2016-12-01 12:00 - Messages

Les travailleurs invisibles

Les risques pour la santé des travailleurs des agences de location de personnel
La croissance du marché de l'emploi atypique contribue à la précarisation des conditions de vie et de travail d'un nombre important de travailleurs. Bien que toutes les formes d'emploi atypique ne soient pas nécessairement précaires, elles offrent généralement une moins bonne protection sociale et des salaires moins élevés. Le travail par l'intermédiaire des agences de location de personnel, une forme d'emploi atypique, a augmenté significativement au Québec et au Canada au cours des dernières années, ce qui laisse à penser que le nombre de travailleurs touchés par des conditions d'emploi précaires a subi la même croissance.
Étant donné le manque de connaissances sur l'impact sanitaire de la précarité d'emploi et sur son potentiel d'accroître les inégalités sociales de santé sur l'île de Montréal, le directeur de santé publique de Montréal consacre son rapport de l'année 2016 aux travailleurs d'agence de location de personnel. Ce rapport vise deux objectifs : peindre un portrait des conditions de travail du personnel d'agence et proposer une feuille de route susceptible de les améliorer.

Source: http://www.dsp.santemontreal.qc.ca/fileadmin/documents/dossiers_thematiques/Autres_thematiques/Rapport_2016/Rapdir_2016_FR_Web.pdf

Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

A case-crossover study in two Danish emergency departments
In spite of numerous prevention efforts occupational injuries continue to be a global challenge. A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of eight specific transient risk factors for acute occupational injuries. The study identified several transient risk factors that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries, particularly for equipment and work practice-related factors.

Source: Østerlund AH, Lander F, Nielsen K, Kines P, Möller J, Lauritsen J. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort

Evidence on the association between shift work and mortality is limited. We found significantly enhanced all-cause, cardiovascular and diabetes mortality among nurses with night and evening shifts. We present novel finding of an increase in mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and potentially psychological disorders among night, evening, and rotating shift workers.

Source: Jørgensen JT, Karlsen S, Stayner L, Hansen J, Andersen ZJ. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health.

The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress

A group randomized intervention study using diary data
The results of this present study show beneficial effects on sleep and stress due to a worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers, including increased sleep duration during workdays. The paper may contribute to unresolved questions about the possible positive effects of implementing 6-hour workdays on employee's long-term health and work performance.

Source: Schiller H, Lekander M, Rajaleid K, Hellgren C, Åkerstedt T, Barck-Holst P, Kecklund G. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Bullying at Work: Cognitive Appraisal of Negative Acts, Coping, Wellbeing, and Performance

The negative outcomes of experiencing workplace bullying are well documented, but a strong theoretical explanation for this has been relatively neglected. We draw on cognitive appraisal theory to suggest that individuals' appraisals of and responses to negative acts at work will moderate the impact of said acts on wellbeing and performance outcomes. In a large study (N = 3,217) in Southeast Asia, we examine moderators in the form of (a) the extent to which individuals identify themselves as being bullied and (b) the coping strategies that individuals use to deal with negative acts. We find that these factors do moderate the impact of experiencing negative acts, in particular work-related negative acts. When individuals are subject to work-related negative acts but do not see themselves as being bullied they report higher levels of performance than those who do identify themselves as being bullied. Problem-focused coping was found to be effective for those sometimes targeted, but for persistent targets was detrimental to wellbeing. The present research has important implications for bullying research in examining factors that contribute to outcomes of bullying.

Source: Hewett, R., Liefooghe, A., Visockaite, G., & Roongrerngsuke, S. (2016). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.

Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector

The 5th International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector was held on October 26-28, 2016. This year's theme was "Broadening our view – responding together."

Source: http://www.oudconsultancy.nl/Resources/Proceedings_5th_ICVHS_Dublin.pdf

Work-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Problems Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain in Nurses

A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results. Analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the hospital's nursing population). The overall prevalence of MSP was 70% in the past year and 64% in the past month. Lower back (57%) and neck (56%) were the body areas most commonly painful in the past year. Higher quantitative and emotional demands, work pace, low justice and respect in the workplace, influence on work organisation, and role conflicts were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among nurses. All mental health problems and most strongly somatic stress symptoms were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems, especially somatic stress symptoms, have an important impact on the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among university hospital nurses.

Source: Freimann, T., Pääsuke, M., & Merisalu, E. (2016). Pain Research and Management.

Emotional Labour and Wellbeing: What Protects Nurses?

Although compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for patients, it can be emotionally demanding for healthcare staff. This may be a particular problem for those with little experience in a caring role. This study utilises the job demands-resources model to examine links between “emotional labour” and emotional exhaustion in student nurses. In line with the triple-match principle—whereby interactive effects are more likely when job demands, resources, and outcomes are within the same qualitative domain—the protective role of emotional support and emotion-focused coping (i.e., emotional venting) in the relationship between emotional labour and exhaustion is also explored. An online questionnaire was completed by 351 student nurses with experience working in healthcare settings. A strong positive relationship was found between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion, and some support was found for the moderating effects of emotional support and emotion-focused coping. Ways to help student and qualified nurses develop the emotional resilience required to protect their wellbeing, while providing high-quality compassionate care to patients are considered.

Source: Kinman, G., & Leggetter, S. (2016). Healthcare, 4 (4).

The demands and resources arising from shared office spaces

The prevalence of flexible and shared office spaces is increasing significantly, yet the socioemotional outcomes associated with these environments are under researched. Utilising the job demands-resources (JD-R) model we investigate both the demands and the resources that can accrue to workers as a result of shared work environments and hot-desking. Data were collected from work experienced respondents (n = 1000) assessing the extent to which they shared their office space with others, along with demands comprising distractions, uncooperative behaviours, distrust, and negative relationships, and resources from co-worker friendships and supervisor support. We found that, as work environments became more shared (with hot-desking being at the extreme end of the continuum), not only were there increases in demands, but co-worker friendships were not improved and perceptions of supervisory support decreased. Findings are discussed in relation to employee well-being and recommendations are made regarding how best to ameliorate negative consequences of shared work environments.

Source: Morrison, R. L., & Macky, K. A. (2017). Applied Ergonomics, 60, 103-115.

Men, Work, and Mental Health

A Systematic Review of Depression in Male-dominated Industries and Occupations
Among men, depression is often unrecognised and untreated. Men employed in male-dominated industries and occupations may be particularly vulnerable. However, efforts to develop tailored workplace interventions are hampered by lack of prevalence data. A systematic review of studies reporting prevalence rates for depression in male dominated workforce groups was undertaken. Studies were included if they were published between 1990 - June 2012 in English, examined adult workers in male-dominated industries or occupations (> 70% male workforce), and used clinically relevant indicators of depression. Twenty studies met these criteria. Prevalence of depression ranged from 0.0% to 28.0%. Five studies reported significantly lower prevalence rates for mental disorders among male-dominated workforce groups than comparison populations, while six reported significantly higher rates. Eight studies additionally found significantly higher levels of depression in male-dominated groups than comparable national data. Overall, the majority of studies found higher levels of depression among workers in male-dominated workforce groups. There is a need to address the mental health of workers in male-dominated groups. The workplace provides an important but often overlooked setting to develop tailored strategies for vulnerable groups.

Source: Roche, A. M., Pidd, K., Fischer, J. A., Lee, N., Scarfe, A., & Kostadinov, V. (2016). Safety and Health at Work.

Empirical measurement and improvement of hazard recognition skill

One explanation for high injury rates and the recent plateau in construction safety performance is that workers remain unable to recognize and manage hazards in dynamic and transient construction environments. This notion is supported by recent experimental studies, which revealed that workers are typically unable to identify and manage over 55% of hazards in their immediate work environment. These alarming discoveries prompted a series of multiple baseline experiments that tested three interventions thought to improve hazard recognition. In these studies, data were gathered from over 3000 h of field observations with 103 workers and hazard recognition performance was measured before and after each intervention was introduced. All three interventions caused improvement in overall hazard recognition performance; however, each intervention's impact on the recognition of specific types of hazards was not evaluated. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by presenting and in-depth analysis of these data that: (1) elucidates micro-level hazard recognition across different hazard types and categories and (2) evaluates the hazard-specific impact of three recently developed interventions. The results reveal that gravity, motion, mechanical, and electrical hazards are associated with the highest baseline hazard recognition levels; whereas temperature, chemical, radiation, and biological hazards were the least recognized hazards in both the baseline and post-intervention phases. This suggests the need for targeted hazard recognition programs that focus on energy sources that are commonly missed.

Source: Albert, A., Hallowell, M. R., Skaggs, M., & Kleiner, B. (2017). Safety Science, 93, 1-8.

Methodology of improving occupational safety in the construction industry on the basis of the TWI program

The article presents the way of using the Training Within Industry (TWI) program, derived from manufacturing processes, in the construction industry in order to improve occupational safety. The origin and meaning of the TWI program and its relation to the philosophy of Lean Management is also described. The article shows how a preventative approach to ensuring safety has developed over the years. It has been proved that human errors, and not technical problems, have the greatest impact on the occurrence of accidents. After literature surveys, three main root causes of human errors were defined and include: a lack of or poorly led training, badly defined and developed work standards and also a lack of supervision of employees. The statistics of fatal accidents in construction and manufacturing industries over several recent years in the UK were analyzed. It has been noted that in the construction industry the average accident level is much higher than in the manufacturing industry. Conclusions were used to develop a methodology of improving occupational safety in the construction industry. The developed methodology is based on the selected components from the TWI program and contributes to the elimination of problems associated with the three main root causes of human errors.

Source: Misiurek, K., & Misiurek, B. (2017). Safety Science, 92, 225-231.

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