Dimensions sociales et psychologiques associées aux activités minières et impacts sur la qualité de vie

L'intérêt de l'industrie et du gouvernement pour la mise en valeur des ressources minérales du territoire québécois, particulièrement sur le territoire visé par le Plan Nord, convie les acteurs de la santé publique à étudier les activités qui y sont associées et leurs répercussions sanitaires. Afin de répondre au besoin du réseau de la santé publique de mieux comprendre les répercussions sanitaires associées aux activités minières, une revue de littérature a été réalisée. Celle-ci documente les aspects des nuisances à la qualité de vie, ainsi que les effets sociaux et psychologiques chez des individus et des communautés vivant à proximité de lieux où ont cours des activités d'exploration et d'exploitation minières. Les impacts du fly-in/fly-out (FIFO) sur la santé psychologique des travailleurs miniers y sont aussi résumés. Enfin, la littérature retenue a également permis de recenser des effets sociaux et psychologiques associés à la phase de fermeture et de réhabilitation du site minier.

Source: https://www.inspq.qc.ca/publications/2318

A health economic outcome evaluation of an internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention for employees

Objective: This study aimed to estimate and evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a guided internetand mobile-supported occupational stress-management intervention (iSMI) for employees from the employer's perspective alongside a randomized controlled trial.
Methods: A sample of 264 employees with elevated symptoms of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale, PSS- 10 ≥22) was randomly assigned either to the iSMI or a waitlist control (WLC) group with unrestricted access to treatment as usual. The iSMI consisted of seven sessions of problem-solving and emotion-regulation techniques and one booster session. Self-report data on symptoms of perceived stress and economic data were assessed at baseline, and at six months following randomization. A cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) with symptom-free status as the main outcome from the employer's perspective was carried out. Statistical uncertainty was estimated using bootstrapping (N=5000).
Results: The CBA yielded a net-benefit of €181 [95% confidence interval (CI) -6043–1042] per participant within the first six months following randomization. CEA showed that at a willingness-to-pay ceiling of €0,
€1000, €2000 for one additional symptom free employee yielded a 67%, 90%, and 98% probability, respectively, of the intervention being cost-effective compared to the WLC.
Conclusion: The iSMI was cost-effective when compared to WLC and even lead to cost savings within the first six months after randomization. Offering stress-management interventions can present good value for money in occupational healthcare.

Source: Ebert DD, Kählke F, Buntrock C, Berking M, Smit F, Heber E, Baumeister H, Funk B, Riper H, Lehr D. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Whistle While You Work

Job Insecurity and Older Workers' Mental Health in the United States
We estimate the effects of job insecurity on older workers' health outcomes using an instrumental variables approach which exploits downsizing and state-industry level changes in employment. We provide evidence that job insecurity, as measured by the self-reported probability of job loss, increases stress at work, the risk of clinical depression and lowers selfreported health status. IV estimates are much larger than OLS estimates which we interpret as evidence that job insecurity which is outside the control of workers may have much larger effects on mental health. These findings suggest that employers ought to consider actions to offset the detrimental health effects of reducing personnel on their remaining (older) workers and pay attention at the stress that industry level changes in economic conditions may have on workers.

Source: https://www.cedia.ca/sites/cedia.ca/files/cahier_17_02_job_security_older_workers_mental_health.pdf

A novel tool for evaluating occupational health and safety performance in small and medium-sized enterprises

The case of the Quebec forestry/pulp and paper industry
Efforts to prevent work-related injuries have met with tangible success in industrialized countries. In Quebec, workplace accidents and occupational illness have declined sharply since the end of the 1990s. However, there is still considerable room for improvement in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Expert specialists in accident prevention in SMEs are overloaded. Their interventions are repetitive and not personalised. Few tools are available for accelerating the process of evaluating occupational health and safety (OHS) performance.
The aim of this research project was to address this deficiency by proposing a novel OHS performance evaluation tool better adapted to SMEs. For this purpose, research was carried out in two distinct phases. The first phase led to the theoretical model on which the tool is based. The second phase was carried out using an action research approach. The proposed tool was designed and improved during this phase, through field-testing and the involvement of a Quebec industrial partner.
In spite of the limitations of this research, we have succeeded in developing a new tool with software support adapted specifically for the evaluation of OHS performance in SMEs. Upon completion of the project, a tested and improved version of the tool was delivered to the industrial partner. Experts in accident prevention have found the tool to be reliable and helpful. It has accelerated the identification of deficiencies in OHS management in several SMEs and has helped specialists to develop personalized and better-focused plans of action.

Source: Tremblay, A., & Badri, A. (2018). Safety Science, 101, 282-294.

Workplace interventions to improve work ability

A systematic review and meta-analysis of their effectiveness
Objective: Extended working lives due to an ageing population will necessitate the maintenance of work ability across the life course. This systematic review aimed to analyze whether workplace interventions positively
impact work ability.
Methods: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase databases using relevant terms. Work-based interventions were those focused on individuals, the workplace, or multilevel (combination). Work ability – measured using the work ability index (WAI) or the single-item work ability score (WAS) – was the outcome measure. GRADE (grades of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation) criteria was used to assess evidence quality, and impact statements were developed to synthesize the results. Meta-analysis was undertaken where appropriate.
Results: We reviewed 17 randomized control trials (comprising 22 articles). Multilevel interventions (N=5) included changes to work arrangements and liaisons with supervisors, whilst individual-focused interventions
(N=12) involved behavior change or exercise programs. We identified only evidence of a moderate quality for either individual or multilevel interventions aiming to improve work ability. The meta-analysis of 13 studies
found a small positive significant effect for interventions on work ability [overall pooled mean 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03–0.21] with no heterogeneity for the effect size (Chi2=11.28, P=0.51; I2=0%).
Conclusions: The meta-analysis showed a small positive effect, suggesting that workplace interventions might improve work ability. However, the quality of the evidence base was only moderate, precluding any firm conclusion. Further high quality studies are require to establish the role of interventions on work ability.

Source: Oakman, J., Neupane, S., Proper, K. I., Kinsman, N., & Nygård, C. H. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Réglementer l’incidence sur la santé et la sécurité au travail de l’économie des plateformes en ligne

L'essor de l'économie en ligne constitue un défi pour la santé et la sécurité au travail (SST). Le travail sur des plateformes en ligne — c'est-à-dire assuré par l'intermédiaire, sur ou au moyen de plateformes en ligne — est caractérisé par une large gamme de formules de travail, y compris le travail occasionnel, le travail indépendant économiquement dépendant, le travail à la tâche, le télétravail et le «crowdwork».
Le présent rapport décrit les risques en matière de SST qui peuvent résulter du travail sur des plateformes en ligne, examine les difficultés que constitue l'économie en ligne à l'égard des approches réglementaires actuelles en matière de SST et propose des exemples de politiques et d'initiatives réglementaires existantes ou en passe d'être instaurées pour faire face à ces risques et défis.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/regulating-occupational-safety-and-health-impact-online-platform/view

Night Shift Work and Its Health Effects on Nurses

The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and mood changes because of working the night shift. Rotating shifts were mentioned as a major concern for night shift nurses. Respondents agreed that complaints about fatigue and fatigue-related illnesses in night shift workers were ignored. There was also a general perception among nurses working the night shift that sleep deprivation leads to negative health consequences including obesity; however, they were not as high a concern as rotating shifts or fatigue.

Source: Books, C., Coody, L. C., Kauffman, R., & Abraham, S. (2017). The Health Care Manager, 36(4), 347-353.

Have mobile devices changed working patterns in the 21st century?

A time-diary analysis of work extension in the UK
It is commonly claimed that ubiquitous connectivity erodes the boundaries that once separated work from other aspects of life. Mobile devices in particular enable people to perform work-related activities anytime anywhere. Surprisingly, however, we know little about how people nationwide organise their daily working time over a period that has witnessed rapid technological change. Using the United Kingdom Time Use Surveys 2000 and 2015, covering this period of technological change, we studied work extension practices, and the links between work extension, total work hours and subjective time pressure. We found a significant, though small, increase in work extension, and evidence that it was significantly associated with time pressure in 2015, but not in 2000. Additionally, work extension increased total work hours, which was concentrated entirely in time working with a mobile device. We discuss our results in light of some taken-for-granted narratives about mobile devices allowing work to colonise life.

Source: Mullan, K., & Wajcman, J. (2017). Work, Employment and Society.

Analyse comparative du contexte de travail et portrait statistique des problèmes de santé et sécurité au travail en fonction de la taille des entreprises

Selon Statistique Canada, 33,1 % des salariés québécois et 31,3 % des salariés canadiens travaillaient dans les petites entreprises de 49 employés et moins en 2015. Les petites entreprises constituaient 95 % de l’ensemble des établissements employeurs au Québec et au Canada en 2016. Plusieurs résultats scientifiques internationaux documentent le fait que le contrôle des risques dans les petites entreprises est moins efficace que dans les moyennes et les grandes entreprises et que le risque d’accidents et de maladies professionnelles pour la main-d’œuvre y est plus élevé. En particulier, on observe que le manque de ressources internes des petites entreprises résulte en des capacités réduites et exerce un effet sur les conditions de travail et de sécurité, ainsi que sur la prise en charge de la santé et sécurité du travail (SST).

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100952/n/problemes-sante-securite-au-travail-taille-entreprises

Suicide among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers

A systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Objectives: This review aimed to quantify suicide risk among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers and study potential variations of risk within this population.
Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis from 1995 to 2016 using MEDLINE and following the PRISMA guidelines. A pooled effect size of suicide risk among the population of interest was calculated using meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate whether effect size differed according to population or study characteristics. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity.
Results: The systematic review identified 65 studies, of which 32 were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled effect size was 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–1.68] representing an excess of suicide risk among the population of interest. Subgroup analysis showed that this effect size varied according to geographic area, with a higher effect size in Japan. The following study characteristics were found to contribute to the between-study variance: reference group, measure of effect size, and study design.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest an excess of suicide risk among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers and demonstrated that this excess may be even higher for these groups in Japan. This review highlights the need for suicide prevention policies focusing on this specific population of workers. More research is also needed to better understand the underlying factors that may increase suicide risk in this population.

Source: Klingelschmidt J., Milner A., Khireddine-Medouni I., Witt K., Alexopoulos E.C., Toivanen S., LaMontagne A.D., Chastang J-F., Niedhammer I. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Associations Between Age, Psychosocial Work Conditions, Occupational Well-Being, and Telomere Length in Geriatric Care Professionals

A Mixed-Methods Study
Objective: We identified associations between age, psychosocial work characteristics, occupational well-being, and—as a measure of biological age—leukocyte telomere length in geriatric care professionals.
Methods: This is a multisource study of self-reports on psychosocial work characteristics, standardized physician's evaluations of health, and relative telomere length measures of peripheral blood leukocytes. We included 141 geriatric care professionals. Telomere length was assessed by an improved polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method.
Results: Increased depersonalization was associated with shorter telomeres. Their association with age was not moderated by psychosocial work conditions. There was, however, a significant three-way interaction of social support and work ability with the age–telomere association. Additionally, social support and adverse general health moderated the age–telomere length relationship.
Conclusions: A supportive work environment and work-related health may influence the association between age and telomere length.

Source: Chmelar, C., Jörres, R. A., Kronseder, A., Müller, A., Nowak, D., & Weigl, M. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(10), 949-955.

The longitudinal association between multiple job holding and long-term sickness absence among Danish employees

An explorative study using register-based data
Purpose: Multiple job holding (MJH) is common in many countries, but little is known about its (health) consequences. Our aim is to explore the longitudinal association between MJH and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among Danish employees.
Methods: We included employees (N = 8968) who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), based on a representative sample of the Danish working population. Three dichotomous independent variables were created: MJH in general, combination MJH (i.e. second job as employee) and hybrid MJH (i.e. self-employed in second job). LTSA (≥5 weeks) was measured using the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization during 78 weeks of follow-up. Potential confounders included demographics, health, and work characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study whether LTSA was associated with MJH in general, combination MJH, and hybrid MJH. Interaction effects for gender, age, total working hours per week (≤37 or >37 h a week), and shift work were tested.
Results: In total, 11.7% (N = 1048) of the respondents reported having multiple jobs and 7.6% (N = 678) experienced LTSA during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, no significant association between LTSA and MJH in general (OR = 0.82), combination MJH (OR = 0.81), or hybrid MJH (OR = 0.83) was found. Among employees working more than 37 h per week, combination MJH was associated with a higher likelihood of LTSA (OR = 1.50).
Conclusions: We did not find evidence for an increased likelihood of LTSA among multiple job holders. Future research should study the likelihood of LTSA among subgroups of multiple job holders, e.g. those working long hours.

Source: Bouwhuis, S., Garde, A.H., Geuskens, G.A. et al. (2017). Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 90 (8), 799.

Structural equation model of integrated safety intervention practices affecting the safety behaviour of workers in the construction industry

Fatality rates at workplaces in the construction industry are high compared to other industries. Tremendous effort is required to strive towards zero accidents. Managing foreign workers with different cultural backgrounds at the workplace requires appropriate safety intervention practices to improve workers' safety behaviour. Based on the literature, the importance of safety intervention for changing unsafe to safe worker behaviour is known. For this reason, an integrated safety intervention model affecting workers' safety behaviour was developed and tested. This study was conducted by distributing a questionnaire survey to construction companies. The survey was randomly distributed, with a total of 198 responses received. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to confirm the three safety intervention constructs. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to identify the most significant intervention-related safety practices, which are to be the focus in handling safety management. The results indicate that technical intervention has a positive influence by management and human intervention. In addition, an improvement in workers' safety behaviour can be achieved by focusing on the technical intervention with five important safety practices: workplace safety inspections, personal protective equipment (PPE) programmes, safety equipment availability and maintenance, safe work practices, and safety permits. These findings attempt to help construction management by identifying the appropriate selection of safety practices with specific interventions to improve workers' safety behaviour.

Source: Zaira, M. M., & Hadikusumo, B. H. (2017). Safety science, 98, 124-135.

Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

Objective: It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to
prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.
Method: The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.
Results: Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which
are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the Professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.
Conclusion: Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which
are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

Source: Anund A, Ahlström C, Fors C, Åkerstedt T. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Job Complexity, Race, and Socioeconomic Status

Examining Health Disparities from an Occupational Perspective
Research conducted in the United States on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic status (SES) has not fully considered occupation. Because racial and ethnic groups are not represented equally in all occupations, differences in job characteristics may help explain racial/ethnic health disparities.  Two recent studies by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) explore job complexity as a factor that contributes to racial health disparities.

Source: https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2017/10/05/job-complexity/

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