2012-02-01 12:00 - Messages
In this study, we investigated the role of psychological empowerment as a protective factor for burnout among workers exposed to work-related stressors (e.g. daily hassles, overload, job changes). A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted, with a convenience sample of 401 healthcare workers. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to test main and moderating effects of empowerment cognitions. Results revealed partial support for the hypotheses. Only the job meaningfulness cognition exerts a beneficent main effect on all burnout symptoms beyond the effect of stressors. Some moderating effects differing according to burnout dimensions were also found. Most interestingly, high levels of empowerment cognitions accentuate the effect of change-related resources in the reduction of emotional exhaustion. Because psychological empowerment has beneficial effects, organizations could rely on different strategies to enhance it.
Source : Boudrias, J.-S., Morin, A. J. S. and Brodeur, M.-M. (2012), Role of psychological empowerment in the reduction of burnout in Canadian healthcare workers. Nursing & Health Sciences, 14: 8–17.
WorkSafeBC has launched a new online safe driving website in partnership with the BCAA Road Safety Foundation. RoadSafetyAtWork.ca is aimed at employers whose workers are required to drive in the course of their work.
Source : http://www.worksafebc.com/news_room/news_releases/2012/new_12_02_17.asp
Longitudinal Evidence Building Upon the Conservation of Resources Theory
This longitudinal study probes the relationship between employability and burnout among employees from a company undergoing reorganization. We advanced employability as a personal resource that relates negatively to burnout. We expected that this hypothesis would hold for different operationalizations of employability, including (1) job-related and (2) transferable skills, (3) willingness to change jobs and (4) to develop competences, (5) opportunity awareness, (6) self-esteem, and (7) self-perceived employability (i.e., perceived employment opportunities). In a similar vein, we expected that the hypothesis would hold for the different dimensions of burnout; namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. We used longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to test our hypotheses. Employees from a Swiss company undergoing a major reorganization were surveyed at three times with a total time lag of 19 months (Time 1: N = 287; Time 2: N = 128; Time 3: N = 107). Our results indicate that particularly self-esteem, but also job-related and transferable skills as indicators of one's employability were important predictors of burnout, with all relationships being negative.
Source : De Cuyper, Nele;Raeder, Sabine;Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.;Wittekind, Anette. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Feb 20 , 2012.
A Randomized Controlled Trial
Highly stressed employees are subject to greater health risks, increased cost, and productivity losses than those with normal stress levels. To address this issue in an evidence-based manner, worksite stress management programs must be able to engage individuals as well as capture data on stress, health indices, work productivity, and health care costs. In this randomized controlled pilot, our primary objective was to evaluate the viability and proof of concept for two mind-body workplace stress reduction programs (one therapeutic yoga-based and the other mindfulness-based), in order to set the stage for larger cost-effectiveness trials. A second objective was to evaluate 2 delivery venues of the mindfulness-based intervention (online vs. in-person). Intention-to-treat principles and 2 (pre and post) × 3 (group) repeated-measures analysis of covariance procedures examined group differences over time on perceived stress and secondary measures to clarify which variables to include in future studies: sleep quality, mood, pain levels, work productivity, mindfulness, blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic balance). Two hundred and thirty-nine employee volunteers were randomized into a therapeutic yoga worksite stress reduction program, 1 of 2 mindfulness-based programs, or a control group that participated only in assessment. Compared with the control group, the mind-body interventions showed significantly greater improvements on perceived stress, sleep quality, and the heart rhythm coherence ratio of heart rate variability. The two delivery venues for the mindfulness program produced basically equivalent results. Both the mindfulness-based and therapeutic yoga programs may provide viable and effective interventions to target high stress levels, sleep quality, and autonomic balance in employees.
Source : Wolever, Ruth Q.;Bobinet, Kyra J.;McCabe, Kelley;Mackenzie, Elizabeth R.;Fekete, Erin;Kusnick, Catherine A.;Baime, Michael. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Feb 20 , 2012.
A multilevel meta-regression analysis
Objectives Studies about job strain and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have yielded inconsistent results, which hinders making a firm conclusion about the association. Inconsistent findings may be the result of methodological differences. If the relative CVD risk is influenced by methodological differences, these differences should be explored in more detail in future research to clarify which methodological characteristics are inherent to obtain the most accurate estimate between job strain and CVD risk. By assessing how study characteristics are associated with the outcome, we take the first step in unraveling this association. In this review, we explore the following research question: are study characteristics associated with the size of the reported relative CVD risk?
Methods A systematic literature search yielded 71 studies about job stress, assessed with the demand–control model, and CVD. Traditional meta-regression was extended enabling the use of correlated data to quantify heterogeneity within and between studies.
Results Compared to studies that use the original Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), studies in which a more deviant form of the JCQ was used yielded, on average, 43% higher estimates. Studies conducted in the USA yielded about 26% lower estimates compared to studies conducted in Scandinavian countries.
Conclusions Several study characteristics are associated with the size of the reported relative CVD risk. Many of these study features are related to the validity of the exposure and outcome assessment and are inherent to obtain an accurate estimate between work stress and CVD risk. More research is needed to clarify why these study features impact the average relative CVD risk.
Source : Szerencsi K, van Amelsvoort LGPM, Viechtbauer W, Mohren DCL, Prins MH, Kant I. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.
Report on evidence-based options for preventive actions
In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive actions, 16 researchers in basic, epidemiological and applied sciences convened at a workshop in Copenhagen 26–27 October 2011. This paper summarizes the evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies and presents possible recommendations for prevention of the effects of night work on breast cancer.
Among those studies that quantified duration of shift work, there were statistically significant elevations in risk only after about 20 years working night shift. It is unclear from these studies whether or not there is a modest but real elevated risk for shorter durations. Hence, restriction of the total number of years working night shift could be one future preventive recommendation for shift workers. The diurnal secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland with peak in secretory activity during the night is a good biochemical marker of the circadian rhythm. Disruption of the diurnal melatonin secretion pattern can be diminished by restricting the number of consecutive night shifts. Reddish light and reduced light intensity during work at night could potentially help diminish the inhibitory activity of light with strong intensity on the melatonin secretion, but further mechanistic insight is needed before definite recommendations can be made. Earlier or more intensive mammography screening among female night shift worker is not recommended because the harm–benefit ratio in this age group may not be beneficial. Preventive effects of melatonin supplementation on breast cancer risk have not been clearly documented, but may be a promising avenue if a lack of side effects can be shown even after long-term ingestion. Women with previous or current breast cancer should be advised not to work night shifts because of strong experimental evidence demonstrating accelerated tumor growth by suppression of melatonin secretion.
Work during the night is widespread worldwide. To provide additional evidence-based recommendations on prevention of diseases related to night shift work, large studies on the impact of various shift schedules and type of light on circadian rhythms need to be conducted in real work environments
Source : Bonde JP, Hansen J, Kolstad HA, Mikkelsen S, Olsen JH, Blask DE, Härmä M, Kjuus H, de Koning HJ, Olsen J, Møller M, Schernhammer ES, Stevens RG, Åkerstedt T. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.
A workplace in which hazards are well-controlled, with an active culture of health and a supportive work environment, can enhance worker health and well-being, both on and off the job.
Implementing a comprehensive fatigue risk management system could improve workplace safety and efficiency, according to a new guidance paper released by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Safety and productivity in the workplace are directly related to worker health, reports the paper, titled, “Fatigue Risk Management in the Workplace.” A workplace may have chemical, physical, biological, and/or psychosocial hazards that have the potential to impact physical and psychological well-being.
Source : http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/02/20/acoem-releases-guidance-on-managing-workplace-fatigue.aspx
An analysis of national survey data
Instances of physical violence from members of the public and non-physical harassment from colleagues are highly prevalent in the health-care workforce and can be damaging to both staff and patients. While policy has tended to focus on the more visible problem of public violence, little is known about which of the two behaviours is the most damaging. This study compared the consequences of public violence and staff harassment for wellbeing in two large samples of English nurses. The results revealed that while both types of aggression were related to decreased levels of staff wellbeing, staff harassment had a stronger negative association with wellbeing than public violence. The relationships between each of the types of aggression and some aspects of wellbeing were moderated by perceived supervisory support, such that the negative effects on wellbeing were greater for those with higher levels of support. The major implication of this study is that health-care organizations must pay more attention to the prevention of staff harassment in the workplace.
Source : Chris Woodrow and David E Guest. Health Serv Manage Res. February 2012, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 24-30.
A register-linkage study
Objectives : We examined whether having a high percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in basic education schools increases the risk of sickness absence among teachers and whether this risk is dependent on the pupil–teacher ratio (PTR), an indicator of teacher resources at school.
Methods : We obtained register data on 8089 teachers working in 404 schools in 10 municipalities in Finland during the school year 2004–2005. We used multilevel multinomial regression models to examine the risk of teachers' short- and long-term sickness absence in relation to the percentage of SEN pupils and the PTR at school. We tested the equality of trends in groups with high and low PTR using PTR × SEN interaction term.
Results After adjustment for teacher and school characteristics, the risk for long-term absences was higher among teachers at schools with a high percentage of SEN pupils than among teachers at schools with a low percentage of SEN pupils [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2–1.8). This was also the case for short-term absences (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.7). In analyses stratified by the PTR levels, the association between the percentage of SEN pupils and long-term absences was 15% higher among teachers with a high PTR than among those with a low PTR (P for interaction=0.10).
Conclusions : Teachers' sickness absenteeism seems to increase with a higher percentage of SEN pupils, especially when the PTR is high. Teacher resources at schools that have a high percentage of SEN pupils should be well maintained to ensure the health of teachers.
Source : Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3281
Contenu du dossier paru dans Work Employment & Society February 2012 vol. 26 no. 1 :
Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. Volume 41, Number 1 / 2012
Performing arts health (PAH) as a field of research may be relatively unknown to some readers. It is my intent in this second editorial, therefore, to highlight some of the similarities and differences between this field and the field of work disability (WD), broadly construed (as in this journal) to include prevention, assessment and rehabilitation.
Readers will be familiar with the significant economic and societal burden of work-related health concerns. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that occupational injury and disease globally accounted for 800,000 deaths and 38 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) . Closer to my home,
in Canada, the total direct and indirect costs of occupational injuries to the Canadian economy was estimated at $19 billion in 2008, or $567 per Canadian. These data include only costs associated with claims that were processed. We know, of course, that many injuries and illnesses are not claimed, and in a socialized system of healthcare, those costs are considerable.
Source : http://iospress.metapress.com/content/w26287835557/
Regard sur l'évolution de la situation des femmes et des hommes
Cette étude traite de l'évolution de la qualité de l'emploi des travailleurs plus âgés, soit ceux de 50 à 64 ans. Elle comprend quatre sections. La première traite de l'importance d'étudier la qualité de l'emploi des travailleurs plus âgés. La deuxième section aborde le sujet des changements dans la participation des travailleurs plus âgés au cours de la période 1997-2010, pour laquelle nous disposons de données sur la qualité de l'emploi. En troisième lieu, nous exposons succinctement la mesure de la qualité de l'emploi utilisée, pour ensuite, dans la quatrième section, présenter une analyse des résultats. En tenant compte de la qualité des données, les résultats sont ventilés selon le sous-groupe d'âge, le niveau d'études, la durée de l'emploi, le secteur d'appartenance, la couverture syndicale et la taille de l'établissement.
Source : http://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/publications/remuneration/travailleur_age.htm
BACKGROUND: Rates of occupational injury among immigrant workers are widely believed to be underestimated. The goal of this study was to enhance understanding of the burden of occupational injury and the work organization factors underlying injury among immigrant Latino residential construction workers. METHODS: Prospective data were obtained from a community-based sample of Latino residential construction workers (N = 107) over a 3-month period. RESULTS: Twenty-eight participants were injured, resulting in an injury incidence rate of 55.0/100 FTE (95% CI = 41.4-71.6) during the 3-month observation period. The injury rate involving days away from work during the observation period was 3.9/100 FTE (CI = 0.2-7.2). Injuries were elevated among roofers relative to framers and general construction workers. Roofers had elevated exposure to a variety of deleterious work organization factors. CONCLUSIONS: Although imprecise given the small sample, our results suggest a threefold to fourfold underestimate of the injury burden to immigrant Latino construction workers. Work organization may contribute to elevated rates of non-fatal occupational injury, particularly among roofers.
Source : Joseph G. Grzywacz PhD, Sara A. Quandt PhD, Antonio Marín MA, Phillip Summers MPH, Wei Lang PhD, Thomas Mills MS, Carlos Evia PhD, Julia Rushing MS, Katherine Donadio MS, Thomas A. Arcury PhD. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2012.
Objective The aim of this study was to analyze whether exposure to workplace bullying among 5701 female employees in the Danish eldercare sector increases the risk of onset of a major depressive episode (MDE).
Methods Participants received questionnaires in 2004–2005 and again in 2006–2007. MDE was assessed with the Major Depression Inventory. We examined baseline bullying as a predictor of onset of MDE at follow-up using multiple logistic regression. We further conducted a cross-sectional analysis at the time of follow-up among participants who at baseline were free of bullying, MDE, and signs of reduced psychological health. Finally, we analyzed reciprocal effects, by using baseline bullying and baseline MDE as predictors for bullying and MDE at follow-up.
Results Onset rates of MDE in the groups of no, occasional, and frequent bullying were 1.5%, 3.4%, and 11.3%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) for onset of MDE were 2.22 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.31–3.76] for occasional bullying and OR 8.45 (95% CI 4.04–17.70) for frequent bullying, after adjustment for covariates. In the cross-sectional analysis, OR were 6.29 (95% CI 2.52–15.68) for occasional bullying and 20.96 (95% CI 5.80–75.80) for frequent bullying. In the analyses on reciprocal effects, both baseline bullying [occasional: OR 2.12 (95% CI 1.29–3.48) and frequent: OR 6.39 (95% CI 3.10–13.17)] and baseline MDE [OR 7.18 (95% CI 3.60–14.30] predicted MDE at follow-up. However, only baseline bullying [occasional: OR 7.44 (95% CI 5.94–9.31) and frequent: OR 11.91 (95% CI 7.56–18.77)] but not baseline MDE [OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.47–1.84)] predicted bullying at follow-up.
Conclusions Workplace bullying increased the risk of MDE among female eldercare workers. MDE did not predict risk of bullying. Eliminating bullying at work may be an important contribution to the prevention of MDE.
Source : Rugulies R, Madsen IEH, Hjarsbech PU, Hogh A, Borg V, Carneiro IG, Aust B. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.
Examining the association between rotating shift work (≥3 nights/month plus days and evenings) and Type 2 diabetes among 177,000 female nurses aged 25–67 (the Nurses' Health Study), this large-scale study revealed a graded association between the duration of working life the nurses had been engaged in shift work and risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes.
Compared with women who reported no shift work, participants with 1–2 years of shift work had a 5% excess risk of T2D, rising to 20% after 3–9 years, 40% after 10–19 years, and almost 60% for ≥20 years. These data, which were based on a long follow-up, are in agreement with previous smaller-scale studies. The studies conclude that additional efforts to prevent diabetes among shift workers through promotion of healthy lifestyles, weight control, and early identification and treatment of prediabetic and diabetic employees are needed, and modifications to shift work itself. Rotating shift work comprises a range of alternative schedule patterns, such as backward- and forward-rotating shift systems, and the proportion of night and early morning shifts varies, future studies should address these variations and identify patterns that minimize the risk.
Source : http://osha.europa.eu/en/news/us-study-finds-that-working-shifts-may-increase-the-risk-of-developing-diabetes-in-nurses
Plus de Messages Page suivante »