2012-03-01 12:00 - Messages

Organizational factors associated with work-related sleep problems in a nationally representative sample of Korean workers

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the association of organizational factors with work-related sleep problems (WRSP) among Korean workers. METHODS: The data were derived from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006 with a representative sample of the Korean working population (n = 10,039). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of WRSP was 5.1  % (95  % confidence interval (CI) 4.7-5.5). Those who experienced sexual harassment at work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.47: 95 % CI 1.77-6.81), discrimination due to sex (aOR 2.44: 95 % CI 1.36-4.36) or age (aOR 2.22: 95 % CI 1.52-3.23), violence at work (aOR 1.98: 95 % CI 1.06-3.68), threat of violence (aOR 1.96: 95 % CI 1.05-3.66), poor work-life balance (aOR 1.78: 95 % CI 1.44-2.20), low job satisfaction (aOR 1.69: 95 % CI 1.37-2.09), high cognitive (OR 1.64: 95 % CI 1.32-2.03) and emotional (aOR 1.53: 95 % CI 1.22-1.91) demands, job insecurity (aOR 1.32: 95 % CI 1.07-1.63), and high work intensity (aOR 1.55: 95 % CI: 95 % CI 1.25-1.92) had an increased risk of WRSP compared to their respective counterparts (p < 0.01). Low social support was not significantly associated with WRSP (aOR 0.88: 95 % CI 0.67-1.15). CONCLUSION: The results revealed that poor psychosocial working conditions may be related to a high prevalence of WRSP among representative Korean workers.

Source : Park JB, Nakata A, Swanson NG, Chun H. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 2012.

Le stress au travail est en hausse, d'après huit personnes interrogées sur dix lors d'un vaste sondage d'opinion paneuropéen

Le stress au travail constitue un problème pour une vaste majorité de la population active européenne, selon les conclusions du 2e sondage d'opinion paneuropéen sur la santé et la sécurité dans le cadre professionnel. Réalisée par Ipsos MORI pour le compte de l'Agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail (EU-OSHA), l'enquête a recueilli les avis de plus de 35 000 citoyens dans 36 pays européens sur des sujets liés au monde du travail actuel, dont le stress au travail, et analysé l'importance de la sécurité et de la santé au travail pour la compétitivité économique, ainsi qu'à la lumière de l'allongement de la vie professionnelle.

Source : http://osha.europa.eu/fr/press/press-releases/stress_workplace_to_rise_say_8_out_of_10_in_major_pan-european_opinion_poll?sourceid=rss&utm_source=home&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign

Les transformations des parcours d'emploi et de travail au fil des générations

Lorsqu'on les interroge sur leur passé professionnel, les générations les plus récentes retracent des parcours moins stables que les plus anciennes. En 2006, l'expérience du chômage concernait près d'un individu sur deux pour les générations nées après 1960, alors qu'elle était beaucoup moins fréquente pour les générations antérieures dont les carrières professionnelles étaient pourtant plus longues. Les nouvelles générations sont plus diplômées et exercent moins souvent des métiers industriels. Pour autant, le ressenti de pénibilités physiques dans le travail reste stable au sein des générations nées après 1940. Les générations les plus récentes signalent davantage que leurs aînées des difficultés liées à l'organisation du travail : leurs compétences leur semblent moins pleinement utilisées, leur travail moins reconnu et davantage exercé sous pression. Ces évolutions peuvent renvoyer aux mutations importantes de l'organisation du travail, mais aussi à une évolution du regard des salariés sur leur travail. Les salariés ayant un parcours marqué par l'instabilité et le chômage estiment davantage que les autres travailler "sous pression" ou que leur travail est insuffisamment reconnu. Pour les hommes, la précarité de l'emploi et la pénibilité physique tendent à être associées.

Source : http://www.actdoc.anact.fr/Record.htm?idlist=9&record=19171787124919999699

Supervisor vs. employee safety perceptions and association with future injury in US limited-service restaurant workers

OBJECTIVES: Many studies have found management commitment to safety to be an important construct of safety climate. This study examined the association between supervisor and employee (shared and individual) perceptions of management commitment to safety and the rate of future injuries in limited-service restaurant workers. METHODS: A total of 453 participants (34 supervisors/managers and 419 employees) from 34 limited-service restaurants participated in a prospective cohort study. Employees' and managers' perceptions of management commitment to safety and demographic variables were collected at the baseline. The survey questions were made available in three languages: English, Spanish, and Portuguese. For the following 12 weeks, participants reported their injury experience and weekly work hours. A multivariate negative binomial generalized estimating equation model with compound symmetry covariance structure was used to assess the association between the rate of self-reported injuries and measures of safety perceptions. RESULTS: There were no significant relationships between supervisor and either individual or shared employee perceptions of management commitment to safety. Only individual employee perceptions were significantly associated with future employee injury experience but not supervisor safety perceptions or shared employee perceptions. CONCLUSION: Individual employee perception of management commitment to safety is a significant predictor for future injuries in restaurant environments. A study focusing on employee perceptions would be more predictive of injury outcomes than supervisor/manager perceptions.

Source : Huang YH, Verma SK, Chang WR, Courtney TK, Lombardi DA, Brennan MJ, Perry MJ. Accid. Anal. Prev. 2012; 47: 45-51.

The effect of rest breaks on time to injury

A study on work-related ladder-fall injuries in the United States
Objectives : Rest breaks and other work-related temporal factors, such as time spent on task, influence the accumulation of fatigue, and thus impact occupational injury risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rest breaks on “time to injury” (the time between start of work and injury) for injured workers treated in a nationally representative sample of US emergency departments.
Methods : Using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), we identified 629 workers who had experienced a work-related ladder-fall. Of these, 306 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire about the circumstances surrounding the injury. Survival analyses were used to estimate time to injury, and hazard ratios (HR) for time to injury were compared between workers who reported no rest break (reference) and workers who reported rest break(s) prior to the injury (accumulated break time categorized into 0, 1–15, 16–30, and >30 minutes). Age, gender, time of work start, injury time of day, and workload were included as covariates to control for demographic, circadian, and work-related factors, respectively.
Results : A clear dose–response relation indicated that longer accumulated break time was associated with a significantly longer time to injury when compared to workers without rest breaks [total break time 1–15 minutes: HR 0.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.44–0.83; 16–30 minutes: HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33–0.75; >30 minutes: HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.23–0.51], adjusted for all covariates.
Conclusions : The results showed that longer total rest break time allowed for a significantly prolonged time spent on task without an injury. These findings suggest that rest break design could be used as a tool to enhance fatigue management and workplace safety.

Source : Wirtz A, Lombardi DA, Courtney TK, Christian DC, Folkard S, Perry MJ. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.

Harassment at work?

Empowerment and autonomy as coping strategies of young workers
There is a considerable number of researches about workplace violence, but few relate young workers and work harassment. This study aimed to investigate the reported perceptions of young apprentices and trainees about moral harassment at work and related coping strategies. Forty adolescent workers (22 men and 18 women) between 15 and 20 years old who received training by a non-governmental organization in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. Data collection included individual and collective interviews. It was used an in-depth semi structured interview protocol. The discourses were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic frame. Results showed that young workers reported little or no knowledge of strategies to cope with moral harassment at work, showing vulnerability to the effects of aggression. Effective coping strategies at work should embrace two important concepts of health promotion: empowerment and autonomy.

Source : Samantha Lemos Turte, Maria Eduarda Cavadinha Correa, Andrea Aparecida da Luz, Frida Marina Fischer. Work. Volume 41, Supplement 1. 2012.

Photographie statistique selon le sexe des AT/MP et des accidents de trajet entre 2000 et 2010 en France

Photographie statistique selon le sexe des AT/MP et des accidents de trajet entre 2000 et 2010 en France
L'ANACT a analysé les chiffres 2000-2010 de la sinistralité au travail en France sous l'angle du genre. Cette étude permet d'avancer quelques constats et hypothèses concernant la santé des salariés femmes et hommes au travail.
On observe que les accidents du travail concernent davantage les hommes que les femmes. Mais le nombre des accidents du travail touchant les femmes est en constante augmentation depuis 2000 tandis que celui des accidents du travail touchant les hommes est en baisse régulière. Le nombre d'accidents de trajet des femmes a augmenté et dépasse depuis 2009 celui des hommes. Le nombre des maladies professionnelles des femmes a progressé de façon très significative et dépasse celui des hommes depuis 2010.
L'analyse longitudinale s'appuie sur les données statistiques de sinistralité disponibles collectées essentiellement auprès de la Mission Statistiques de la Direction des Risques Professionnels de la Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés (CNAMTS).

Source : http://www.anact.fr/web/actualite/essentiel?p_thingIdToShow=25271604

Conception et rénovation des EHPAD

Bonnes pratiques de prévention
Ce guide s'adresse à l'ensemble des acteurs d'un projet de construction, d'extension ou de réhabilitation d'établissement d'hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes (Ehpad). Il a pour objectif d'aider les différents acteurs à intégrer la prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles dès la programmation du projet.
Ce guide ne constitue pas un référentiel normatif ou réglementaire. Ses préconisations sont exprimées sous forme de bonnes pratiques qui ne peuvent pas être exhaustives. Il doit toutefois permettre aux différents acteurs de mettre en place des mesures de prévention éprouvées, répondant aux objectifs de la réglementation en vigueur et notamment du code du travail.
Les responsables des projets et des établissements trouveront les éléments de méthodologie et les spécifications techniques nécessaires pour bâtir leur cahier des charges puis leur plan d'actions de prévention.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%206099

Livre blanc - Prévenir le risque trajet domicile-travail

Inciter les entreprises à repenser les déplacements professionnels pour faire converger la prévention du risque routier et la préservation de l'environnement : c'est l'objectif du livre blanc réalisé par le comité de pilotage pour la prévention du risque routier professionnel avec la participation de l'Assurance maladie Risques professionnels. Le document propose une série d'actions concrètes visant à une mobilité sûre et durable. Parmi ces mesures figurent notamment le développement du télétravail et des services d'entreprise permettant de limiter les déplacements (restaurants, crèches,...), la mise en place d'aides au logement ou encore l'organisation du covoiturage.

Source : http://kiosque.inrs.fr/lettre/go.php?l=2269&p=2

Attirer et retenir les travailleurs âgés

Le rôle de la flexibilité
Le prolongement de la vie active des travailleurs âgés constitue un défi de taille pour les politiques publiques dans un contexte de vieillissement de la population et de sortie fragile d'une récession. Bien que le Québec émerge relativement bien de la récession, il demeure que le phénomène de retraite précoce (avant l'âge de 60 ans) demeure alarmant. L'approche moins coercitive adoptée par le Québec, qui consiste à instaurer la retraite progressive et à introduire des incitatifs pour dissuader la retraite anticipée, ne pourrait donner les résultats escomptés que si les individus sont motivés à demeurer actifs sur le marché du travail et, surtout, si les employeurs sont capables de les attirer et les retenir. Or nous avons constaté une divergence entre les aspirations des travailleurs âgés et les stratégies poursuivies par les entreprises. Il apert que les employeurs, pris avec un déséquilibre démographique de leur effectif en faveur des travailleurs âgés, ont tendance à recourir à des stratégies de flexibilisation pour contenir leur masse salariale. Le recours à la rémunération variable (basée sur la performance individuelle ou collective) et le recours à la flexibilité numérique (temps partiel et contrat à durée déterminée) sont des exemples de stratégies poursuivies par les entreprises. Ces deux tendances coïncidaient avec un vieillissement de la main-d'œuvre, une intensification de la concurrence étrangère ainsi qu'une féminisation et une tertiarisation du marché du travail. Bien que le travail à temps partiel puisse répondre au besoin de flexibilité des travailleurs âgés, il ne répond que partiellement aux attentes de ces derniers. Une meilleure qualité de travail (intéressant, moins stressant ou moins demandant physiquement) et une flexibilité des conditions de travail qui permettraient de concilier le travail et la vie personnelle, sont des facteurs aussi importants que le travail à temps partiel dans la décision de demeurer sur le marché du travail. Par ailleurs, bien que le recours à la flexibilité numérique puisse être une voie prometteuse pour attirer et retenir une main-d'œuvre vieillissante, elle présente des risques à long terme. En effet, le recours accru à cette flexibilité pourrait générer, à long terme, un sous investissement dans la formation et un manque d'accès aux avantages sociaux, particulièrement les régimes de retraite. Alors que le problème d'accès aux régimes de retraite fait partie des préoccupations récentes des politiques publiques, celui de l'accès à la formation n'a pas eu la même attention. Sachant que les travailleurs âgés seront appelés à changer d'employeur, de profession et même de secteur d'activité s'ils veulent demeurer actifs, l'acquisition et la mise à jour des compétences sont une condition sine qua non à la réussite des stratégies qui visent le prolongement de la vie active des travailleurs âgés.

Source : http://www.cirano.qc.ca/pdf/publication/2012RP-02.pdf

Psychosocial factors and economic recession

The Stormont Study
Background: Little research has explored changes in workers' psychosocial hazard exposures, work-related stress and stress-related absence associated with the onset of unprecedented severe economic recession.Knowledge of these could inform psychosocial risk management measures appropriate to austere economic times.
Aims: To examine civil servants' psychosocial hazard exposures, work-related stress and stress-related absence during a period of economic recession, relative to levels prior to the onset of this period.
Methods: Analyses compared the findings of two surveys of employees of the Northern Ireland Civil Service conducted in 2005 (n 5 17 124), prior to the onset of recession, and in 2009 (n 5 9913), during a period of economic recession.
Results: Psychosocial hazard exposures were significantly worse during the recession than prior to it. These results are considered in relation toUKgovernment exposure targets.Work-related stress and absence ascribed to work-related stress were significantly greater during recession than prior to it.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates adverse changes in psychosocial hazard exposures, work-related stress prevalence and stress-related sickness absence associated with the onset of an unprecedented economic recession. Its findings indicate the need for a concerted focus on psychosocial risk management activities during austere economic times as a means by which to promote worker health and minimize sickness absence.

Source : J. Houdmont, R. Kerr and K. Addley. Psychosocial factors and economic recession: the Stormont Study. Occup Med. 2012, 62 (2), p. 98-104.

L’impact des TIC sur les conditions de travail

Le développement des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) dans le monde professionnel a été rapide et massif. Aujourd'hui, près de deux tiers des actifs occupés et 100% des entreprises de plus de 20 salariés les utilisent dans leurs activités professionnelles. Les répercussions sur les activités de l'entreprise ont été généralement très importantes mais l'impact sur les conditions de travail n'avait jamais fait l'objet d'une réflexion d'ensemble.
Les effets des TIC sur les conditions de travail sont nombreux et souvent positifs, mais ils peuvent également se révéler défavorables. Ce peut être le cas pour le rythme et l'intensité du travail, le contrôle de l'activité, l'autonomie des salariés, l'affaiblissement des relations interpersonnelles et/ou des collectifs de travail. La propension des TIC à brouiller les frontières spatiales et temporelles, entre travail et hors-travail, peut également poser problème tout comme leur contribution à la surcharge d'informations. La question de leurs effets sur la santé au travail reste posée. 
Suite aux travaux menés conjointement par le Centre d'analyse stratégique et la Direction générale du travail pendant 18 mois, ce rapport propose quatre axes d'action et vingt propositions destinés à l'ensemble des acteurs de l'entreprise et de l'écosystème des TIC.

Source : http://www.anact.fr/portal/page/portal/web/publications/NOTINMENU_affichage_document?p_thingIdToShow=25049610

Measuring the dynamics of organisational change and restructuring

The Meadow project aims to establish Guidelines for collecting and interpreting data on organisational change and restructuring and their economic and social impact. The Guidelines contain two surveys: one for employers and one for employees. The surveys contain a wide range of questions relating to organisational dynamics and organisational change, capturing data from the perspective of both the employer and the employee.

Source : http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/surveyreports/EU1111011D/EU1111011D.htm

Sleep and Work

We know that sleep is important.  The need for sleep is biologically similar to the need to eat and drink, and it is critical for maintaining life and health and for working safely.  Sleeping 7 to 8 hours a night is linked with a wide range of better health and safety outcomes. NIOSH has been actively involved in research to protect workers, workers' families, employers, and the community from the hazards linked to long work hours and shift work. In honor of National Sleep Awareness Week, we have summarized the sleep and work issue below and, in a companion blog tomorrow, will highlight NIOSH research in this area.

Source : http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2012/03/sleep-and-work/

Accompagner le travail des jeunes

Dossier spécial dans Travail & changement, No 342, Mars / Avril 2012
Si l'accès des jeunes à l'emploi est souvent repensé, rien n'est réellement imaginé pour les accompagner lors des premiers pas au travail. L'Anact pointe l'importance de cette période déterminante.

Source : http://www.anact.fr/portal/pls/portal/docs/1/10316379.PDF

Impact de la récession sur les politiques de gestion des âges

L'étude Eurofound sur les restructurations en période de récession et la participation au marché du travail (Restructuring in recession and labour force participation) a examiné les pratiques des entreprises en matière de gestion des âges, à la lueur des restructurations réalisées pendant la récession. Cette étude portait sur les politiques liées au maintien dans l'emploi des travailleurs plus âgés (50 ans et plus) au niveau national et à celui des établissements, dans neuf États membres de l'Union européenne: Autriche, Belgique, République tchèque, Hongrie, Lettonie, Pays-Bas, Espagne, Suède et Royaume-Uni.

Source : http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef1175_fr.htm

Heart rate variability and endothelial function after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep among male shift and non-shift workers

OBJECTIVES: Endothelial dysfunction and alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) as well as sleep deprivation and shift work have been associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare HRV and endothelial function among shift and matched non-shift workers in response to total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep under identical laboratory settings.
METHODS: Eleven experienced male shift workers (shift work ≥5 years) and 14 non-shift workers were matched for age, body mass index, and cholesterol. HRV parameters [eg, HR variance and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio] were derived from 5-minute electrocardiogram bins at 0.25, 4.25, 11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 hours after habitual wake-up time and endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) using ultrasound at 0.75 and 10.75 hours after habitual wake-up time, following baseline sleep, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep (posture- and food-controlled throughout). Circadian phase was assessed before baseline sleep by salivary dim light melatonin onset.
RESULTS: There was no difference in circadian phase between shift and non-shift workers. HR variance was highest at 0.25 hours following total sleep deprivation and lowest after recovery sleep. A significantly higher LF/HF ratio, significantly lower HR variance, and a trend for a lower %FMD (P=0.08) were observed among shift compared to non-shift workers.
CONCLUSION: Despite similar demographics, circadian phase, posture and food intake, differences in endothelial function and HRV were observed in the two groups, which may reflect higher sympathetic and/or lower parasympathetic activity, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk among the shift workers.

Source : Wehrens SMT, Hampton SM, Skene DJ. Heart rate variability and endothelial function after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep among male shift and non-shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012;38(2):171-181.

Occupational Injury in America

An analysis of risk factors using data from the General Social Survey (GSS)
Introduction : Although much is known about the distribution of occupational injury in terms of various job and employment factors, considerably less is known about other possible risk factors, particularly those involving psychosocial and organizational factors. These factors have not been emphasized in most injury surveillance systems or large scale, population based surveys.
Method : In this study, data from the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) and NIOSH Quality of Work Life (QWL) module were used to examine the risk of occupational injury in terms of socio-demographic factors, employment characteristics, and organizational factors.
Results : The most informative results were obtained from Poisson regression analyses, which identified race, occupational category, and work-family interference as risk factors, and safety climate and organizational effectiveness as protective factors for occupational injury. These results provide guidance for targeting interventions and protective measures to curtail occupational injury in the United States.

Source : Todd D. Smith, David M. DeJoy. Journal of Safety Research. 2012.

An assessment of the level of compliance with the statutory duty to obtain insurance under the Employers' Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969

Final Report
HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness. It is an independent regulator and acts in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain's workplaces. In doing so, it:
- protects people from serious harm at work and helps businesses to manage risk sensibly;
- prosecutes those who put others at risk;
- provides authoritative and specialist advice, research and statistics; and
- provides a vital public interest role and helps avoid over-regulation.
If employees become ill or injured at work, they might be able to claim compensation from their employer. The ELCI Act (1969) requires that employers take out insurance against such claims. There are some exemptions to this, including public bodies, and those employing specified relatives only. Previous research in this area has found inconsistent levels of compliance, and some of it is quite out-of-date. This research was undertaken to provide a robust measure of levels of compliance in order to support policy development in this area.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr844.htm

Violence towards personnel in out-of-hours primary care

A cross-sectional study
Objective. To investigate (1) the prevalence of occupational violence in out-of-hours (OOH) primary care, (2) the perceived cause of violence, and (3) the associations between occupation, gender, age, years of work, and occupational violence. Design. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Setting. Twenty Norwegian OOH primary care centres. Subjects. Physicians, nurses, and others with patient contact at OOH primary care centres, 536 responders (75% response rate). Main outcome measures. Verbal abuse, threats, physical abuse, sexual harassment. Results. In total, 78% had been verbally abused, 44% had been exposed to threats, 13% physically abused, and 9% sexually harassed during the last 12 months. Significantly more nurses were associated with verbal abuse (OR 3.85, 95% confidence interval 2.17-6.67) after adjusting for gender, age, and years in OOH primary care. Males had a higher risk for physical abuse (OR 2.36, CI 1.11-5.05) and higher age was associated with lower risk for sexual harassment (OR 0.28, CI 0.14-0.59), when adjusted for background variables. Drug influence and mental illness were the most frequently perceived causes for the last occurring episode of physical abuse, threats, and verbal abuse. Conclusion. This first study on occupational violence in Norwegian OOH primary care found that a substantial number of health care workers experience occupational violence from patients or visitors. The employer should take action to prevent occupational violence in OOH primary care.

Source : Joa TS, Morken T. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 2012; 30: 55–60.

Association between change in employment status and new-onset depressive symptoms in South Korea

A gender analysis
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association of change in employment status with new-onset depressive symptoms, particularly differences stemming from workers' gender, in South Korea.
Methods: We analyzed data from the ongoing Korean Welfare Panel Study. After excluding participants who had depressive symptoms at baseline (2007), we analyzed 2891 participants who became a precarious or permanent worker or unemployed at follow-up (2008) among waged workers who were permanent or precarious workers at baseline. Workers were classified as permanent workers if they had full-time, secure jobs and were directly hired by their employers; workers not meeting all these criteria were classified as precarious workers. Depressive symptoms were assessed annually using the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. To reduce potential bias due to pre-existing health conditions, we also examined the association in a subpopulation excluding participants with any pre-existing chronic disease or disability.
Results: Compared to those who maintained permanent employment, workers who became unemployed following precarious employment had higher odds of developing depressive symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01–5.25]. In gender-stratified analyses, new-onset depressive symptoms were strongly associated with the change from precarious to permanent employment (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20–5.52) as well as the change from permanent to precarious employment (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.24–6.66) among females; no significant association was observed in the male subpopulation.
Conclusions: This study found that changes from precarious to permanent work or from permanent to precarious work were associated with new-onset depressive symptoms among South Korean women.

Source : Kim S-S, Subramanian SV, Sorensen G, Perry MJ, Christiani DC. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.

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