2017-10-01 12:00 - Messages

Associations Between Age, Psychosocial Work Conditions, Occupational Well-Being, and Telomere Length in Geriatric Care Professionals

A Mixed-Methods Study
Objective: We identified associations between age, psychosocial work characteristics, occupational well-being, and—as a measure of biological age—leukocyte telomere length in geriatric care professionals.
Methods: This is a multisource study of self-reports on psychosocial work characteristics, standardized physician's evaluations of health, and relative telomere length measures of peripheral blood leukocytes. We included 141 geriatric care professionals. Telomere length was assessed by an improved polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method.
Results: Increased depersonalization was associated with shorter telomeres. Their association with age was not moderated by psychosocial work conditions. There was, however, a significant three-way interaction of social support and work ability with the age–telomere association. Additionally, social support and adverse general health moderated the age–telomere length relationship.
Conclusions: A supportive work environment and work-related health may influence the association between age and telomere length.

Source: Chmelar, C., Jörres, R. A., Kronseder, A., Müller, A., Nowak, D., & Weigl, M. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(10), 949-955.

The longitudinal association between multiple job holding and long-term sickness absence among Danish employees

An explorative study using register-based data
Purpose: Multiple job holding (MJH) is common in many countries, but little is known about its (health) consequences. Our aim is to explore the longitudinal association between MJH and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among Danish employees.
Methods: We included employees (N = 8968) who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), based on a representative sample of the Danish working population. Three dichotomous independent variables were created: MJH in general, combination MJH (i.e. second job as employee) and hybrid MJH (i.e. self-employed in second job). LTSA (≥5 weeks) was measured using the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization during 78 weeks of follow-up. Potential confounders included demographics, health, and work characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study whether LTSA was associated with MJH in general, combination MJH, and hybrid MJH. Interaction effects for gender, age, total working hours per week (≤37 or >37 h a week), and shift work were tested.
Results: In total, 11.7% (N = 1048) of the respondents reported having multiple jobs and 7.6% (N = 678) experienced LTSA during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, no significant association between LTSA and MJH in general (OR = 0.82), combination MJH (OR = 0.81), or hybrid MJH (OR = 0.83) was found. Among employees working more than 37 h per week, combination MJH was associated with a higher likelihood of LTSA (OR = 1.50).
Conclusions: We did not find evidence for an increased likelihood of LTSA among multiple job holders. Future research should study the likelihood of LTSA among subgroups of multiple job holders, e.g. those working long hours.

Source: Bouwhuis, S., Garde, A.H., Geuskens, G.A. et al. (2017). Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 90 (8), 799.

Structural equation model of integrated safety intervention practices affecting the safety behaviour of workers in the construction industry

Fatality rates at workplaces in the construction industry are high compared to other industries. Tremendous effort is required to strive towards zero accidents. Managing foreign workers with different cultural backgrounds at the workplace requires appropriate safety intervention practices to improve workers' safety behaviour. Based on the literature, the importance of safety intervention for changing unsafe to safe worker behaviour is known. For this reason, an integrated safety intervention model affecting workers' safety behaviour was developed and tested. This study was conducted by distributing a questionnaire survey to construction companies. The survey was randomly distributed, with a total of 198 responses received. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to confirm the three safety intervention constructs. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to identify the most significant intervention-related safety practices, which are to be the focus in handling safety management. The results indicate that technical intervention has a positive influence by management and human intervention. In addition, an improvement in workers' safety behaviour can be achieved by focusing on the technical intervention with five important safety practices: workplace safety inspections, personal protective equipment (PPE) programmes, safety equipment availability and maintenance, safe work practices, and safety permits. These findings attempt to help construction management by identifying the appropriate selection of safety practices with specific interventions to improve workers' safety behaviour.

Source: Zaira, M. M., & Hadikusumo, B. H. (2017). Safety science, 98, 124-135.

Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

Objective: It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to
prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.
Method: The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.
Results: Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which
are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the Professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.
Conclusion: Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which
are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

Source: Anund A, Ahlström C, Fors C, Åkerstedt T. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Job Complexity, Race, and Socioeconomic Status

Examining Health Disparities from an Occupational Perspective
Research conducted in the United States on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic status (SES) has not fully considered occupation. Because racial and ethnic groups are not represented equally in all occupations, differences in job characteristics may help explain racial/ethnic health disparities.  Two recent studies by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) explore job complexity as a factor that contributes to racial health disparities.

Source: https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2017/10/05/job-complexity/

Are Workplace Psychosocial Factors Associated With Work-Related Injury in the US Workforce?

National Health Interview Survey, 2010
Introduction: Psychosocial hazards in the workplace may adversely impact occupational and general health, including injury risk.
Methods: Among 16,417 adult workers in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Occupational Health Supplement, weighted prevalence estimates were calculated for work-related injuries (WRI) and any injuries. The association between injury and psychosocial occupational hazards (job insecurity, work–family imbalance, hostile work environment) was assessed adjusting for sociodemographic and occupational factors.
Results: WRI prevalence was 0.65% (n = 99); any injury prevalence was 2.46% (n = 427). In multivariable models job insecurity, work–family imbalance, and hostile work environment were each positively associated with WRI prevalence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.60, 95% CI: 0.97–2.65; OR: 1.69, 95% CI 0.96–2.89; and 2.01, 95% CI 0.94–4.33, respectively).
Conclusions: Stressful working conditions may contribute to injuries. There is need for ongoing surveillance of occupational psychosocial risk factors and further study of their relationship with injury.

Source: Farnacio, Y., Pratt, M. E., Marshall, E. G., & Graber, J. M. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(10), e164-e171.

L’insécurité au travail et son impact sur la santé

Bibliographie thématique
L'objectif de cette bibliographie est de recenser la littérature française et internationale (articles, ouvrages, rapports, documents de travail …) sur la relation entre l'insécurité au travail (chômage, licenciements massifs, restructurations des entreprises…) et la santé des individus et de leur famille.

Source: http://www.irdes.fr/documentation/syntheses/l-insecurite-au-travail-et-son-impact-sur-la-sante.pdf

Personal light-at-night exposures and components of variability in two common shift work industries

Uses and implications for future research
Objectives: Shift workers’ increased risk of various adverse health outcomes has been linked to light-at-night (LAN) exposure, but few studies have measured LAN exposure in workplaces. To inform future research methods, this study aimed to (i) measure shift workers’ exposures to LAN across industries, occupations, and work environments and (ii) assess components of variance across different exposure groupings and metrics.
Methods: Between October 2015 and March 2016, 152 personal full-shift measurements were collected from 102 night shift workers in emergency services (paramedics, dispatchers) and healthcare (nurses, care aides, security guards, unit clerks, and laboratory, pharmacy, and respiratory therapy staff) industries in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Descriptive and variance component analyses were conducted for the 23:00–05:00 period to characterize exposures using multiple metrics of potential biological relevance (median lux, 90th percentile lux, sum of minutes ≥30 lux, and sum of minutes ≥100 lux).
Results: Average exposure levels were highest in the healthcare industry. By occupation, laboratory workers and care aides displayed the highest and emergency dispatch officers displayed the lowest levels for all LAN
exposure metrics. Between-group variance was large relative to within-group variance for all exposure groupings and metrics, and increased as grouping specificity increased (moving from industry to occupation).
Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that high-level grouping schemes may provide a simple yet effective way of characterizing individual LAN exposures in epidemiological studies of shift work. Ongoing
measurement of LAN exposures and assessment of exposure variability is needed in future studies of shift workers as a means to increase sampling efficiency, reduce measurement error, and maximize researchers’ ability to detect relationships where they exist.

Source: Hall AL, Davies HW, Koehoorn M. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Quelles pratiques de gestion des risques dans les micro et petites entreprises?

Résultats de l'étude européenne SESAME
Alors que les statistiques montrent une concentration des accidents du travail dans les entreprises de moins de 50 salariés en France, une étude, appelée SESAME, a été menée par un consortium rassemblant des chercheurs de neuf pays européens, dont la France, afin de mieux comprendre les pratiques de prévention dans les micro et petites entreprises (MPE). Cet article présente les résultats pour la France de la deuxième phase qui a consisté en une enquête de terrain dans 20 MPE de cinq secteurs d'activité dans chacun des neuf pays.

Source: Caroly, S., Gaudin, D., Laine, P., Malenfer, M. (2017). Hygiène et sécurité du travail (248), p. 58-64.

Workplace risk management practices to prevent musculoskeletal and mental health disorders: What are the gaps?

Introduction: A large body of evidence demonstrates substantial effects of work-related psychosocial hazards on risks of both musculoskeletal and mental health disorders (MSDs and MHDs), which are two of the most costly occupational health problems in many countries. This study investigated current workplace risk management practices in two industry sectors with high risk of both MSDs and MHDs and evaluated the extent to which risk from psychosocial hazards is being effectively managed.
Method: Nineteen, mostly large, Australian organisations were each asked to provide documentation of their relevant policies and procedures, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 67 staff who had OHS or management roles within these organisations. Information about current workplace practices was derived from analyses of both the documentation and interview transcripts.
Results: Risk management practices addressing musculoskeletal and mental health risks in these workplaces focused predominately on changing individual behaviours through workplace training, provision of information, individual counselling, and sometimes healthy lifestyle programs. There were formal procedures to control sources of risk for workplace biomechanical hazards affecting musculoskeletal risk, but no corresponding procedures to control risk from work-related psychosocial hazards. Very few risk control actions addressed risk from psychosocial hazards at their workplace sources.
Practical applications: To reduce the risk of both musculoskeletal and mental health disorders, existing practices need considerable expansion to address risk from all potential psychosocial hazards. Risk controls for both biomechanical and psychosocial hazards need to focus more on eliminating or reducing risk at source, in accord with the general risk management hierarchy.

Source: Oakman, J., Macdonald, W., Bartram, T., Keegel, T., & Kinsman, N. (2018). Safety Science, 101, 220-230.

Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training on Health Care Worker Safety

A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial
Objective: The study assessed the impact of mindfulness training on occupational safety of hospital health care workers.
Methods: The study used a randomized waitlist-controlled trial design to test the effect of an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course on self-reported health care worker safety outcomes, measured at baseline, postintervention, and 6 months later.
Conclusions: Mindfulness training may potentially decrease occupational injuries of health care workers.

Source: Valley, M. A., & Stallones, L. (2017). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

Insécurité du travail, changements organisationnels et participation des salariés

Quel impact sur le risque dépressif?
L’insécurité socio-économique au travail est l’un des principaux facteurs psychosociaux de risque pour la santé mentale. Il est établi que la crainte de perdre son emploi ou de connaître une dégradation de ses conditions de travail est associée à une santé mentale dégradée, mais peu d’études permettent de tester le sens de la causalité. Cet article se propose dans un premier temps d'examiner l’endogénéité éventuelle de l’insécurité d’emploi par rapport au risque dépressif. Des modèles d'équations simultanées, où la causalité inverse (de la dépression vers l'insécurité) est contrôlée par des variables instrumentales, permettent de conclure que la prise en compte de l’endogénéité ne réduit pas l’impact estimé de l’insécurité sur le risque de dépression.
Dans un second temps, puisque les changements organisationnels apparaissent associés à une forte insécurité et à une santé mentale dégradée, on s’interroge sur le potentiel effet modérateur de la participation aux décisions – ici mesurée par le sentiment du salarié d’avoir « eu une influence sur la mise en oeuvre des changements ». Cet effet apparaît très net dans une modélisation simple, mais la participation est elle aussi potentiellement endogène relativement au risque dépressif. La prise en compte de l’endogénéité par des modèles à variable instrumentale accroît l’impact estimé de la participation : celle-ci est en effet plus souvent accordée aux salariés à la santé mentale déjà fragilisée. Octroyer aux salariés un pouvoir d'agir sur les changements organisationnels est une politique efficace de prévention du risque dépressif.

Source: http://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/de_no_214.pdf

Visual Literacy: How "Learning to See" Benefits Occupational Safety

The concept of visual literacy has been around for decades, and has typically been used in developing better teaching and learning techniques in the classroom. Recently however, visual literacy has been gaining traction in the workplace as a skill and tool to better identify occupational hazards that could lead to safety incidents. The following is a brief summary of what visual literacy is and how it can benefit occupational safety. Additionally, this document includes an outline of a new research project on visual literacy involving the Campbell Institute, its members and partners, and the Toledo Museum of Art.

Source: http://www.thecampbellinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Campbell-Institute-Visual-Literacy-WP.pdf

Extending working life: What do workers want?

In the context of moves to raise the legal retirement age in many EU Member States, this article explores the views of workers about the issue of extending working life. It highlights differences in the share of workers regarding the age they would like to work to and the ability to work until 60 in terms of employment status, gender and country. It also presents the views of social partners on the subject, with trade unions in most Member States opposing the extension of working life through raising the pension age and employer organisations being generally in favour of this.

Source: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef1732.pdf

Effets des actes de violence grave chez des chauffeurs et chauffeuses d’autobus de la Société de transport de Montréal (STM)

Principaux enseignements du rapport: Les incidents de violence pour lesquels les 118 chauffeurs ont participé à l'étude sont des agressions verbales (50%) et des agressions physiques (45%). Les autres chauffeurs (5%) ont été victimes ou témoins d'un autre type d'incident. Plus de la moitié des participants (60%) ont probablement développé des symptômes d'état de stress aigu (ESA) dans le mois qui a suivi l'incident de violence, dont 62% d'hommes et 56% de femmes. Parmi ces chauffeurs, 50% ont vécu une agression verbale tandis que 43% ont vécu une agression physique. Certains participants (17%) ont probablement développé un trouble de stress post-traumatique (TSPT) 2 mois après l'incident, dont 20% d'hommes et 15% de femmes. Parmi ceux qui ont été évalués avec un possible TSPT, 45% ont vécu une agression physique alors que 40% ont vécu une agression verbale. Ils sont encore 13% à être évalués avec un TSPT 6 mois après l'incident (16% d'hommes et 9% de femmes) et 6% avec un TSPT 12 mois après l'agression (7% d'hommes et 4% de femmes).
Les participants évalués avec un ESA ou un TSPT sont majoritairement au travail à tous les temps de mesure. Ces participants sont 46% à être en arrêt 1 mois après l'incident, 45% 2 mois après, 14% 6 mois après et 20% 12 mois après. Les participants présentent des taux de détresse psychologique modérée et sévère. Ils sont 49% à être en détresse modérée 1 mois après l'incident, ils sont encore 46% 2 mois après, 41% 6 mois après et 31% 12 mois après. Les niveaux de détresse sévère sont de 25% 1 mois après, 13% 2 mois après, 10% 6 mois après et 11% 12 mois après. L'ESA, le TSPT et la détresse psychologique sont liés à une diminution du sentiment de sécurité au travail et de la confiance en ses capacités à gérer les situations de violence. Ces trois problèmes de santé mentale entraînent également des conséquences sur la santé physique des participants, sur le bien-être au travail et sur la qualité de sommeil.
Les participants se sentent généralement soutenus par leurs collègues, tout en décrivant un sentiment de contrariété de voir autant d'incidents dans la profession. Pour ce qui est du soutien de l'employeur, 59% des
participants ont reçu de l'aide lorsqu'ils ont fait face à un problème de violence dans le passé. En ce qui concerne leur prise en charge, les participants souhaiteraient que les chefs d'opération (CO) prennent davantage de temps et se montrent plus empathiques dans leur prise en charge. Ils souhaiteraient également une plus grande reconnaissance de leur statut de victimes de la part de la direction.
Les recommandations des participants concernent en partie des mesures de prévention primaire avec davantage d'inspecteurs, des mesures matérielles et des actions de communication à l'endroit de la clientèle.
Les recommandations concernent aussi des mesures de prévention secondaire comme l'amélioration de leur prise en charge dans la durée et une plus grande reconnaissance de leur statut de victimes. 

Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319987542_Effets_des_actes_de_violence_grave_chez_des_chauffeurs_et_chauffeuses_d'autobus_de_la_Societe_de_transport_de_Montreal_STM

Factors underlying observed injury rate differences between temporary workers and permanent peers

BACKGROUND: Temporary workers face increased risk of injury as compared to permanent workers in similar occupations. This study explores the role played by several potential risk factors.
METHODS: Injured temporary and permanent workers, matched by industry, tenure and demographic characteristics, were interviewed to isolate the association of temporary employment with several injury risk factors.
RESULTS: Temporary workers had higher workers' compensation claims rates than their permanent worker-peers. In interviews temporary workers a reported a lower frequency of exposure to hazards. However, they also reported being less likely to be equipped to cope with hazards by such countermeasures as experience screening, safety training and task control.
CONCLUSION: Policies are needed to improve screening and training of temporary workers to assigned tasks, to discourage job-switching, to improve temporary workers' hazard awareness, to protect their right to report unsafe conditions. The responsibilities of agencies and host employers for ensuring the safety of their temporary workers need clarification in regulatory policy.

Source: Foley, M. (2017). American journal of industrial medicine.

Organizational practices for learning with work accidents throughout their information cycle

Research has acknowledged the relevance of accident information for prevention and learning and the need for companies to develop a reporting and learning culture. Few studies have approached this issue by comparing the different learning strategies used by companies. The aim of this study is to explore how companies use accident information and to develop strategies for learning from accidents, which cover all the learning cycle phases by: (a) identifying learning patterns across company and activity sectors, (b) checking for potential differences among certified and non-certified companies. Seventeen case studies were conducted with organizations operating in different sectors in Portugal. Data was collected from extensive, semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and an analysis of relevant documentation. All data was subjected to a descriptive analysis, followed by multivariate analysis using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The main MCA results showed two dimensions corresponding to the technical and social learning and four patterns were found, each corresponding to different levels of learning practices ranging from the minimal practices used to a higher degree of learning, combining practices of a technical and social nature. Additionally, the results revealed that companies in the same activity sector may have very different practices, independently of OHSAS certification. The results allow us to conclude that organizations with good safety practices tend to follow the complete learning cycle. Overall, these organizations have established procedures to report accidents and to collect information on them but there are organizations that still do not maximize their means of learning from work accidents.

Source: Silva, S. A., Carvalho, H., Oliveira, M. J., Fialho, T., Soares, C. G., & Jacinto, C. (2017). Safety Science.

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