2017-07-01 12:00 - Messages

Managers’ viewpoint on factors influencing their commitment to safety

An empirical investigation in five Finnish industrial organisations
Managers' strong commitment to safety is a key element of a successful safety management, culture and climate. Several studies have approached managers' commitment from the employees' point of view, but research approaching commitment from the managers' viewpoint is scarce. This qualitative study aims to identify the organisational factors that hinder or promote managers' commitment to safety and to suggest organisational measures that can be applied to support managers' commitment to safety. A total of 49 managers in five industrial organisations were interviewed. In addition, a workshop for the safety professionals of the participating companies was organised to review the interview results and to suggest organisational measures to support managers' commitment to safety.
The managers identified role overload, production demands, overly formal safety procedures, external safety goals, workforce attitudes and managers' attitudes as the most common factors hindering their commitment to safety. On the other hand, the factors that promote managers' commitment to safety are increasing managers' safety awareness, influencing managers' safety attitudes, recognising managers' safety commitment, emphasising managers' safety responsibilities, developing adequate organisational safety procedures, superiors' encouragement and support, benchmarking others' safety activities, understanding the economic effects of safety, and safety improvement. The suggested organisational measures to support managers' commitment to safety include inspirational and participative management training; appropriate safety objectives; peer, superior and top management support; campaigns and competitions; employee safety training; and simplified safety procedures and reporting. The study expands on previous studies on supervisors' safety engagement and suggests practical organisational measures to promote managers' commitment to safety.

Source: Tappura, S., Nenonen, N., & Kivistö-Rahnasto, J. (2017). Safety science, 96, 52-61.

The role of health problems and drug treatments in accidental injury at work

This report analysed risks of workplace injury arising from epilepsy, diabetes, mental health disorders, impairments of vision and hearing, disorders of balance, and certain drug treatments known to effect brain function.

Source: https://www.iosh.co.uk/medication

Towards age-friendly work in Europe

A life-course perspective on work and ageing from EU Agencies
The ageing of the European population and workforce has implications for employment, working conditions, living standards and welfare. A new report shows how information from four agencies (Cedefop, EU-OSHA, Eurofound and EIGE) can support policy-making in drawing on the agencies' expertise in their respective areas (vocational education & training, occupational safety & health, working conditions, gender issue), covering different challenges associated with the ageing workforce.

Source: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/2220

Le bore-out ou l'ennui au travail: démêler le vrai du faux

En 2015, alors que la question du burnout 1 fait la une des médias et est débattue par les pouvoirs publics, un nouveau sujet de santé au travail fait soudainement son apparition : le bore-out ou l'ennui au travail, qui ferait encore plus de victimes que le burnout. Les médias s'en font largement écho, mettant en avant à la fois la publication d'un ouvrage sur le sujet et une plainte d'un salarié contre son ex-employeur pour bore-out consécutif à une " mise au placard ". Au-delà du caractère sensationnel du sujet, que sait-on réellement sur le bore-out ? Cet article propose de faire le point.

Source: http://www.hst.fr/dms/hst/data/articles/HST/TI-DC-17/dc17.pdf

Out of sight, out of mind?

Research into the Occupational Safety and Health of Distributed Workers
Less well-defined workforce and recent changes to more flexible working patterns are introducing challenges to today's workplaces. One of these transformations is exemplified by the way many workers spend at least some of their work time working away from a main office or location. Leading the occupational safety and health of these distributed workers is challenging, due to less opportunities for face-to-face contact and potential issues of access to safety, health and wellbeing resources.
The goal of this research is to understand the roles of both OSH practitioners and line managers play, to ensure the safety and health of distributed workers.
The research has generated a toolkit for OSH practitioners to enhance development of effective line management behaviours. It toolkit provides practical awareness in the form of top tips, case studies and much more. As part of the toolkit you'll also find materials to help you identify which type of leader you are and those abilities required to manage distributed workers.

Source: https://www.iosh.co.uk/outofsight

Nurses’ occupational physical activity levels

A systematic review
Background: Nurses' physical performance at work has implications both for nurses' occupational health and patient care. Although nurses are the largest healthcare workforce, are present 24-hours a day, and engage in many physically demanding tasks, nurses' occupational physical activity levels are poorly understood.
Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to examine nurses' occupational physical activity levels, and explore how nurses accumulate their physical activity during a shift.

Source: Chappel, S. E., Verswijveren, S. J., Aisbett, B., Considine, J., & Ridgers, N. D. (2017). International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Les activités rémunérées des étudiants: quelles formes et quelle organisation?

En moyenne de 2013 à 2015, parmi les 2,4 millions de jeunes âgés de 18 à 29 ans qui suivent des études dans l'enseignement supérieur, près de 23 % sont actifs au sens du Bureau international du travail (BIT). L'activité rémunérée d'un étudiant est particulière en raison du cumul de l'emploi et des études. Le taux et les formes d'emploi des étudiants varient en fonction du calendrier des études. Les étudiants qui travaillent déclarent majoritairement choisir d'occuper des contrats courts (CDD, contrat saisonnier ou contrat d'intérim) ou des emplois à temps partiel. Par ailleurs, les emplois revêtent de nombreuses formes dont le principal critère de différenciation est le lien avec les études.
Parmi les étudiants qui travaillent, plus de la moitié exerce une activité prévue par leurs études (stage, apprentissage, internat de médecine, etc.). Les autres exercent une activité sans lien avec leurs études, occasionnellement ou régulièrement au long de l'année. Ces activités non liées aux études correspondent plus souvent à des emplois moins qualifiés et à temps partiel. Elles peuvent néanmoins représenter une charge horaire lourde et contraignante vis-à-vis du temps requis par les études, en particulier lorsque l'activité est régulière.

Source: http://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/dares-etudes-et-statistiques/etudes-et-syntheses/dares-analyses-dares-indicateurs-dares-resultats/article/les-activites-remunerees-des-etudiants-quelles-formes-et-quelle-organisation

A cross-sectional study of factors influencing occupational health and safety management practices in companies

Companies need to ensure a functioning occupational health and safety management (OHSM) system to protect human health and safety during work, but generally there are differences in how successful they are in this endeavor. Earlier research has indicated that factors like company size, safety culture, and different measures of financial performance may be related to the quality of OHSM practices in companies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether these factors are associated with OHSM practices in companies. A postal questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of Swedish manufacturing companies, and complementary data regarding the companies were retrieved from a credit bureau database. The statistical analysis was performed with ordinal regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Different predictor variables were modeled with OHSM practices as the outcome variable, in order to calculate p-values and to estimate odds ratios. Company size, safety culture, and creditworthiness were found to be associated with better, as well as worse, OHSM practices in companies (depending on directionality). Practical implications for industry and future research are discussed.

Source: Nordlöf, H., Wiitavaara, B., Högberg, H., & Westerling, R. (2017). Safety science, 95, 92-103.

Young Worker Injury Deaths

A Historical Summary of Surveillance and Investigative Findings
This document presents surveillance data summaries on young worker fatal injuries covering the 20-year period from 1994 to 2013. These summaries provide an assessment of fatality patterns and trends by industry, state, region and various demographic and injury variables. Complementing the summary of surveillance data is the presentation of investigative data summaries from case reports of fatal injuries to young workers for a 29-year period, 1982 to 2010. The investigations provide a richness of detail not available from the surveillance data. Collectively, the surveillance and investigative data summaries in this document provide insight for identifying issues affecting employed youth, recommending prevention measures, and assessing the effectiveness of child labor laws.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2017-168/

Assessing a national work health and safety policy intervention using the psychosocial safety climate framework

Despite wide support for work health and safety (WHS) public policy interventions, the evaluation of their effectiveness has been largely overlooked. As such, many important policy developments have not been assessed for their impact within jurisdictions and organisations. We aimed to address this research gap by using the Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) framework, theory, measurement tool – the PSC-12, and benchmarks - to investigate the impact of a WHS policy intervention, across Australian jurisdictions, that standardised policy approaches (i.e. harmonisation) and legislated the protection of psychological health. PSC refers to a facet of organisational climate that specifically relates to psychological health and safety; it is a predictor of job design and employee health. We investigated perceived organisational PSC across jurisdictions, across time, and contrasted effects between those that did (harmonised) and did not (non-harmonised) adopt the new policy. Results showed Time × Group effects for the global PSC measure, indicating a significant difference over time between the harmonised and non-harmonised jurisdictions. Specifically, PSC levels significantly decreased in the non-harmonised jurisdiction over time. Analysis of PSC subscales showed that a significant decline in management commitment and priority, and communication in relation to employee psychological health, within the non-harmonised group underpinned these effects. We noted no significant overall PSC change across the harmonised jurisdictions, with the exception that participation and consultation of employee psychological health significantly increased. Overall results imply that without harmonisation the PSC levels reduced. Future research should seek more detailed information regarding the implementation of this policy, as well as perspectives from regulator and employer data to compliment results from the PSC-12.

Source: Potter, R. E., Dollard, M. F., Owen, M. S., O'Keeffe, V., Bailey, T., & Leka, S. (2017). Safety Science.

Les changements organisationnels augmentent-ils les risques psychosociaux des salariés?

Une analyse sur données couplées
Cet article propose, à partir de l'enquête Changements Organisationnels et Informatisation 2006, une évaluation non paramétrique de l'impact des changements organisationnels ou technologiques sur les risques psychosociaux des salariés. La nature couplée de cette enquête permet de mesurer les changements au niveau salarié et entreprise. Les risques psychosociaux sont pris en compte en suivant une méthodologie recommandée par le rapport Nasse-Légeron et à sa suite le collège Gollac. Nous montrons que l'analyse de l'effet des changements organisationnels sur les risques psychosociaux n'est pas aisée et dépend de la matière dont ces changements sont mesurés. Ainsi, nous montrons qu'à moyen terme les changements organisationnels déclarés par les entreprises n'ont pas d'impact alors que ceux déclarés par les salariés ont un impact sur les risques psychosociaux.

Source: Aziza-Chebil, A., Delattre, E., & Diaye, M. A. (2017). Économie & prévision, (1), 25-44.

Night shift and rotating shift in association with sleep problems, burnout and minor mental disorder in male and female employees

Objectives: Shift work is associated with adverse physical and psychological health outcomes. However, the independent health effects of night work and rotating shift on workers' sleep and mental health risks and the potential gender differences have not been fully evaluated.
Methods: We used data from a nationwide survey of representative employees of Taiwan in 2013, consisting of 16 440 employees. Participants reported their work shift patterns 1 week prior to the survey, which were classified into the four following shift types: fixed day, rotating day, fixed night and rotating night shifts. Also obtained were self-reported sleep duration, presence of insomnia, burnout and mental disorder assessed by the Brief Symptom Rating Scale.
Results: Among all shift types, workers with fixed night shifts were found to have the shortest duration of sleep, highest level of burnout score, and highest prevalence of insomnia and minor mental disorders. Gender-stratified regression analyses with adjustment of age, education and psychosocial work conditions showed that both in male and female workers, fixed night shifts were associated with greater risks for short sleep duration (<7 hours per day) and insomnia. In female workers, fixed night shifts were also associated with increased risks for burnout and mental disorders, but after adjusting for insomnia, the associations between fixed night shifts and poor mental health were no longer significant.
Conclusions: The findings of this study suggested that a fixed night shift was associated with greater risks for sleep and mental health problems, and the associations might be mediated by sleep disturbance.

Source: Cheng, Wan-Ju, & Cheng, Yamen. (2017). Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 74(7), 483-488.

Developing an inter-organizational safety climate instrument for the construction industry

In the construction industry, recent literature has promoted a design for safety approach that discusses the benefits of considering safety from the very start of the project lifecycle. With this approach, non-construction personnel, such as owners and designers, need to work alongside constructors and subcontractors to consider safety during design and procurement stages of a project. This is a difficult process, particularly with the degree of fragmentation in the industry. Safety climate survey instruments have been developed to identify these sources of fragmentation among stakeholder groups, but most of these tools are directed toward on-site construction personnel. This paper describes the development of an inter-organizational safety climate instrument for measuring attitudes toward safety of construction industry stakeholders including owners, designers, construction managers, and subcontractors. Overall, the measurement model demonstrated a good fit with the data based on a confirmatory factor analysis. Therefore, the survey instrument provides a useful tool for researchers and practitioners to identify the sources of fragmentation in attitudes of construction project personnel toward worker safety that can affect occupational health and safety within the industry.

Source: Saunders, L. W., Kleiner, B. M., McCoy, A. P., Ellis, K. P., Smith-Jackson, T., & Wernz, C. (2017). Safety Science, 98, 17-24.

The role of health problems and drug treatments in accidental injury at work

Various common health problems and their associated treatments may, in theory, increase the risk of accidental injury at work. Employers need an evidence base, both to ensure the physical safety of their workers and third parties, and to avoid needless restrictions on work opportunity, especially in older workers. Using a research database from primary care, based on the GP medical records of 6% of the British population over a 20-year period, we have analysed the associations between certain medical problems (epilepsy, diabetes mellitus, various mental health disorders, impairments of hearing and vision, problems of balance, and drugs which may affect arousal and concentration) and injuries at work about which patients consulted their GPs or hospital services. Moderately increased risks of workplace injury were found for several mental health problems and their treatments, and for problems of vision, hearing and balance; but no important elevation in risk from diabetes, epilepsy, or their complications or treatments. This report argues against blanket exclusion of individuals on health grounds and calls instead for individualised risk assessment. It also provides estimates of the extent to which risks are modified by health problems, on the average, to inform risk assessment. Caution in occupational placements may be warranted in some ‘high risk' jobs.

Source: https://www.iosh.co.uk/medication

Évaluation des risques liés à la SST - Les critères de conception d’un outil pour les superviseurs de stage du « Parcours de formation axée sur l’emploi »

L'étude vise à :
1. connaître les conditions de supervision et plus généralement l'activité de travail des enseignants lorsqu'ils rendent visite à leurs élèves dans les entreprises;
2. déterminer les besoins spécifiques des enseignants-superviseurs de stage pour agir en prévention, en détaillant leur perception de la SST dans les milieux de stage, leur connaissance des risques et des facteurs de risque, ce qu'ils font pour identifier ces risques en entreprise et les actions de prévention qu'ils mettent déjà en œuvre;
3. connaître la perception des enseignants à l'égard de leur marge de manœuvre et de leur efficacité personnelle pour exercer un rôle en prévention, en particulier pour réaliser des évaluations des risques et évoquer cette question avec les milieux de stage;
4. décrire les opportunités pour implanter un outil d'aide à l'évaluation des risques du point de vue des entreprises recevant des stagiaires.
5. recenser, dans les principaux centres de documentation et sites Web d'organismes visant la prévention des lésions professionnelles, les divers outils d'évaluation des risques destinés à l'usage de non-spécialistes

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100934/n/risques-sst-conception-outil-superviseurs-stage-formation-emploi

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