Shift work and mental health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Shift work is common. However, research findings are mixed regarding the impact of shift work on mental health. This systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive summary of existing research examining the association between different types of shift work and mental health. The review included large-scale, non-occupation-specific research.
Methods: Four electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched to identify studies that reported on the statistical association between shift work and mental health and that used population-based samples. Two reviewers extracted information about study characteristics and data on the association between shift work and mental health. A meta-analysis was performed for longitudinal studies adopting a ‘broad binary' measure of shift work.
Results: Thirty-three studies were included in the final review—10 cross-sectional studies, 22 longitudinal studies, and 1 study that included both. Findings were grouped based on whether the measure of shift work focussed on: (1) night/evening work, (2) weekend work, (3) irregular/unpredictable work schedule, or (4) a broad binary measure. There was a reasonable level of evidence that overall, when a broad binary measure was adopted, shift work was associated with poorer mental health—this finding was supported by the meta-analysis results. There was also some evidence that irregular/unpredictable work was associated with poorer mental health. There was less evidence for night/evening and minimal evidence for weekend work. Inconsistencies in study methodology, limited contrasting and combining the results.
Conclusions: The association between shift work and mental health is different across types of shift work. The evidence is strongest for a broad binary, general measure of shift work and for irregular or unpredictable shift work. There is a need for continued research that adopts consistent and clear measures of shift work.

Source: Zhao, Y., Richardson, A., Poyser, C., Butterworth, P., Strazdins, L. et Leach, L. S. (2019). International Achives of Occupational and Environmental Health.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-019-01434-3

Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees

This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity and poor working conditions. Most recent immigrants and refugees had little knowledge about their rights at work and were not sure what to do when mistreated or were asked to do something unsafe at work. The settlement and employment programs that included occupational health and safety information were not systematic and were hindered by a lack of consistent funding and diffusion of responsibility. We identify optimal points in the settlement process where information can be provided, and some of the roles that can be played most effectively by service agencies, regulatory bodies, and employers.

Source: Kosny, A., Yanar, B., Begum, M., Al-khooly, D., Premji, S., Lay, M. A. et Smith, P. M. (2019). Journal of International Migration and Integration.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-019-00685-w

Organisational climate and employee health outcomes: A systematic review

Organisational climate, particularly safety climate, has been documented as a crucial element in promoting occupational health and safety. However, most previous studies have focused more on safety issues (e.g., injuries and accidents) rather than health outcomes (e.g., illnesses, stress, etc). A comprehensive review is also lacking in relation to understanding the organisational climate–health relationship between different levels of analysis, different data sources and different analytical procedures. We conducted a systematic review to investigate previous scholarly contributions to organisational climate and health. The reviewed articles were obtained from three databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and EBSCOHost Academic Premier Search. After reading the abstracts and full texts, we included 56 articles in our review. We found that the influence of organisational climate on employee health has been supported in prior research. However, hypotheses at the individual level are more frequently supported than those at the organisational level. Even though most studies analysed self-reported data and, thus, possibly suffered from common method bias, half of the studies were explicitly or implicitly trying to reduce the bias. Studies with and without remedies for reducing common method bias yielded similar results, suggesting that common method bias has little impact on organisational climate research. Overall, almost no differences were found among the different organisational climate constructs. The current review includes several recommendations for future research.

Source: Loh, M. Y., Idris, M. A., Dormann, C. et Muhamad, H. (2019). Safety Science, 118, 442-452.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.052

Les salariés utilisent-ils les outils de prévention des risques professionnels ?

Près de neuf salariés sur dix reçoivent des informations sur les risques que leur travail fait courir à leur santé ou à leur sécurité, notamment via des formations spécifiques ou lors de visites avec un médecin du travail. Cependant, les femmes en bénéficient moins souvent que les hommes, comme si les risques qui les concernaient étaient moins visibles. Les consignes de sécurité et les équipements de protection individuelle contre le bruit ou les risques chimiques ne sont pas toujours bien utilisés, notamment quand l’intensité du travail est élevée et le rythme des changements très rapide.
Parmi les salariés les plus exposés, 38 % sont dans une situation de prévention défaillante : 6 % n’ont ni information ni consigne, 19 % ne peuvent pas appliquer les consignes et 19 % n’ont pas des équipements de protection suffisants. Les mesures de prévention sont mieux appliquées quand l’établissement tient des réunions régulières de service, suit des normes de qualité ou dispose d’un comité d’hygiène, de sécurité et des conditions de travail (CHSCT).

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/dares_analyses_salaries_outils_prevention_risques_professionnels.pdf

Ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes : quels liens avec le temps partiel ?

La ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes et la concentration du temps partiel dans les métiers féminisés questionnent sur les rôles respectifs des facteurs liés à la demande et à l'offre de travail. Les femmes et les hommes exercent-ils des métiers différents en raison de leurs préférences et attitudes différenciées ou plutôt en raison de mécanismes de sélection sur le marché du travail ? Les femmes exercent-elles de façon privilégiée certaines professions parce qu'elles leur offrent la possibilité de travailler à temps partiel ou est-ce plutôt parce que les femmes exercent majoritairement certaines professions que le temps partiel y est plus répandu ?
L'exploitation des enquêtes Emploi de l'Insee de 2013 à 2016 atteste d'une ségrégation sexuée importante en France : plus d'une femme sur quatre devrait échanger sa profession avec un homme pour parvenir à une distribution équilibrée de chaque

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/dares_etudes_segregation_professionnelle_femmes_hommes_temps_partiel.pdf

Le présentéisme au travail. Mieux évaluer pour mieux prévenir

Le présentéisme au travail, ou le fait de venir travailler alors que l'on est malade, est un phénomène rarement étudié en France car sa mesure de grande échelle était impossible jusqu'à récemment. Dans ce document de travail, nous utilisons les données de l'enquête Conditions de Travail 2013, première enquête nationale en population générale permettant une mesure du phénomène afin d'évaluer les déterminants de sa durée sur une année. Déterminer les caractéristiques de l'emploi qui favorisent le présentéisme permet d'orienter les pratiques permettant de le limiter. En effet, la littérature a montré que ce phénomène entraînait des pertes importantes pour l'employeur comme l'employé, en termes de productivité d'une part, de bien-être et de santé d'autre part.
À l'aide de modèles de comptage, nous montrons que le présentéisme est un phénomène assez marqué en termes de qualité de vie au travail. En effet, il est positivement corrélé d'abord à une charge de travail élevée, à de fortes contraintes de temps, de rythme ; ensuite, il est aussi lié à l'absence d'autonomie, de latitude décisionnelle. De surcroît, le soutien des collègues et des superviseurs, qui vient parfois atténuer la combinaison délétère charge de travail-faible latitude décisionnelle, apparaît limiter également la durée du présentéisme.
Si la réduction du phénomène de présentéisme est un objectif pour les organisations productives, ces résultats suggèrent que les employeurs devraient considérer comment limiter la charge de travail imposée aux salariés et leur concéder une véritable autonomie de décision dans l'organisation de leur travail au jour le jour.
De plus, l'insécurité du travail est également corrélée au présentéisme des travailleurs, tandis qu'au contraire les indicateurs d'un travail intéressant, comme d'un travail bien reconnu, les incitent à s'absenter lorsqu'ils sont malades.
Enfin, cette étude montre également qu'une part importante de l'influence des conditions et du vécu au travail sur le présentéisme peut avoir un effet délétère sur la santé des travailleurs. Néanmoins elle ne permet pas déterminer le sens de causalité entre santé et présence au travail mais il s'agit d'une piste importante de recherche future.

Source: http://ceet.cnam.fr/publications/documents-de-travail/le-presenteisme-au-travail-mieux-evaluer-pour-mieux-prevenir-1094542.kjsp

Effectiveness of occupational e-mental health interventions

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of occupational e-mental health interventions aimed at stress, depression, anxiety, burnout, insomnia, mindfulness, well-being, and alcohol misuse and their potential treatment moderators.
Methods: We systematically reviewed randomized control trials published in English using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL) and three register trials. A pooled effect size for each mental health area was calculated using random-effects modelling. For each meta-analysis, we conducted an analysis of potential moderators (ie, type of recruitment, age, gender, initial psychological symptoms, guidance, therapy type, and study quality).
Results: In total, 50 studies were included in the systematic review, and 34 studies were included in the metaanalyses. We noted moderate treatment effects on stress (Hedges’g=0.54), insomnia (g=0.70), and burnout
(g=0.51) and small treatment effects on depression (g=0.30), anxiety (g=0.34), well-being (g=0.35), and mindfulness (g=0.42). The pooled effect on alcohol intake was small and nonsignificant.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that occupational e-mental health interventions are associated with significant health improvements. However, more research is required to understand which factors contribute to the variation in effectiveness of particular interventions depending on the mental health area and characteristics of participants and interventions.

Source: Phillips, E. A., Gordeev, V. S. et Schreyögg, J. (2019). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.383910.5271/sjweh.3839

Effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for the prevention of depression in the workplace

A systematic review and meta-analysis
Objectives :Psychological and educational interventions for the prevention of depression have a small-to-moderate effect. However, little is known about their effectiveness in the workplace. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT).
Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CIS-DOC and Open Grey for RCT. Search was supplemented with manual searches of reference lists of relevant meta-analyses and trials. We included RCT that assessed either the incidence of depression or the reduction of depressive symptoms, which excluded participants with baseline depression. Measurements were required to have been made using validated instruments and participants recruited in the workplace. Independent evaluators selected studies, evaluated risk bias (Cochrane Collaboration's tool) and extracted from RCT. The combined OR was estimated using the fixed-effects model. Heterogeneity was measured by I2 and Cochrane's Q.
Results: Of the 1963 abstracts reviewed, 69 were selected for review in fulltext. Only three RCT met our inclusion criteria, representing 1246 workers from three different countries and continents. The combined odds ratio was 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.60, P=0.002]; I2=0% and Q=0.389 (P=0.823). The risk of bias was low in one RCT and moderate and high in the other two, respectively.
Conclusion: Psychological or educational interventions in the workplace may prevent depression, although the quality of evidence was low.

Source: Bellón, J. A., Conejo-Cerón, S., Cortés-Abela, C., Pena-Andreu, J. M., García-Rodríguez, A. et Moreno-Peral, P. (2019). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 35(1),7-18.
https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3791

Psychosocial Work Conditions and Mental Health: Examining Differences Across Mental Illness and Well-Being Outcomes

Objectives: Psychosocial work conditions are determinants of mental illness among worker populations. However, while the focus on negative aspects of mental health has generated important contributions to the development of workplace interventions, there is less evidence on the factors that support the positive aspects of mental well-being. This study aimed to examine the association between psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes among a representative sample of Canadian workers; and to assess whether the relationships are consistent across measures of mental illness versus mental well-being.
Methods: Population-based data were obtained from the cross-sectional 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. Psychosocial work conditions were measured using an abbreviated version of the Job Content Questionnaire. For mental illness, we focused on major depressive episodes, generalized anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders in the past 12 months, as measured using Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria. Mental well-being was defined as having flourishing mental health, based on items from the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. Regression models provided odds ratios (ORs) and fitted probabilities for the relationship between work conditions and mental health, adjusting for covariates.
Results: Higher levels of job control, social support, and job security were associated with being free of disorders (ORs ranging from 1.08 to 1.15) as well as having flourishing mental health (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 1.14). Lower physical effort was associated with decreased odds of having flourishing mental health (OR 0.89). Psychological demands were not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. The overall pattern of these relationships was consistent across the two outcome models, although there was evidence of heterogeneity on the absolute probability scale. Specifically, there was a relatively stronger relationship between job control/social support/physical demands and well-being outcomes, compared with disorder outcomes.
Conclusions: Psychosocial work conditions were associated with both negative and positive measures of mental health. However, mental illness and mental well-being may represent complementary, yet distinct, aspects in relation to psychosocial work conditions. Interventions targeting the psychosocial work environment may serve to improve both of these dimensions, although the measurement and examination of specific dimensions may be required to obtain an integrated and comprehensive understanding of mental health in the workplace.

Source: Fan, J. K., Mustard, C. et Smith, P. M. (2019). Annals of work exposures and health, 63(5), 546-559.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz028
Quels liens entre les actions de prévention et le maintien en emploi des personnes à santé fragile ?

Les salariés qui sont en emploi en 2013 et qui présentent une santé altérée sont 83 % à être en emploi trois ans plus tard, contre 89 % des personnes en bonne santé.
Comme pour les salariés en bonne santé, les plus diplômés et les fonctionnaires ont plus de chances e se maintenir en emploi malgré une santé altérée que les salariés moins diplômés ou en contrat de droit privé (CDD, CDI).
Avoir connu très peu d'interruptions de carrière pour inactivité, ou encore avoir de bons rapports sociaux dans son travail, sont des facteurs favorables au maintien en emploi des salariés à la santé altérée. De même, les salariés qui, en 2013, avaient bénéficié récemment d'une visite auprès d'un médecin du travail, sont plus nombreux à se maintenir en emploi en 2016 malgré des problèmes de santé.

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/dares-etudes-et-statistiques/etudes-et-syntheses/dares-analyses-dares-indicateurs-dares-resultats/article/quels-liens-entre-les-actions-de-prevention-et-le-maintien-en-emploi-des

Stressful by design: Exploring health risks of ride-share work

Introduction: For-hire driving work, such as taxi driving, is characterized by long hours of sedentary behaviour, passenger assault, lack of benefits or support, and isolating working conditions that jeopardize good health. The for-hire driving industry has recently expanded to include a new group of ride-share drivers from digital platforms such as Uber and Lyft; this has substantially increased the number of people engaged in for-hire driving. However, there is very little existing research on ride-share drivers' health and safety in relation to their work, and no research on the Canadian context.
Methods: This paper draws from a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and focus groups with ride-share drivers and passengers, taxi drivers, taxi and ride-share managers, and other industry key informants in a large Canadian city. This paper focuses on ride-share drivers' health risks on the job.
Results: This study finds that ride-share drivers face physical and mental health risks resulting from ride-sharing work that are distinct to ride-share work, as well as ones similar to taxi driving and other transportation work. We find that the nature of the work is stressful by design: ride-share drivers face regular stressors and pressures from passengers, such as to speed and drive young children without proper booster seats. They also describe weight gain and muscle pain.
Conclusion: As greater numbers of passengers opt for ride-share transportation and more people take up ride-share work, understanding potential short- and long-term health implications is an important area of inquiry. Understanding the working conditions of ride-share drivers can support the development of appropriate policy and practice tools to improve ride-share drivers' health and safety.

Source: Bartel, E., MacEachen, E., Reid-Musson, E., Meyer, S. B., Saunders, R., Bigelow, P., ... et Varatharajan, S. (2019). Journal of Transport & Health, 14.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2019.100571

Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees

This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity and poor working conditions. Most recent immigrants and refugees had little knowledge about their rights at work and were not sure what to do when mistreated or were asked to do something unsafe at work. The settlement and employment programs that included occupational health and safety information were not systematic and were hindered by a lack of consistent funding and diffusion of responsibility. We identify optimal points in the settlement process where information can be provided, and some of the roles that can be played most effectively by service agencies, regulatory bodies, and employers.

Source: Kosny, A., Yanar, B., Begum, M., Al-khooly, D., Premji, S., Lay, M. A. et Smith, P. M. (2019). Journal of International Migration and Integration.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-019-00685-w

Troubles musculosquelettiques et risques psychosociaux dans une population de conducteurs ambulanciers hospitaliers

Objectif: L'objectif de notre étude a été de déterminer la prévalence des TMS et des RPS au sein d'une population de conducteurs ambulanciers (CA) d'un centre hospitalier public et d'évaluer les liens entre eux.
Méthodologie: Nous avons étudié une population de 65 agents de la Fonction publique, à l'aide d'un hétéro-questionnaire tiré du guide des bonnes pratiques de l'INRS. Les caractéristiques générales des sujets, les plaintes liées aux TMS, le vécu au travail et les facteurs potentiels de RPS ont été étudiés.
Résultats: Au total 61 des 65 agents ont participé à l'étude. Plus des trois-quarts des agents présentent des symptômes de TMS, plus des deux tiers rapportent l'existence d'au moins un épisode douloureux par semaine et plus de 90 % au moins une fois par mois. Plus de la moitié des CA présente au moins une localisation douloureuse d'intensité « forte ». Les troubles les plus fréquemment rencontrés sont les lombalgies basses alléguées par près de trois-quarts des agents ; viennent ensuite les cervicalgies qui concernent un tiers des agents, puis les douleurs des épaules (20 %). Près de 80 % des CA disent devoir travailler vite « parfois ou souvent », et près des trois-quarts signalent être « souvent » soumis à des contraintes de délai. Environ 90 % estiment ne pouvoir moduler que « rarement » leur quantité de travail, et les deux tiers « jamais ». Moins de la moitié des agents peuvent compter ou même discuter facilement avec leur hiérarchie, alors qu'ils sont plus des trois-quarts à pouvoir le faire avec leurs collègues.
Conclusion: L'association entre sollicitations physiques et psychologiques suggère que l'apparition de troubles musculosquelettiques chez les chauffeurs-ambulanciers hospitaliers est fortement impactée par la présence de risques psychosociaux.

Source: Solitaire, C. et Martin, F. (2019). Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement, 80(3), 191-198.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.admp.2019.01.006

The impact of night shift work on breast cancer

Results from the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Canada Study
Background: We estimated the proportion and number of female breast cancer cases in Canada attributable to night shift work, a probable cause of breast cancer.
Methods: Levin's equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) among Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts from 1961 to 2000, accounting for labor turnover and survival to the year 2011. The calculated PAFs were applied to 2011 Canadian breast cancer incidence statistics to obtain the number of attributable cases.
Results: Approximately 1.5 million women ever worked night/rotating shifts during 1961-2000 and survived to 2011. The PAFs ranged from 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-6.2) to 5.2% (95% CI: 3.7-13.6), and 470 to 1200 incident breast cancer cases in 2011 were likely due to shift work, of which 38% would have been diagnosed among women in health-related occupations.
Conclusions: More research is needed to increase the certainty of this association, but current evidence supports workplace-based prevention.

Source: Pahwa, M., Labrèche, F., Kim, J., Harris, M. A., Song, C., Peters, C. E., ... et Demers, P. A. (2019). American Journal of Industrial Medicine.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22999

Le rôle futur des mégadonnées et de l’apprentissage automatique dans l’amélioration de l’efficacité des inspections de santé et de sécurité

Cet article examine la manière dont les inspections du travail pourraient utiliser les mégadonnées afin de déterminer efficacement les cibles des inspections de santé et de sécurité. Il expose la manière dont les autorités déterminent actuellement les objets des inspections et utilisent les nouvelles technologies numériques afin de recenser les entreprises à haut risque.
L’article passe en revue des exemples de technologies pertinentes mises en pratique, notamment un outil développé par l’Autorité de l’inspection du travail norvégienne qui semble cibler les entreprises à haut risque avec un degré de précision considérable.
Il recense les défis à relever et conclut qu’une association de l’intelligence artificielle et de l’intelligence humaine sera probablement la solution idéale pour le ciblage fondé sur les risques.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/future-role-big-data-and-machine-learning-health-and-safety/view

Clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of work-related mental health conditions in general practice

Work related mental health conditions are the second most common cause of workers’ compensation, however, these conditions are typically challenging to diagnose and treat. In Australia, most injured workers seek care from their general practitioner (GP).
The Clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of work-related mental health conditions (the Guideline) has been developed to assist GPs with the diagnosis and management of work-related mental health conditions. The guideline recommendations were approved by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in late 2018. It is endorsed by the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) and the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM).

Source: https://www.monash.edu/medicine/spahc/general-practice/work-related-mental-health-guideline

Working conditions and workers' health

This report uses European Working Conditions Survey data to examine working conditions and their implications for worker's health. Ensuring the sustainability of work in the context of ageing populations implies a greater number of people in employment who can remain in the workforce for longer. The report examines the interplay between work demands – which carry an increased risk of exhaustion – and work resources – which support workers in greater engagement and well-being. The findings indicate that physical risks have not increased but remain important, while emotional demands have increased, underlining the growing importance of psychosocial risks at work. Changes over time suggest that although the risk of poor health is concentrated in certain occupations, those occupations traditionally considered to be protected are increasingly exposed to risks that are likely to affect workers' health and well-being.

Source: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/fr/publications/report/2019/working-conditions-and-workers-health

Healthy working time arrangements for healthcare personnel and patients

A systematic literature review
Background: A number of working time arrangements have been linked to negative consequences for both health personnel and their patients. A common hypothesis put forth to explain these findings suggests that certain working time arrangements lead to negative patient consequences due to the adverse impact they have on employee health. The purpose of this study is to use systematic reviews to investigate whether employee health explains the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety.
Methods: A systematic literature review was performed including published reviews and original studies from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cinahl and Web of Science investigating working time arrangements for healthcare personnel, employee health and patient safety. In addition, we screened reference lists of identified reviews. Two reviewers independently identified relevant publications according to inclusion criteria, extracted findings and assessed quality.
Results: Six thousand nine hundred thirty papers were identified, of which 52 studies met our criteria. Articles were categorized into five groups according to how they approached the research question: 1) independent analyses of relationship between working time arrangements and employee health, and of working time arrangements and patient safety (5 studies); 2) relationship between working time arrangements on both employee health and patient safety (21 studies); 3) working time arrangements and employee health as two explanatory variables for patient safety (8 studies); 4) combinations of the above analyses (7 studies); 5) other relevant studies (5 studies). Studies that find that working time is detrimental to employee health, generally also find detrimental results for patient safety. This is particularly shown through increases in errors by health personnel. When controlling for employee health, the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety is reduced, but still significant.
Conclusions: Results suggest that employee health partially (but not completely) mediates the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety. However, there is a lack of studies directly investigating employee health as a mediator between working time arrangements and patient safety. Future studies should address this research gap.

Source: Bernstrøm, V. H., Alves, D. E., Ellingsen, D. et Ingelsrud, M. H. (2019). BMC health services research, 19(1), 193.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-3993-5

Risk Perception Key to Workplace Safety and Health

A recent study of 1,334 workers from 20 mine sites found that miners who avoid risk were less likely to experience near-miss incidents, according to a paper published in the Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Why is it important to know about near-miss incidents? Previous NIOSH research showed that the likelihood of future injury may increase with the number of near misses. A near miss, otherwise known as a “close call,” is an occurrence that could have caused harm but did not. In high-risk occupations, near-miss incidents must be reported. Risk management, including near-miss reporting, serves as an integral part of workplace safety and health, particularly in hazardous industries such as mining and chemical processing. Near-miss reports do not necessarily reveal the role that workers' attitudes play in risk-related behavior. To understand this relationship, NIOSH researchers recently surveyed mine workers to compare their attitudes towards risks and their feelings of personal control over events—defined as “locus of control”—with their individual likelihood of risk avoidance. Researchers found a strong relationship between near misses and attitudes toward risk and locus of control.

Based on published studies, researchers developed a survey of specific attitudes toward safety and health. The survey included statements such as whether or not workers put safety first and prefer to avoid risks, or whether they consider themselves regular risk-takers. Respondents were asked to rate these statements from 1 to 6 on the commonly used Likert scale. In addition, respondents reported their frequency of experiencing near miss incidents in the preceding 6 months, and the researchers confirmed near misses with mining company reports. Most respondents were males and ranged in age from 18 to 54. The in-person surveys occurred between April 2015 and April 2017.

Source : Haas, E.J. , Lorio, P.L. (2019). Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 59, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2019.03.005

Évolution 2010-2018 du burnout en Belgique et intérêt de l’utilisation conjointe de deux outils de diagnostic

Le projet se structure en différentes étapes :
- Établir une revue de la littérature scientifique des cinq dernières années sur le burnout et les troubles mentaux associés (stress, dépression, workaholisme, fatigue chronique, fibromyalgie, brown-out, bore-out) ;
- Faire le point sur des concepts fortement médiatisés comme le bore-out ou le brownout;
- Mesurer l'ampleur du burnout dans la population belge ;
- Adapter l'outil à l'intention des médecins permettant d'aider à la détection précoce du burnout.
Au niveau de la revue de la littérature scientifique, le présent rapport comprend (1) une actualisation de la définition du burnout, (2) une synthèse des causes, manifestations et conséquences du burnout, avec un focus sur le modèle théorique du burnout, le ‘Job Demands-Resources Model' (modèle JD-R), (3) les différentes outils auto-rapportés permettant de mesurer du burnout, (4) une revue des possibilités de prévention et d'intervention face au burnout, (5) une actualisation des éléments permettant le diagnostic différentiel du burnout par rapport à d'autres troubles de psychopathologie générale ou de psychopathologie du travail. La
partie empirique du rapport comprend (6) une description de la méthodologie permettant (7) une analyse comparative 2010-2018 des cas de burnout récoltés en consultation de médecine générale et de médecine du travail et (8) une analyse de l'intérêt d'une utilisation conjointe de deux outils de diagnostic de burnout, i.e. le jugement clinique des médecins et l'évaluation autorapportée par les travailleurs, et enfin (7) une courte discussion. Les versions actualisées de l'outil de détection précoce ainsi que du guide d'utilisation sont annexées à cette synthèse.

Source: http://www.emploi.belgique.be/moduleDefault.aspx?id=45872

A meta-analysis of the relationship between ageing and occupational safety and health

Existing studies show contradictory evidence on the relationship between ageingand occupational safety and health (OSH). The present study presents a systematic review of international research on age-related occupational accident risks for the last 30?years using meta-analysis technique. A summary of odds ratios on occupational risk incidence of older workers versus younger workers were grouped by outcome of occupational accidents. Potential moderators that could influence the relationship of ageing and OSH were analysed. Results showed that older workers are more vulnerable than younger workers in the workplace. The occurrence of severe/fatal accidents among older workers is twice as much as that of younger ones. However, the incidence of non-fatal accident among older workers is slightly (5.8%) lower than that of younger workers. Occupation and measurement of accidents are two important moderators that significantly influence the relationship of ageing and OSH. The results here show the need to promote OSH management specifically for older workers and have profound implications for planning work for an ageing workforce.

Source : Safety Science (2019), 112, 162-172 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.10.030


Le stress au travail : du paradigme des risques psychosociaux à celui de la qualité de vie au travail

Une recherche-action utilisant trois modèles classiques du stress au travail nous a permis de vérifier l'impact sur les résultats obtenus du choix du modèle et du paradigme : risques psychosociaux versus qualité de vie au travail. Quatre cent trente-six salariés de la grande distribution ont répondu à un questionnaire incluant ces trois mesures du stress, les conséquences (satisfaction, fatigue) et une cause possible (tensions de rôle). Nos résultats valident les hypothèses de différences significatives des niveaux de prévalence du stress selon le modèle, comme des liens avec le facteur et les conséquences, ainsi que l'importance de la perception de stress pour expliquer le vécu négatif.

Source : Psychologie du travail et des organisations, (2019), 25(2), 86-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pto.2018.11.002

Conflits de valeurs et exigences émotionnelles

Ce numéro de Synthèse.Stat' présente les résultats de l'enquête Conditions de travail – Risques psychosociaux de 2016 concernant les indicateurs relatifs aux conflits de valeurs et aux exigences émotionnelles.

Ce volume recouvre deux des six axes d'analyse des risques psychosociaux construits par le collège d'expertise sur le suivi statistique des risques psychosociaux au travail1 : les conflits de valeurs (axe 5) et les exigences émotionnelles (axe 2). Les exigences émotionnelles couvrent non seulement la partie qui porte le même nom dans le présent volume, mais aussi les difficultés dans les relations avec le public qui sont abordées dans le volume concernant les rapports sociaux au travail.

Source : https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/dares-etudes-et-statistiques/etudes-et-syntheses/synthese-stat-synthese-eval/article/conflits-de-valeurs-et-exigences-emotionnelles

Psychosocial Work Conditions and Mental Health: Examining Differences Across Mental Illness and Well-Being Outcomes

Objectives  Psychosocial work conditions are determinants of mental illness among worker populations. However, while the focus on negative aspects of mental health has generated important contributions to the development of workplace interventions, there is less evidence on the factors that support the positive aspects of mental well-being. This study aimed to examine the association between psychosocial work conditions and mental health Outcomes among a representative sample of Canadian workers; and to assess whether the relationships are consistent across measures of mental illness versus mental well-being.

Methods  Population-based data were obtained from the cross-sectional 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. Psychosocial work conditions were measured using an abbreviated version of the Job Content Questionnaire. For mental illness, we focused on major depressive episodes, generalized anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders in the past 12 months, as measured using Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria. Mental well-being was defined as having flourishing mental health, based on items from the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. Regression models provided odds ratios (ORs) and fitted probabilities for the relationship between work conditions and mental health, adjusting for covariates. 

Results  Higher levels of job controlsocial support, and job security were associated with being free of disorders (ORs ranging from 1.08 to 1.15) as well as having flourishing mental health (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 1.14). Lower physical effortwas associated with decreased odds of having flourishing mental health (OR 0.89). Psychological demands were not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. The overall pattern of these relationships was consistent across the two outcome models, although there was evidence of heterogeneity on the absolute probability scale. Specifically, there was a relatively stronger relationship between job control/social support/physical demands and well-being outcomes, compared with disorder outcomes.

Conclusions  Psychosocial work conditions were associated with both negative and positive measures of mental health. However, mental illness and mental well-being may represent complementary, yet distinct, aspects in relation to psychosocial work conditions. Interventions targeting the psychosocial work environment may serve to improve both of these dimensions, although the measurement and examination of specific dimensions may be required to obtain an integrated and comprehensive understanding of mental health in the workplace.

Source : Annals of Work Exposures and Health (2019), 63(5), 546–559,https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz028

Rest breaks from work: Overview of regulations, research and practice

This report addresses the rarely discussed issue of rest breaks at work across the European Union. Based on input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents, it reveals some of the complexities involved in defining whether such breaks should be paid or unpaid, how long they should be and where they should be taken. The report compares different approaches among Member States, gives examples of judicial rulings, highlights some types of work that attract special consideration and looks into causal relationships between breaks, health and performance at work. When rest breaks are of an appropriate duration and appropriately scheduled, they can reduce some of the harmful effects of work on health and well-being while contributing to improved performance and productivity.

Source: http://eurofound.link/ef19018  

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