains, dont la France et la Belgique, observent une hausse constante de la vulnérabilité. De plus, les CDD, le travail indépendant et les petites entreprises (1 à 9 salariés) sont associés à une plus grande vulnérabilité des travailleurs.


Irish Workplace behaviour study

Study that aims to establish the prevalence of negative acts in the workplace in a nationally representative sample of Irish employees. This project involved a survey of a national probability sample of employees focusing on workplace ill treatment received at least once over the previous two years.


En quoi les conditions de travail sont-elles liées au parcours professionnel antérieur?

Les conditions de travail auxquelles sont exposées les personnes en 2013 ne sont pas identiques selon leur parcours professionnel. 35,4 % des salariés considérés ont des parcours « stables » avec peu ou pas de changement d’emploi et une catégorie sociale stable dans le temps, 38 % ont des parcours « dynamiques » avec une progression professionnelle ainsi que de nombreux changements d’emploi, et 26,6 % des parcours « précaires » caractérisés par un déclassement ou des aléas de carrière.
À profession identique, les salariés ayant eu une carrière « précaire » connaissent de fortes exigences émotionnelles et un manque de reconnaissance dans leur emploi actuel, auxquels s’ajoutent plus spécifiquement pour les femmes des conflits de valeur et une insécurité socio-économique, et pour les hommes un manque d’autonomie et une plus forte pénibilité physique. Les femmes ayant vécu des parcours dynamiques connaissent également des rapports sociaux au travail plus problématiques que les femmes aux parcours stables.


Les blessures professionnelles et leurs déterminants

Mieux comprendre le rôle du secteur industriel et de la profession
L'ampleur actuelle de la morbidité et de la mortalité liées aux blessures professionnelles (c.-à-d. accidents du travail, troubles liés aux mouvements répétitifs) pèse lourd sur la productivité des travailleurs, des entreprises et de la société canadienne. Annuellement, les données révèlent qu'un Canadien sur quinze est blessé dans l'exercice de son travail, alors que les coûts économiques générés par les blessures professionnelles mortelles et non mortelles figurent parmi les principales causes contributives au fardeau économique de la maladie au Canada. Ainsi, malgré la présence de disparités importantes dans la distribution sociale des facteurs de risque liés aux blessures professionnelles, les connaissances actuelles n'ont pas permis à ce jour de vérifier et de départager la contribution relative de déterminants contextuels tels que la profession ou le secteur industriel de celle des facteurs individuels (par ex. : profil sociodémographique, style de vie, traits de personnalité, état de santé préexistant) et associés à l'environnement de travail immédiat (p.ex. : risques professionnels, nature du contrat de travail). Ces connaissances n'ont pas permis non plus d'établir la nature du rôle spécifique de l'état de santé mentale des travailleurs au regard de l'incidence des blessures professionnelles.
Le but de cette recherche était double. Premièrement, elle cherchait à établir la contribution de la profession et du secteur industriel à l'explication des blessures professionnelles. Deuxièmement, elle visait à valider un modèle explicatif des blessures professionnelles, intégrant les déterminants individuels (c.-à-d. profil sociodémographique, style de vie, traits de personnalité, et conditions chroniques de santé), environnementaux (p. ex. : les facteurs du travail tels les risques professionnels et la nature du contrat de travail, ainsi que les facteurs hors travail tels le statut marital et parental), et contextuels (c.-à-d. profession, secteur industriel) des blessures professionnelles.


Comprendre l’influence de la régulation des contraintes temporelles sur l’appropriation des principes généraux de déplacement sécuritaire des bénéficiaires par les recrues préposés aux bénéficiaires

Les préposés aux bénéficiaires (PAB) ont comme mandat de réaliser l'ensemble des activités d'assistance envers les résidents des centres d'hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) au Québec. Ils exercent une fonction indispensable dans les CHSLD, alors que le vieillissement de la population s'accentue, que les problématiques physiques et cognitives des résidents s'aggravent et que la réponse à leurs besoins se complexifie. Les PAB forment également une catégorie professionnelle fragilisée dans le réseau de la santé et des services sociaux du Québec, notamment sur le plan de la santé et de la sécurité au travail (SST). À cet égard, ils représentent dans le réseau le premier type d'emploi à risque de subir des lésions professionnelles (LP) et cumulent un nombre élevé de jours d'absence du travail pour causes de TMS ou problème psychologique.
Précisément, c'est souvent d'un « manque de temps » qu'il est question lorsque les PAB sont interrogés sur les enjeux qu'ils vivent concrètement, en situation de travail. Ils mentionnent en priorité leur incapacité à réaliser une pratique relationnelle de qualité avec les résidents. La difficulté porte sur le fait de répondre aux objectifs difficilement conciliables des CHSLD, soit de réaliser l'ensemble des activités quotidiennes de soins aux résidents exigée par l'organisation tout en assurant une qualité des services. Plusieurs écrits récents mentionnent que, pour concilier ces objectifs qui peuvent être perçus comme contradictoires, les PAB tentent de réguler leurs rythmes de travail, par le biais de l'élaboration et de l'application de stratégies spécifiques, dites « stratégies de régulation des temporalités »; celles-ci leur sont utiles pour accélérer le rythme de travail et parvenir à effectuer un nombre spécifique de tâches dans un créneau horaire limité. Selon la littérature, les PAB, loin d'appliquer les pratiques apprises en formation dans le cadre du travail réel, sont plutôt susceptibles de créer collectivement des stratégies de régulation des temporalités qui ne faisaient pas partie ou n'ont pas été transmises durant la formation initiale.


Shift work schedule and night work load: Effects on body mass index

A four-year longitudinal study
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in body mass index (BMI) between different work schedules and different average number of yearly night shifts over a four-year follow-up period.
Methods: A prospective study of Norwegian nurses (N=2965) with different work schedules was conducted: day only, two-shift rotation (day and evening shifts), three-shift rotation (day, evening and night shifts), night only, those who changed towards night shifts, and those who changed away from schedules containing night shifts. Paired student's t-tests were used to evaluate within subgroup changes in BMI. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate between groups effects on BMI when adjusting for BMI at baseline, sex, age, marital status, children living at home, and years since graduation. The same regression model was used to evaluate the effect of average number of yearly night shifts on BMI change.
Results: We found that night workers [mean difference (MD) 1.30 (95% CI 0.70–1.90)], two shift workers [MD 0.48 (95% CI 0.20–0.75)], three shift workers [MD 0.46 (95% CI 0.30–0.62)], and those who changed
work schedule away from [MD 0.57 (95% CI 0.17–0.84)] or towards night work [MD 0.63 (95% CI 0.20–1.05)] all had significant BMI gain (P<0.01) during the follow-up period. However, day workers had a non-significant BMI gain. Using adjusted multiple linear regressions, we found that night workers had significantly larger BMI gain compared to day workers [B=0.89 (95% CI 0.06–1.72), P<0.05]. We did not find any significant association between average number of yearly night shifts and BMI change using our multiple linear regression model.
Conclusions: After adjusting for possible confounders, we found that BMI increased significantly more among night workers compared to day workers.

Source: Buchvold ,H.V., Pallesen, S, Waage, S., Bjorvatn, B. (2018). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Job burnout in mental health providers

A meta-analysis of 35 years of intervention research
Burnout is prevalent among mental health providers and is associated with significant employee, consumer, and organizational costs. Over the past 35 years, numerous intervention studies have been conducted but have yet to be reviewed and synthesized using a quantitative approach. To fill this gap, we performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of burnout interventions for mental health workers. We completed a systematic literature search of burnout intervention studies that spanned more than 3 decades (1980 to 2015). Each eligible study was independently coded by 2 researchers, and data were analyzed using a random-effects model with effect sizes based on the Hedges' g statistic. We computed an overall intervention effect size and performed moderator analyses. Twenty-seven unique samples were included in the meta-analysis, representing 1,894 mental health workers. Interventions had a small but positive effect on provider burnout (Hedges' g = .13, p = .006). Moderator analyses suggested that person-directed interventions were more effective than organization-directed interventions at reducing emotional exhaustion (Qbetween = 6.70, p = .010) and that job training/education was the most effective organizational intervention subtype (Qbetween = 12.50, p < .001). Lower baseline burnout levels were associated with smaller intervention effects and accounted for a significant proportion of effect size variability. The field has made limited progress in ameliorating mental health provider burnout. Based on our findings, we suggest that researchers implement a wider breadth of interventions that are tailored to address unique organizational and staff needs and that incorporate longer follow-up periods.

Source: Dreison, K. C., Luther, L., Bonfils, K. A., Sliter, M. T., McGrew, J. H., & Salyers, M. P. (2018). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(1), 18-30.

Perception du risque infectieux professionnel dans le Bâtiment et les travaux publics

Cette étude est une exploration du risque infectieux d'origine professionnelle dans le domaine du BTP. Elle s'intéresse à la perception du risque et à sa gestion par les acteurs de prévention. L'étude comprend deux enquêtes, l'une qualitative dans une entreprise concernée par les risques biologiques et l'autre quantitative au sein d'un service interentreprises de santé au travail du BTP en 2015. Les résultats de cette étude permettent de mettre en évidence des pistes d'amélioration pour la prévention.

Source: Lanotte, M., Richomme, X., Chipier, V. (2017). Références en santé au travail (152).

Safety and health in micro and small enterprises in the EU

From policy to practice - description of good examples
This report presents a selection of case studies of successful efforts to reach out to micro and small enterprises (MSEs) to help them improve occupational safety and health (OSH). The more than 40 inspiring examples from 12 EU Member States are grouped by themes such as multi-dimensional strategies and initiatives by non-OSH intermediaries. The aim is to show that, while MSEs can struggle with managing safety and health, initiatives to improve OSH in MSEs can succeed and are transferable to different countries and sectors. By collecting and analysing these case studies, the report aims to answer the vital question ‘What works, for whom and under what circumstances?


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