2016-04-01 12:00 - Messages

What is the preferred number of consecutive night shifts?

Results from a crossover intervention study among police officers in Denmark
Among police officers in Denmark, we studied (i) how many consecutive night shifts participants preferred at baseline; (ii) preferences regarding three intervention conditions (two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts followed by the same number of days off/day shifts: ‘2 + 2', ‘4 + 4', ‘7 + 7') at follow-up; (iii) characteristics of participants preferring each of these intervention conditions. Questionnaire data from a crossover intervention study were used (baseline: n = 73; follow-up: n = 68). At baseline, 49% preferred four consecutive night shifts. At follow-up, 57% preferred ‘4 + 4', 26% preferred ‘2 + 2' and 26% preferred ‘7 + 7'. Participants, who preferred longer spells of night work experienced that night work was less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types compared with participants who preferred shorter spells of night work. The participants' preferences are likely to be influenced by their previous shift work experience.

Source: Nabe-Nielsen K, Jensen MA, Hansen ÅM, et al. Ergonomics, 2016.

Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

A prospective study of 1876 senior employees
PURPOSE: Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement in a longitudinal study. METHODS: Data about work environment, health, and background factors came from the DANES 2008 questionnaire survey. We followed members of the Danish early retirement scheme for up to 4 years in national registers-focusing on the age range, 60-64 years, where early retirement was possible. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to analyze the rate of early retirement. RESULTS: The study included 16 psychosocial work environment factors. The following 10 psychosocial factors were significant predictors of early retirement in covariate adjusted analyses: Low job satisfaction, low influence in job, low possibilities for development, low role clarity, perceived age discrimination, low recognition from management, low workplace justice, poor trust in management, poor leadership quality, and poor predictability. No significant association with early retirement was found for work pace, quantitative demands, emotional demands, role conflicts, social community between colleagues, and trust between colleagues. CONCLUSION: Older employees with high job satisfaction, influence, possibilities for development, positive management relations, and jobs with no age discrimination remained longer at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees' decision on early retirement.

Source: Thorsen SV, Jensen PH, Bjørner JB. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2016.

A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Investigating the Impact of a Workplace Resilience Program During a Time of Significant Organizational Change

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a short-term resilience intervention as measured by the Resilience at Work (RAW) scale.
Methods: A 5-week resilience program was implemented with 28 volunteers and assessed by the 20-item RAW scale. The scale was administered electronically and participants were match paired into either a treatment or control group. Statistical analysis was conducted using a 2?×?2 group (Treatment, control) × time (pre, post) analysis of variance with repeated measures.
Results: Postintervention time point RAW total score was significantly greater in the treatment group (P?<?0.01) and statistical significance was also achieved for four of the seven subscales.
Conclusion: Employee resilience can be improved via specific educational and skills training requiring a total time commitment of just 5?hours, making this intervention feasible for most working environments.

Source: Rogerson, Shane; Meir, Rudi; Crowley-McHattan, Zac; McEwen, Kathryn; Pastoors, Rachel. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2016, Volume 58, Issue 4, p. 329-334.

Effort-reward imbalance at work and the risk of antidepressant treatment in the Danish workforce

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that high effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work is a risk factor for the onset of self-reported depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined whether ERI predicts risk of treatment with antidepressant medication in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. METHODS: We linked survey data on ERI and covariates of 4541 participants from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2000 with the Danish National Prescription Registry that includes all legally purchased prescription drugs at pharmacies in Denmark since 1995. Participants with a history of antidepressant treatment or with self-reported depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Using Cox proportional hazard analyses we examined the prospective association between ERI at baseline and incident antidepressant treatment while adjusting for potential confounders. Time of follow-up was 5 years. RESULTS: A total of 309 (6.8%) participants started antidepressant treatment during follow-up. Exposure to ERI at baseline was not related to risk of antidepressant treatment (hazard ratio: 0.91, 95% CI=0.81-1.03 after adjustment for potential confounders). LIMITATIONS: The use of antidepressant treatment as an indicator for onset of depression might have led to misclassification, because (a) antidepressants are also used to treat other conditions than depression and (b) a considerable proportion of individuals with depression are not treated with antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: ERI did not predict incident antidepressant treatment, contradicting previous findings on ERI and self-reported depression. To clarify the association of ERI with risk of depression, we recommend further prospective studies using non-self-reported measures of ERI, clinical assessments of depression, or both.

Source: Nielsen MB, Madsen IEH, Aust B, et al. Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 196, 15 May 2016, p. 248-251.

Bien-être et qualité de vie au travail, risques psychosociaux: de quoi parle-t-on ?

Pas un débat sur la santé au travail sans que les termes de bien-être au travail, de qualité de vie au travail ou de risques psychosociaux ne soient employés. Mais que recouvrent exactement ces notions? D'où sont-elles issues? À quels objectifs de prévention des risques répondent-elles? Cet article examine les spécificités, les différences et les complémentarités de ces approches.

Source: Vincent Grosjean, Sandrine Guyot. Hygiène et sécurité du travail, mars 2016, no 242.

Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioral performance during a subsequent simulated night shift

Objective: This study aimed to investigate sleep and circadian phase in the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and the number of consecutive shifts worked.
Methods: Thirty-four shift workers [20 men, mean age 31.8 (SD 10.9) years] worked 2–7 consecutive night shifts immediately prior to a laboratory-based, simulated night shift. For 7 days prior, participants worked their usual shift sequence, and sleep was assessed with logs and actigraphy. Participants completed a 10-minute auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at the start (~21:00 hours) and end (~07:00 hours) of the simulated night shift. Mean reaction times (RT), number of lapses and RT distribution was compared between those who worked 2–3 consecutive night shifts versus those who worked 4–7 shifts.
Results: Following 4–7 shifts, night shift workers had significantly longer mean RT at the start and end of shift, compared to those who worked 2–3 shifts. The slowest and fastest 10% RT were significantly slower at the start, but not end, of shift among participants who worked 4–7 nights. Those working 4–7 nights also demonstrated a broader RT distribution at the start and end of shift and had significantly slower RT based on cumulative distribution analysis (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th percentiles at the start of shift; 75th percentile at the end of shift). No group differences in sleep parameters were found for 7 days and 24 hours prior to the simulated night shift.
Conclusion: A greater number of consecutive night shifts has a negative impact on neurobehavioral performance, likely due to cognitive slowing.

Source: Magee M, Sletten TL, Ferguson SA, Grunstein RR, Anderson C, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2016.

Comment bien conduire un projet de conception?

Concentration, restructurations, nouveaux usages de consommation, marchés de compétition inédits, explosion numérique… Jamais les entreprises n'ont été prises dans un tel mouvement de mutations à la fois concomitantes et intégrées. Face à ce flux devenu structurel, leur capacité d'adaptation devient un ressort objectif de compétitivité et de pérennité. Pour mieux expliquer et défendre des transformations parfois douloureuses, beaucoup se rangent derrière un même mot d'ordre : « la conduite du changement ». En faisant de l'organisation la clé d'entrée de leurs modèles futurs, elles peuvent inverser la logique et mettre en oeuvre des approches globales, collaboratives et performantes.

Source: Travail & Changement, no 263, avril-mai-juin 2016.

Workplace Stress: A collective challenge

This report aims at presenting trends on work-related stress in both developed and developing countries with a view to raising awareness of the magnitude of the problem in the new context of the world of work. To this end it provides an interregional overview of the prevalence and impact of work-related stress, and examines legislation, policies and interventions for its management at international, regional, national and workplace levels. Through a Delphi survey it further identifies and assesses future scenarios and contributing factors in this field. The results of this study will also be used in supporting ILO constituents to take action in this field at
national and enterprise levels.
Focusing on the study of stress in the world of work has increased since the 1990s, particularly on the impact of workrelated stress on workers' health and its management. There has been growing attention on the effects of psychosocial hazards and risks and work-related stress among researchers and policymakers. Occupational safety and health (OSH) practice has expanded beyond its traditional scope to incorporate behavioural medicine, occupational health psychology and social wellbeing, thereby acknowledging people's need to conduct a socially and economically productive life.

Source: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---safework/documents/publication/wcms_466547.pdf

Être bien sur les lieux de travail quel que soit l’âge

Guide électronique
Le guide électronique «Être bien sur les lieux de travail quel que soit l'âge» fournit aux organisateurs des lieux de travail des informations et un soutien pour la gestion de la sécurité et de la santé au travail (SST) dans le contexte du vieillissement de la main-d'œuvre. Il vise à renforcer la prise de conscience et les connaissances concernant le vieillissement de la main d'oeuvre, le processus de vieillissement proprement dit et ses conséquences sur le lieu de travail, et à fournir des orientations pratiques sur la manière de faire face à ces enjeux.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/e-guide-all-ages

How Employers Can Keep Older Drivers Safe at Work

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of work-related deaths in the United States. Millions of workers, such as long-haul truck drivers, sales representatives, and home health care staff, drive or ride in a motor vehicle as part of their jobs. As our workforce ages, we need to pay special attention to the needs of older drivers in the workplace. The NIOSH Center for Motor Vehicle Safety recently released a new fact sheet that provides employers and workers information on age-related physical and mental changes that may affect older workers' driving, as well as resources and checklists for workers and employers to promote safe driving strategies.

Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2016/04/05/older-drivers/

Dépendance à la téléphonie mobile et risques associés

Revue de la littérature
L'augmentation du taux d'équipement en téléphones portables et Smartphones a été très rapide ces dernières années, tant dans la population générale qu'en milieu de travail. Cet essor s'accompagne de certains risques dont celui de la dépendance à la téléphonie mobile. Cet article fait état des données de la littérature de certains des risques pour la santé et la sécurité des usagers de ce type d'outil de communication (TMS, stress, risque routier...).

Source: http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?refINRS=RST.TP%2023

Age and Work-Related Health

Insights from the UK Labour Force Survey
Data from the UK Labour Force Survey (LFS) are used to examine two methodological issues in the analysis of the relationship between age and work-related health. First, the LFS is unusual in that it asks work-related health questions to those who are not currently employed. This facilitates a more representative analysis than that which is constrained to focus only on those currently in work. Second, information in the LFS facilitates a comparison of work-related health problems that stem from current employment to a more encompassing measure that includes those related to a former job. We find that accounting for each of these sources of bias increases the age work-related health risk gradient, and suggest that ignoring such effects will underestimate the work-related health implications of current policies to extend working lives.

Source: Rhys Davies, Melanie Jones and Huw Lloyd-Williams. British journal of industrial relations, vol. 54, no 1, mars 2016, p. 136-159.

Statistiques sur les lésions attribuables à la violence en milieu de travail

Cette publication documente, à l'aide de statistiques, les lésions causées par la violence en milieu de travail sous les aspects administratifs, médicaux et socio-économiques. Il comporte trois parties, soit la description de la population étudiée, les faits saillants ainsi que 24 tableaux de données statistiques. Les données contenues dans cette publication sont tirées des banques informationnelles de la CSST. ??

Source: http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/300/Pages/DC_300_255.aspx

Statistiques sur les lésions attribuables au stress en milieu de travail

Ce document présente des statistiques diverses sur les lésions attribuables au stress en milieu de travail. Il comporte trois parties. La première décrit la population étudiée. La seconde expose les faits saillants. La troisième est constituée de 31 tableaux de données statistiques. Enfin, une annexe précise certains détails sur l'extraction des données.?

Source: http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/300/Pages/DC_300_321.aspx

Les dimensions cachées du travail en open space

Le cas de téléconseillers en centres d'appels
La tertiarisation de l'économie et le développement de modes d'organisation recherchant la transversalité des échanges s'accompagnent d'une redéfinition des espaces de travail. L'aménagement des bureaux en open space s'est imposé ces deux dernières décennies comme une norme d'organisation spatiale du travail. Dans cet article, nous rendons compte des modes d'investissement et de réalisation de l'activité au sein de plateformes téléphoniques ouvertes accueillant des téléconseillers regroupés sur des bureaux partagés. Il s'agit de dépasser l'approche dominante dans les sciences sociales, privilégiant le travail sur l'espace, aux fins de développer une analyse du travail (de service) dans et avec l'espace. Dans cette perspective, nous montrerons que la constitution de significations et de marges d'autonomie ne relève pas seulement du réinvestissement d'un espace fonctionnel, mais aussi d'une action de superposition d'espaces de natures différentes: pratique, symbolique et sociale.

Source: Jérôme Cihuelo. Sociologie du travail, vol. 58, n°1, janvier-mars 2016, p. 57-79.

A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment

The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions.

Source: Zweber, Zandra M.; Henning, Robert A.; Magley, Vicki J. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol 21(2), Apr 2016, p. 250-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039895

Le bore-out, nouveau risque psychosocial?

Quand s'ennuyer au travail devient douloureux
Si la surcharge de travail peut être à l'origine du burnout, la baisse ou le manque d'activité de travail inscrit le bore-out au tableau des risques psychosociaux. Le " Bore-out Syndrom " prend racine dans les terreaux fertiles des réorganisations qui se succèdent, laissant des services entiers sans mission bien définie. Prévenir l'ennui au travail est devenu un enjeu fort en raison du risque de rupture d'équilibre autour de la centralité du travail. Les directions des Ressources humaines misent aujourd'hui davantage sur les compétences d'adaptation que sur les compétences métier pour pallier le risque de désengagement au travail. Pour éviter l'inconfort émotionnel dû aux ruminations et procrastinations, des stratégies de contournements se multiplient chez les salariés. Quoique mal perçu socialement et source de culpabilité chez ses victimes, le bore-out peut néanmoins révéler des talents... à condition de pouvoir en sortir.

Source: http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?refINRS=RST.TC%20153

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