An Analysis From the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model Perspective
This paper adopts the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model to analyze workplace bullying among teachers. The data used for this research are obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey. Given the objective of this work, a subsample of 261 education employees is collected: 48.7% of these teachers report having experienced workplace bullying (N=127), while 51.3% indicate not considering themselves as bullied at work (N=134). In order to test the research model and hypotheses, this study relies on the use of partial least squares (PLS-SEM), a variance-based structural equation modeling method. The study describes a workplace bullying prevalence rate of 4.4% among education employees. This work summarizes an array of outcomes with the aim of proposing, in general, that workplace bullying may be reduced by limiting job demands and increasing job resources.
Source: Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz R., Noel M.; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L.; Leal-Millán, Antonio G. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. 818-827.
CDD, emploi à temps partiel, contrat intermittent, temps partagé, travail autonome en portage salarial… font partie de ce qu'on appelle les « formes atypiques d'emploi et de travail » parce qu'elles dérogent au modèle classique (CDI, à temps complet, pour un même employeur...).
Selon la façon dont elles sont mises en œuvre, ces formes atypiques d'emploi et de travail peuvent créer de l'activité ou de la précarité, accompagner de nouvelles façons de travailler ou creuser les inégalités dans les équipes de travail.
Ce guide ne cherche ni à promouvoir ni à dénigrer les modalités d'emploi et de travail atypiques. Il propose, en complément de la réglementation à respecter sur le sujet, des repères et pratiques favorables à un double objectif de sécurisation des parcours des individus et de performance des entreprises.
Objectives: We examined whether or not changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of psychological distress.
Method: A baseline evaluation of work stressors and coping resources and mental health was assessed for 4362 petroleum industry workers after 12 years.
Results: Increased task and organizational stressors were associated with an elevated risk of psychological distress. Decreased task stressors, increased job control, and increased coping resources were associated with a reduced risk of psychological distress. Increased coping also had a buffering effect on increased work stressors and psychological distress. Gender-specific differences were observed in the factors influencing mental health.
Conclusions: The findings indicated that reducing gender-specific task and organizational stressors, and promoting coping resources at work may help prevent the onset of psychological distress.
Source: Lian, Yulong; Gu, Yiyang; Han, Rui; Jiang, Yu; Guan, Suzhen; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiwen. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2016, Volume 58, Issue 7, p. e256-e263.
A Repeated Measures Study
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses.
Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period.
Results: The work period induced impairments for reaction time, errors on reaction time tasks, and balance performance, independent of shift type. Musculoskeletal symptom prevalence was high in workers of both work shifts.
Conclusions: Compressed work shifts caused performance-based fatigue in nurses. Reaction time and balance tests may be sensitive fatigue identification markers in nurses.
Source: Thompson, Brennan J.; Stock, Matt S.; Banuelas, Victoria K.; Akalonu, Chibuzo C. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2016, Volume 58, Issue 7, p. 737-743.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between work organization features of work hours, work schedules, and job stress with body mass indexes (BMIs) of long-haul truck drivers.
Methods: Face-to-face survey data were collected first, followed by collection of anthropometric measures including height and weight (n?=?260). Logistic regression (backward stepwise model) was used to identify significant predictors of BMI and to analyze odds ratios.
Results: Mean BMI was 33.40?kg/m2, with 64.2% obese (BMI > 30?kg/m2) and 18.4% extreme/morbidly obese (BMI > 40?kg/m2). Working more than 11 daily hours was associated with statistically significant increased odds for being extreme obese.
Conclusion: Findings suggest that longer work hours (>11?hours daily) have a major influence on odds for obesity among this population. The results align with recent NIOSH calls for integrated approaches to worker health.
Source: Hege, Adam; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Perko, Mike; Sönmez, Sevil; Strack, Robert. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2016, Volume 58, Issue 7, p. 712-717.
The study examined the association between rotating night shift work and blood concentrations of selected sex hormones among nurses and midwives. A positive and significant association between the total duration of night shift work and estradiol level observed among postmenopausal women tends to support the hypothesis linking night
shift work with increased risk of breast cancer.
Source: Juvani A, Oksanen T, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Salo P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2016.
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify relationships between work organizational variables (job rotation, overtime work, having a second job, and work pacing) (These work organizational variables and their relationships with biomechanical and psychosocial exposures were studied previously and published in a separate paper.) and health outcome measures [carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), lateral and medial epicondylitis (LEPI/MEPI)].
Methods: Using a pooled baseline cohort of 1834 subjects, the relationships were studied using logistic regression models.
Results: Varied degrees of associations between the work organizational and outcomes variables were found. Job rotation was significantly associated with being a CTS case [odds ratio (OR)=1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00 to 1.50]. Overtime work was significantly associated with lower LEPI prevalence (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.84). No statistically significant associations were found between having a second job and different work pacing and any of the three health outcome measures.
Conclusions: Work organizational variables were only partially associated with the studied health outcomes.
Source: Bao, Stephen S.; Kapellusch, Jay M.; Merryweather, Andrew S.; Thiese, Matthew S.; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T. Silverstein, Barbara A.; Marcum, Jennifer L; Tang, Ruoliang. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. 760-764.
A Finnish cohort study of public sector employees
Work-related psychosocial factors that are measured once may not provide an accurate estimate of long-term exposure. Thus, we used repeated measures of organizational justice to evaluate its association with disability pension in a cohort of 24 895 Finnish public sector employees. High organizational justice was associated with lower risk of disability pension due to depression and musculoskeletal diseases.
Source: Juvani A, Oksanen T, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Salo P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2016.
Study protocol for a prospective cohort study
BACKGROUND: As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. METHODS/DESIGN: Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50-60 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) will be followed prospectively in a national register (DREAM), containing information on a week-to-week basis about social transfer payments for about 5 million Danish residents. Using Cox regression, we will model the risk of long-term sickness absence, disability pension, early retirement and unemployment within a 4 to 6 year period from the baseline measurement as a function of the following predictors: 1) physical work demands throughout working life, 2) psychosocial working conditions throughout working life, 3) physical capacity in midlife, 4) cognitive capacity in midlife. Estimates will be adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle, socioeconomic position, chronic disease and long-term sickness absence prior to baseline. DISCUSSION: The project will generate new knowledge on risk factors for loss of labor market attachment. The results will potentially contribute in identifying factors that could be targeted in future interventions for maintaining a longer and healthier working life among older workers.
Source: Sundstrup E, Hansen ÅM, Mortensen EL, et al. BMC Public Health, 2016; 16: 629.
Lessons Learned From the SafeWell Project
Objectives: To describe (a) a conceptual approach, (b) measurement tools and data collection processes, (c) characteristics of an integrated feedback report and action plan, and (d) experiences of three companies with an integrated measurement approach to worker safety and health.
Methods: Three companies implemented measurement tools designed to create an integrated view of health protection and promotion based on organizational- and individual-level assessments. Feedback and recommended actions were presented following assessments at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Measurement processes included group dialogue sessions, walk-through, online surveys, and focus groups.
Results: The approach and measurement tools generated actionable recommendations and documented changes in the physical (eg, safety hazards) and psychosocial (eg, health and safety culture) work environment between baseline and 1-year follow-up.
Conclusions: The measurement tools studied were feasible, acceptable, and meaningful to companies in the SafeWell study.
Source: Pronk, Nicolaas P.; McLellan, Deborah L.; McGrail, Michael P.; Olson, Shawn M.; McKinney, Zeke J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Sorensen, Glorian. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2016, Volume 58, Issue 7, p. 651-658.
Towards an improved conceptualisation
Discussion of the implications of precarious work for individual workers remains hesitant and often confused. A clear conceptualisation would separate out five analytical levels: precariousness in employment, precarious work, precarious workers individually and as an emerging class, and precarity as a general condition of social life. To illustrate the need to avoid slippage between the concepts of precarious work and precarious workers, we present one ‘theory-relevant' example – full-time secondary school students in Australia who hold part-time jobs in the retail sector. Their part-time jobs are indeed precarious but the negative effects on the student-workers are modest, both because participation in precarious work is limited (moderate weekly hours and intermittent work within the framework of a brief stage of the life course) and because many (though not all) of the associated risks are cushioned by structural forces such as access to alternative income sources and career paths. At the same time, however, a longitudinal perspective reveals that the same group of student-workers faces major risks in the future, as a result of increasingly insecure labour markets. Reflections on this example help to identify conceptual tools that can be applied to a wide range of other examples of precarious work.
Source: Campbell, Iain; Price, Robin. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 2016, p. 1-19.
Examining the influence of policy reforms, normative change and deindustrialization in the Netherlands, 1992–2009
This study examines trends in labour force participation of older men (55–64 years) in the Netherlands between 1992 and 2009 using Dutch Labour Force Survey data. In this period, the share of early retirees and disability recipients steadily decreased, while labour force participation of Dutch older men increased. The authors characterize these developments both theoretically and empirically in terms of policy reforms, normative change and deindustrialization. More specifically, institutional early retirement arrangements were abolished due to the rising costs associated with the ageing of the Dutch population. Older men, therefore, became more likely to be employed, unemployed or disabled compared to early retired between 1992 and 2009. The authors also find that deindustrialization increases the chances of employment for older men with a university degree. Moreover, a shrinking industry sector is particularly harmful for the lowest educated older men, as their likelihood to be in unemployment increases compared to early retirement.
Source: Visser, M., Gesthuizen, M., Kraaykamp, G., Wolbers, M. H. Economic and Industrial Democracy, August 2016, vol. 37, no. 3, p. 425-447.
Étude auprès de salariés
En France, le suicide est considéré comme un problème de santé publique majeur depuis les années 1990. Au même moment, plusieurs auteurs ont commencé à souligner un accroissement de suicides dont la cause serait majoritairement liée au travail. Cependant, peu d'études empiriques ont été déployées. Cette étude analyse les liens éventuels entre des facteurs cliniques (symptômes dépressifs, sentiment de désespoir) et des éléments de l'environnement de travail, aux niveaux des caractéristiques du travail (i.e., latitude décisionnelle, soutien social au travail, efforts, récompenses), des relations (harcèlement moral au travail) et des facteurs psychologiques reliés au travail (satisfaction des besoins fondamentaux au travail, épuisement professionnel). Les données, récoltées au moyen d'un questionnaire auto-administré auprès de salariés de différents secteurs d'activité, ont mis en évidence des liens entre d'une part, des symptômes dépressifs et d'autre part, de faibles récompenses extrinsèques, un surinvestissement, des actes pouvant relever d'un harcèlement moral au travail et un épuisement émotionnel. De plus, des liens ont été relevés entre d'une part, un sentiment de désespoir et d'autre part, des efforts élevés, de faibles récompenses intrinsèques, une faible satisfaction du besoin de compétences au travail et un faible sentiment d'accomplissement personnel au travail. Les résultats invitent à considérer ces facteurs comme des pistes à privilégier dans un environnement de travail pour prévenir la santé mentale et le suicide.
Source: Caroline Nicolas, Pascale Desrumaux, Monique Séguin et Guy Beauchamp. Le Travail humain, vol. 79, n°2, avril 2016, p. 125-146.
This Guide provides information on how to manage risks associated with cattle handling at a workplace. Cattle handling involves any activities where workers handle cattle. This can include working with cattle in paddocks, laneways, yards, cattle transportation, feedlots, abattoirs, saleyards and activities relating to on-farm cattle sales.
The Guide focusses on natural cattle handling techniques that use cattle behaviour and livestock handler position to achieve the goal rather than other techniques that ‘make' the cattle do the activity.
À partir des deux vagues de l'enquête Santé et itinéraire professionnel (SIP), cet article étudie l'exposition des travailleurs aux risques psychosociaux (RPS) et son évolution entre 2006 et 2010, dans un contexte de crise économique.
Source: Fontaine R., Lengagne P., Sauze D., Économie et Statistique, n° 486-487, 2016/07, p. 103-128.
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