2012-08-01 12:00 - Messages

TIC et conditions de travail. Les enseignements de l’enquête COI

 Le débat social a questionné récemment le rôle des TIC (technologies de l’information et de la communication) dans la souffrance au travail. En replaçant les conditions de travail dans le contexte de l’entreprise, le dispositif d’enquêtes couplées COI (Changements organisationnels et Informatisation) permet d’aborder de manière inédite les liens entre TIC et conditions de travail.

Source : Greenan, N.; Sylvie Hamon-Cholet, S.; Moatty, F.; Rosanvallon, J. TIC et conditions de travail. Les enseignements de l’enquête COI. Centre d'études de l'emploi, (juin 2012) 201 p. http://www.cee-recherche.fr/fr/rapports/77-tic-conditions-travail-enseignements-enquete-coi.pdf

Adapting ‘The Normal’ – Examining Relations between Youth, Risk and Accidents at Work

People between 18 and 24 years of age are more exposed to accidents at work than anyone else. This article examines how safety is experienced and practiced among young employees. The aim of the article is to examine relations among youth, risk, and occupational safety. The article offers an insight into young employees' narratives of risk situations at work. It examines the ways young employees in different organizational contexts talk about – and relate to – dangerous situations at work that they have experienced themselves. Safety is according to Silvia Gherardi considered as a product of situated ‘activity of everyday practices' in organizations. Parallel to this, the article draws on Diane Vaughan's theorizing about organizational production of ‘acceptable risk' and organizational deviances in socially organized settings. The article shows how young employees position themselves – and are positioned – in organizations within different discourses of risk and safety because they are young and as a part of practicing youth.

Source : Nielsen, M.L.. Adapting ‘The Normal' – Examining Relations between Youth, Risk and Accidents at Work. . Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, vol. 2, no 2, 2012.   http://ej.lib.cbs.dk/index.php/nordicwl/article/view/3555/38


Risk factors for work-related injuries among university student employees

This study identified contributing risk factors in the occurrence of work-related injuries among university students employed at a single university. Four hundred seventy-six student employees completed the survey in March 2010. The majority of respondents were female (66%) and the average age of all respondents was 20.7 yr. A pre-validated survey instrument was taken from the Youth Employment and School Study (YESS) and contained scales for the risk factors of interest. Results show significant differences in the amount of work-school conflict, boredom, workplace hazards, and workload between injured and non-injured groups. Odds ratios show that physical hazards and heavy workload have a significant two-fold increase on the likelihood of 1-3 injuries (OR=1.80, 1.09-3.00; OR=1.72, 1.12-2.60), and a 2 to 3 fold increase in 4 or more injuries (OR=2.94, 1.65-5.24; OR=2.34,1.51-3.64). Good supervisor relations appear to reduce injury risk (OR=0.48, 0.25-0.91; OR=0.59, 0.32-1.09). Reducing workload stress, teaching students how to manage the workload, reducing exposure to physical hazards, and providing examples of standard work practices may reduce the number of injuries seen in the population.

Source : Risk factors for work-related injuries among university student employees.  Ou J, Thygerson SM. Ind. Health 2012; ePub. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/advpub/0/advpub_MS1249/_pdf

Job strain linked to circulatory disease in women

A major US study has linked high strain, active jobs to a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in female health professionals. The study examined the relationship between job strain and job insecurity and rates of CVD among the 22,086 participants in the Women's Health Study (WHS). The authors, writing in the online journal PLoS ONE, note: 'This 10 year prospective study of female health professionals revealed that women with active jobs (high demand, high control) and high strain (high demand, low control) were 38 per cent more likely to experience a first CVD event relative to women reporting low job strain, adjusting age, race, study drug randomisation, education, and income.' They conclude: 'Our findings suggest the need to develop interventions to improve psychosocial characteristics of the work environment since this may have long-term benefits for cardiovascular health in women. Similarly, research is needed to develop and validate employee work models that minimise work stress. From a clinical perspective, it may be useful for health professionals to screen patients for psychosocial stressors and to connect individuals to resources for healthy stress management.'

Source : Slopen N, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Lewis TT, Williams DR and others (2012). Job Strain, Job Insecurity, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Women's Health Study: Results from a 10-Year Prospective Study. PLoS ONE 7(7): e40512. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040512

La transmission des savoirs de métier et de prudence par les travailleurs expérimentés - Comment soutenir cette approche dynamique de formation dans les milieux de travail

Une étude préalable a démontré que le savoir d'usineurs et de cuisiniers expérimentés constitue une richesse transmissible qui favorise l'intégration et le maintien en emploi de travailleurs moins exercés ainsi que leur santé et leur sécurité. Cette recherche consiste à déterminer les conditions propices à la transmission des savoirs de prudence de quatre métiers différents et posant des risques divers, soit auxiliaire familiale et sociale, cuisinier d'établissement, technicien de cinéma et infirmière de soins à domicile. Les résultats anticipés contribueront à la recherche de stratégies optimales de formation continue en milieu de travail et aux efforts de prévention des lésions professionnelles que mènent des partenaires de l'Institut. Le Fonds national de formation de la main-doeuvre d'Emploi-Québec contribue financièrement à cette étude.
Cette étude a été financée par l'IRSST en collaboration avec la Commission des partenaires du marché du travail (CPMT).

Source : Cloutier, E.; Fournier, P.-S.; Ledoux, É. ; Gagnon, I. ; Beauvais, A. ; Vincent-Genod, C. Études et recherches / Rapport  R-740, Montréal, IRSST, 2012, 182 p.


Training promotes safer practices

A systematic review led by the Institute for Work & Health shows that training positively influences worker practices, making it an important part of multi-component health and safety programs. The review concluded that health and safety training promotes safer practices among workers and, as such, should be delivered by workplaces as part of a larger OHS program. On its own, however, training will not necessarily prevent injuries and illnesses.

Source : At Work, Issue 69, Summer 2012: Institute for Work & Health, Toronto.  https://www.iwh.on.ca/at-work/69/training-promotes-safer-practices


Shiftwork linked to heart disease risk

Shiftworkers are at increased risk of heart attacks and strokes, according to a new study. The authors, whose findings are published online in the British Medical Journal, say their research is the largest analysis of shiftwork and vascular risk to date and 'has implications for public policy and occupational medicine.' The team of researchers from Canada and Norway analysed 34 studies. In total, there were 17,359 coronary events of some kind, including cardiac arrests, 6,598 heart attacks and 1,854 strokes caused by lack of blood to the brain. These events were more common in shiftworkers than in other people. The BMJ study calculated that shiftwork was linked to a 23 per cent increased risk of heart attack, 24 per cent increased risk of a coronary event and 5 per cent increased risk of stroke. The researchers took the socioeconomic status of the workers, their diet and general health into account in their findings. The study concludes: 'Shiftworkers should be educated about cardiovascular symptoms in an effort to forestall or avert the earliest clinical manifestations of disease. Evidence also exists in the literature to suggest that modification and rationalisation of shift schedules may yield dividends in terms of healthier, more productive workers; however, the long term effects of these alterations on vascular outcomes remain unknown. 

Source : Shift work and vascular events: systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ 2012;345:e4800, published 26 July 2012.


Conditions de travail et seniors : quelques expériences

Dans le cadre d'une étude pour le COCT, une trentaine d'initiatives a été observée dans treize entreprises. Quatre d'entre elles sont plus particulièrement rapportées, afin d'illustrer la diversité des démarches adoptées, des difficultés rencontrées (et, dans une certaine mesure, surmontées), et des modes d'application de la loi.

Source : Volkoff, S. ; Jolivet, A. et al. Conditions de travail et seniors : quelques expériences. Connaissance de l'emploi, 05/2012. 4 p.  http://www.cee-recherche.fr/fr/connaissance_emploi/92-conditions-travail-seniors-experiences.pdf

Étude : le stress constitue un danger professionnel supplémentaire pour les agents de police

Une étude révèle que le stress lié au travail de policier entraîne de graves risques pour la santé. Comme on peut s'y attendre, les niveaux de stress élevés font partie intégrante du travail des quelque 70 000 agents de police au Canada (et de 860 000 policiers aux États-Unis). Une étude récente a révélé que le stress psychologique ressenti par les agents de police dans le cadre de leurs tâches quotidiennes les expose à un risque accru de souffrir de maladies cardiaques, d'un accident vasculaire cérébral et de diabète, de même que de développer d'autres problèmes de santé physique et mentale. Ils pourraient même être exposés à un risque de suicide accru. Une étude intitulée « Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) » a permis d'évaluer 464 agents de police du service de police de Buffalo, sur une période de cinq ans, afin d'examiner les liens qui existent entre le stress attribué au travail de policier et ses effets sur la santé psychologique et physique. Selon le chercheur principal de l'étude, le Dr John Violanti, professeur de médecine sociale et préventive à l'Université de Buffalo, les conclusions révèlent que le travail de policier lui-même peut influer grandement sur la santé des agents de police.

Source : http://www.cchst.ca/newsletters/hsreport/issues/2012/07/ezine.html




Study finds persistence of higher injury risk for new workers

We know that newly hired workers face a higher injury rate. Recent research from the Institute for Work & Health finds that the higher risk of work injury among new workers has persisted over the past ten years. This suggests workplaces need to do more to ensure new workers get the training and supervision they need to stay safe on the job.

Source : At Work, Issue 69, Summer 2012: Institute for Work & Health, Toronto http://www.iwh.on.ca/at-work/69/study-finds-persistence-of-higher-injury-risk-for-new-workers


Flexicurity: Actions at Company Level

The aim of flexicurity is to improve employment opportunities for workers, while at the same time increasing flexibility, enabling organisations to adapt their operations and employment levels to business needs. The past few years have, however, been particularly challenging for European labour markets: the recent financial crisis and recession have had an inevitable negative impact on EU labour markets and unemployment levels. This has called into question the effectiveness of the flexicurity strategy in terms of supporting vulnerable workers. Eurofound research in six EU Member States analysed company initiatives targeting young workers, older workers and women.

Source :

Surveillance médicale des travailleurs postés et/ou de nuit

La Société française de médecine du travail (SFMT) a publié en mai 2012 des recommandations de bonnes pratiques pour la surveillance médico-professionnelle des travailleurs postés et/ou de nuit. Cette démarche répond à une préoccupation publique d'importance, puisque environ 2 salariés sur 3 ont des horaires dits atypiques. La SFMT rappelle d'autre part que chez la femme le travail posté et/ou de nuit est un facteur de risque probable de cancer du sein.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/header/actualites/surveillance-travailleur-nuit.html

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