2017-02-01 12:00 - Messages

L’épuisement professionnel ou burn out

Une réalité en mal de reconnaissance
Avec le stress au travail, le harcèlement moral et sexuel en entreprise et les violences au travail, l'épuisement professionnel participe de ces nouveaux risques pour la santé mentale, physique et sociale englobés sous le terme de risques psychosociaux ou RPS, risques engendrés par des conditions d'emploi et des facteurs organisationnels et relationnels susceptibles d'interagir avec le
fonctionnement mental. Signe d'une situation désormais critique, le Réseau national de vigilance et de prévention des pathologies professionnelles (RNV3P) constate qu'aujourd'hui les troubles psychosociaux et du comportement sont les premiers problèmes de santé au travail observés dans les centres de consultation de pathologies professionnelles (CCPP).
Au total, la mission d'information a élaboré 27 propositions, dont l'ambition est bien de permettre d'avancer dans la réalisation d'un état des lieux, sans jamais prétendre à l'exhaustivité, et de poursuivre deux objectifs majeurs: améliorer la santé au travail de la majorité des travailleurs et prendre en charge les victimes du burn out, si possible jusqu'à leur réinsertion professionnelle.

Source: http://gerardsebaoun.fr/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Rapport-version-provisoire.pdf

What do we know about emotional labour in nursing?

A narrative review
Nurses have to manage their emotions and the expression of emotion to perform best care, and their behaviours pass through emotional labour (EL). However, EL seems to be an under-appreciated aspect of caring work and there is no synthetic portrait of literature about EL in the nursing profession. This review was conducted to synthesise and to critically analyse the literature in the nursing field related to EL. Twenty-seven papers were included and analysed with a narrative approach, where two main themes were found: EL strategies and EL antecedents and consequences. Hence, EL is a multidimensional, complex concept and it represents a nursing competence to provide the best care. Moreover, nurses have a high awareness of EL as a professional competence, which is a fundamental element to balance engagement with an appropriate degree of detachment to accomplish tasks for best practice, and to provide high-quality patient care.

Source: Badolamenti, Sondra, Sili, Alessandro, Caruso, Rosario, & FidaFida, Roberta. (2017). BJN : British Journal of Nursing.

A Longitudinal Study of Teachers’ Occupational Well-Being

Applying the Job Demands-Resources Model
The job demands-resources model (JD-R model; Bakker & Demerouti, 2014) is well established in occupational research, and the proposed processes it posits have been replicated numerous times. Thus, the JD-R model provides an excellent framework for explaining the occupational well-being of beginning teachers—an occupation associated with particularly high levels of strain and consequently, high attrition rates. However, the model's assumptions have to date mostly been tested piecewise, and seldom on the basis of longitudinal models. With a series of longitudinal autoregressive SEM models (N = 1,700) we tested all assumptions of the JD-R model simultaneously in one model with an applied focus on beginning teachers. We assessed self-reports of beginning teachers at three time waves: at the beginning and end (one and a half to two years later) of their preservice period, and again, one year later. Results revealed significant direct effects of resources (self-efficacy) on engagement, of demands (classroom disturbances) on strain (emotional exhaustion), and a significant reverse path of engagement on self-efficacy. Additionally, the results showed two moderation effects: Self-efficacy buffered the demands-strain relationship, while self-efficacy also predicted engagement, especially when disturbances were high. Thus, self-efficacy in classroom management plays an important role in the teachers' stress development process, as it will, in case of high classroom disturbances, not only buffer the strain-enhancing effects, but also boost engagement. Commitment was predicted directly by emotional exhaustion and engagement, but indirectly only by self-efficacy (via engagement). Thus, we provide strong empirical support for the JD-R model.

Source: Dicke, T., Stebner, F., Linninger, C., Kunter, M., Leutner, D. (2017). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.

Initier une démarche de prévention des RPS

Les risques psychosociaux (RPS) concernent tous les secteurs d'activité. Au même titre que les autres risques professionnels, ils doivent faire l'objet d'une démarche de prévention afin d'être repérés, évalués et intégrés dans le document unique.

Source: (2017). Travail & Sécurité (780).

Can work make you mentally ill

A systematic meta-review of work-related risk factors for common mental health problems
It has been suggested that certain types of work may increase the risk of common mental disorders, but the exact nature of the relationship has been contentious. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic meta-review of the evidence linking work to the development of common mental health problems, specifically depression, anxiety and/or work-related stress and to consider how the risk factors identified may relate to each other. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration and grey literature databases were systematically searched for review articles that examined work-based risk factors for common mental health problems. All included reviews were subjected to a quality appraisal. 37 review studies were identified, of which 7 were at least moderate quality. 3 broad categories of work-related factors were identified to explain how work may contribute to the development of depression and/or anxiety: imbalanced job design, occupational uncertainty and lack of value and respect in the workplace. Within these broad categories, there was moderate level evidence from multiple prospective studies that high job demands, low job control, high effort–reward imbalance, low relational justice, low procedural justice, role stress, bullying and low social support in the workplace are associated with a greater risk of developing common mental health problems. While methodological limitations continue to preclude more definitive statements on causation between work and mental disorders, there is now a range of promising targets for individual and organisational-level interventions aimed at minimising mental health problems in the workplace.

Source: Harvey, Samuel B., Modini, Matthew, Joyce, Sadhbh, Milligan-Saville, Josie S., Tan, Leona, Mykletun, Arnstein, Bryant, Richard A., Christensen, Helen, & Mitchell, Philip B. (2017). Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

Nursing student evaluation of NIOSH workplace violence prevention for nurses online course

Introduction: As primary targets of workplace violence in health care settings, nurses may suffer negative physical and psychological consequences. NIOSH created an online course to educate nurses about violence prevention techniques. Method: A mixed-methods approach assessed workplace violence awareness and knowledge among nursing students. A pre/post/post-test survey and focus group discussions evaluated participant awareness and knowledge, assessed course design, and solicited recommendations for increasing participation and strategies for improving message retention. Results: The mean awareness scores differed significantly between pre-course and both post-course time points (Wilk's λ = 0.319, F(2, 46) = 49.01, p < 0.001). Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that course participation increased awareness of workplace violence from pre-course scores (M = 0.75, SD = 0.438) to immediate post-course (M = 2.13, SD = 0.789) and four-week post-course (M = 1.96, SD = 0.771) scores on a 3-item measure. Similarly, mean knowledge scores increased between pre-course and both post-course time points (Wilk's λ = 0.495, F(1.57, 73.66) = 37.26, p < 0.001). Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that course participation increased knowledge of workplace violence from pre-course scores (M = 6.65, SD = 1.45) to immediate post-course (M = 8.56, SD = 1.32) and four-week post-course (M = 8.19, SD = 1.42) scores on a 10-item measure. Qualitative data from the focus groups reinforced the quantitative findings. Participants citing benefits from the content strongly recommended including the course in nursing curriculums. Incorporating the course early in the nursing educational experience will better prepare students to deal with workplace violence when they enter health care professions. Conclusions: The results indicate that NIOSH and its partners created an effective online workplace violence awareness and prevention course. Practical applications: Nursing students and professionals can be effectively educated about workplace violence using an online format.

Source: Brann, M., & Hartley, D. (2016). Journal of Safety Research.

Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of work

This report considers the impact of telework/ICT-mobile work on the world of work. It synthesises research carried out by Eurofound’s network of European correspondents and ILO country experts.

Source: http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/books/WCMS_544138/lang--fr/index.htm

Emergent risks to workplace safety as a result of IT connections of and between work equipment

The ever-greater integration of new technologies in work equipment is regarded by some as the fourth industrial revolution and referred to as ‘smart industry'. Examples that come to mind include automation through the use of embedded software, remotely controlling heavy materials, and the connecting of work equipment to local and public networks such as the internet. As well as the opportunities this entails for industry, new threats are also presenting themselves. This includes employees who have to move among robots or autonomous freight vehicles, but also malicious actors who can penetrate computers and computer networks and thereby disrupt processes or bring them to a standstill. The focus in this report lies on the connection between work equipment and cyberspace, including connections to local and public networks such as the internet.

Source: http://publications.tno.nl/publication/34622295/QDXZqU/steijn-2016-emergent.pdf

Fundamentals of Total Worker Health Approaches

Essential Elements for Advancing Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being
A Total Worker Health (TWH) approach is defined as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related safety and health hazards with promotion of injury and illness–prevention efforts to advance worker well-being. This workbook is a practical starting point for employers, workers, labor representatives, and other professionals interested in implementing workplace safety and health programs aligned with the Total Worker Health (TWH) approach. The workbook focuses on five Defining Elements of TWH.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2017-112/pdfs/2017_112.pdf

Aging and MSD: Strategies for older workers

The global population is aging with a projection that one in five people will be over the age of 60 by 2050. The Canadian population aged 65 and over is expected to double over the next 25 years. The Canadian workforce is also aging with a large proportion of workers (42.4%) in the 45 to 64 age group in 2011 and the average age of labor market participant predicted to continue to rise until 20314. However, it appears that very few Canadian companies have addressed the impact of an aging workforce on occupational health.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a burden to all industrial sectors. They present with pain and symptoms such as numbness and tingling. These symptoms may be warning signs of current or impending MSD, such as peripheral nerve entrapments, peripheral enthesopathies, and many other non-specific musculoskeletal pain disorders such as low back pain. There are concerns that MSD maybe more prevalent and costly among older workers, although the evidence supporting these concerns is not consistent. However, it would seem prudent for workplaces to consider strategies for healthy aging to address an aging workforce regardless.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently released their World Report on Ageing and Health which defines healthy aging as “the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables well-being in older age”6. The WHO report provides a framework for healthy aging. As part of the framework there are proposed strategies for creating age friendly environments that we propose can be adapted and applied to workplaces. The strategies include: i) combating ageism; ii) enabling autonomy, and iii) supporting healthy aging in policy. We suggest that these strategies are valuable for workplaces and by extension MSD and show some supporting research for each of them below.
As part of a scoping review of the literature we present some recent research addressing the WHO strategies and how they may apply to workplaces. We also drew on recent searches for larger ongoing systematic reviews carried out by a team of Institute for Work & Health researchers as part of the prevention review program, including: aging and return to work, return to work and upper extremity MSD prevention. Overall, we note that there is a lack of literature evaluating interventions or strategies related to older workers and MSD.

Source: https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-of-research-expertise-for-the-prevention-of-musculoskeletal-disorders/resources/position-papers/aging-and-msd-strategies-older-workers

« Mal aux pattes à en pleurer » : penser les articulations entre santé physique et santé mentale au travail

Ce numéro spécial de la revue Pistes s'intéresse aux liens, rarement explorés, entre dimensions physiques et psychiques de la santé au travail. Si, à première vue, dans une approche globale de la santé, ces deux dimensions seraient évidemment et naturellement liées, à regarder de près la jurisprudence, le déploiement de la prévention sur le terrain, ou encore les travaux académiques sur la santé au travail, troubles et risques, physiques et mentaux, semblent plutôt segmentés, voire cloisonnés. Un système d'oppositions binaires entre activités, risques et troubles, socialement situés, perdure, renforçant les frontières entre corps et âme. Ce numéro, en croisant le regard de chercheurs et de praticiens de disciplines diverses (ergonomie, droit du travail, médecine, psychologie, sociologie) offre, avec ses cinq articles et deux entretiens, un vaste panorama de réflexions sur l'articulation entre corps et esprit en santé au travail et réaffirme que le travail a des effets conjugués sur l'un comme sur l'autre.

Source: http://pistes.revues.org/4913

Are there any job resources capable of moderating the effect of physical demands on work ability?

A study among kindergarten teachers
Background. It is recognized that teaching in a preschool context is physically demanding. Despite this, the consequences of physical demands on psychophysical health (including work ability) are significantly understudied among kindergarten teachers. Objectives. The aim of the present study is to examine (a) the association between physical demands and work ability and (b) whether psychosocial job resources buffer the negative impact of physical demands among kindergarten teachers. Method. A total of 426 kindergarten teachers employed in the municipal educational services of a city in northwest Italy filled out a self-reported questionnaire. Results. High association was found between physical demand and work ability. Moderated hierarchical regressions showed that decision authority, skill discretion, reward and meaning of work buffer the hampering effect of physical demands and work ability. No buffering effects were observed for support from superiors and colleagues. Conclusion. The present study has relevant, practical implications, highlighting the importance of investing in interventions encompassing a holistic perspective (e.g., psychosocial and ergonomic) in order to effectively combat the hampering effect of physical demands on work ability.

Source: Viotti, Sara, Martini, Mara, & Converso, Daniela. (2016). JOSE : International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 1-28.

Psychosocial safety climate, emotional exhaustion, and work injuries in healthcare workplaces

Preventing work injuries requires a clear understanding of how they occur, how they are recorded, and the accuracy of injury surveillance. Our innovation was to examine how psychosocial safety climate (PSC) influences the development of reported and unreported physical and psychological workplace injuries beyond (physical) safety climate, via the erosion of psychological health (emotional exhaustion). Self-report data (T2, 2013) from 214 hospital employees (18 teams) were linked at the team level to the hospital workplace injury register (T1, 2012; T2, 2013; and T3, 2014). Concordance between survey-reported and registered injury rates was low (36%), indicating that many injuries go unreported. Safety climate was the strongest predictor of T2 registered injury rates (controlling for T1); PSC and emotional exhaustion also played a role. Emotional exhaustion was the strongest predictor of survey-reported total injuries and underreporting. Multilevel analysis showed that low PSC, emanating from senior managers and transmitted through teams, was the origin of psychological health erosion (i.e., low emotional exhaustion), which culminated in greater self-reported work injuries and injury underreporting (both physical and psychological). These results underscore the need to consider, in theory and practice, a dual physical–psychosocial safety explanation of injury events and a psychosocial explanation of injury underreporting.

Source: Zadow, A. J., Dollard, M. F., Mclinton, S. S., Lawrence, P., & Tuckey, M. R. (2017). Stress and Health.

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