2019-09-01 12:00 - Messages

L’utilité de la formation dans la prévention des risques psychosociaux au travail

Cet article se propose d'alimenter la réflexion sur l'intervention dans le champ de la santé au travail. Dans cette recherche, nous nous sommes plus particulièrement centrée sur la capacité d'une action de formation sur la prévention des risques psychosociaux au travail (RPS) à développer des ressources psychosociales nouvelles dans les organisations. Les résultats sont issus de l'analyse de 14 plans d'action et comparent le niveau d'importance des ressources élaborées selon qu'il y ait eu ou pas une formation des acteurs impliqués en amont de la démarche de prévention primaire. L'analyse des résultats montre que, paradoxalement, la formation a tendance à centrer l'action des acteurs sur des réponses individuelles.

Source: Rouat, S. (2019). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, (21-1).
https://journals.openedition.org/pistes/6217

Une forme de gestion désincarnée de l’activité

L'exemple d'une formation en santé et sécurité du travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires au Québec
Cet article a pour objectif d'illustrer les limites d'un mode de gestion désincarné de l'activité réelle de travail. Nous prenons l'exemple d'un mode de gestion « top-down » d'une formation en santé au travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires travaillant dans les organisations gériatriques au Québec. À partir d'une étude qualitative (neuf entrevues semi-dirigées avec des préposés) visant à déterminer les facteurs favorables à l'application de cette formation, nous décrivons trois résultats principaux. D'une part, l'activité des préposés est structurée quotidiennement en matière de rythmes de travail et de balises temporelles. D'autre part, les préposés utilisent des stratégies de régulation des temporalités qui contreviennent en partie aux savoirs transmis lors de la formation initiale. Enfin, le contenu du programme de formation n'est pas fréquemment respecté. Nous émettons deux recommandations visant le développement d'autres formations en nous basant sur la participation directe des préposés.

Source: Aubry, F. et Feillou, I. (2019). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, (21-1).
https://journals.openedition.org/pistes/6177

Causal inferences of external–contextual domains on complex construction, safety, health and environment regulation

A robust and pragmatic regulatory framework that is based on a good understanding of the external–context domains of countries is fundamental for Safety, Health and Environment (SHE). However, in many developing and emerging economies the regulatory framework for SHE is complex and the external–context domains are poorly understood and not factored in SHE. Using Nigeria as a case, the study examines the causal inferences of the social, cultural, political, religious and institutional contexts on the complex Construction Safety, Health and Environment (CSHE) regulatory framework using a qualitative research approach. The findings show that the external-context domain factors are indirect determinants of CSHE regulation. There is evidence that the main external-context factors include the dysfunctional and fragmented health and safety (H&S) regulatory environments, which is exacerbated by the poor governmental and political attention on H&S. While political influence results in the low threat of regulation, ‘Nigerian factors' such as ‘the no follow-up culture' result in inadequate governmental and political involvement, among many, poor regulation and inadequate H&S laws. Although the need for a consolidated CSHE regulatory framework is emphasised hence recommended, it should be resilient to social and political pressure.

Source: Umeokafor, N., Windapo, A. et Evangelinos, K. (2019). Safety Science, 118, 379-388.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.033

Safety Culture: An Integration of Existing Models and a Framework for Understanding Its Development

Objective: This study reviews theoretical models of organizational safety culture to uncover key factors in safety culture development.
Background: Research supports the important role of safety culture in organizations, but theoretical progress has been stunted by a disjointed literature base. It is currently unclear how different elements of an organizational system function to influence safety culture, limiting the practical utility of important research findings.
Method: We reviewed existing models of safety culture and categorized model dimensions by the proposed function they serve in safety culture development. We advance a framework grounded in theory on organizational culture, social identity, and social learning to facilitate convergence toward a unified approach to studying and supporting safety culture.
Results: Safety culture is a relatively stable social construct, gradually shaped over time by multilevel influences. We identify seven enabling factors that create conditions allowing employees to adopt safety culture values, assumptions, and norms; and four behaviors used to enact them. The consequences of these enacting behaviors provide feedback that may reinforce or revise held values, assumptions, and norms.
Conclusion: This framework synthesizes information across fragmented conceptualizations to clearly depict the dynamic nature of safety culture and specific drivers of its development. We suggest that safety culture development may depend on employee learning from behavioral outcomes, conducive enabling factors, and consistency over time.

Source: Bisbey, T. M., Kilcullen, M. P., Thomas, E. J., Ottosen, M. J., Tsao, K. et Salas, E. (2019). Human Factors.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720819868878

Suicides and deaths of undetermined intent among veterinary professionals from 2003 through 2014

OBJECTIVE: To analyze data for death of veterinary professionals and veterinary students, with manner of death characterized as suicide or undetermined intent from 2003 through 2014. SAMPLE: Death records for 202 veterinary professionals and veterinary students. PROCEDURES: Decedents employed as veterinarians, veterinary technicians or technologists, or veterinary assistants or laboratory animal caretakers and veterinary students who died by suicide or of undetermined intent were identified through retrospective review of National Violent Death Reporting System records. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and mechanisms and circumstances of death were compared among veterinary occupational groups. RESULTS: 197 veterinary professionals and 5 veterinary students had deaths by suicide or of undetermined intent. Among decedents employed at the time of death, SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinarians (1.6 and 2.4, respectively) and male and female veterinary technicians or technologists (5.0 and 2.3, respectively) were significantly greater than those for the general US population, whereas SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinary assistants or laboratory animal caretakers were not. Poisoning was the most common mechanism of death among veterinarians; the drug most commonly used was pentobarbital. For most (13/18) veterinarians who died of pentobarbital poisoning, the death-related injury occurred at home. When decedents with pentobarbital poisoning were excluded from analyses, SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinarians, but not veterinary technicians or technologists, did not differ significantly from results for the general population. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested higher SMRs for suicide among veterinarians might be attributable to pentobarbital access. Improving administrative controls for pentobarbital might be a promising suicide prevention strategy among veterinarians; however, different strategies are likely needed for veterinary technicians or technologists.

Source: Witte, T. K., Spitzer, E. G., Edwards, N., Fowler, K. A. et Nett, R. J. (2019). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(5), 595-608.
https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.255.5.595

Mental Illness, Social Suffering and Structural Antagonism in the Labour Process

Workplace conditions and experiences powerfully influence mental health and individuals experiencing mental illness, including the extent to which people experiencing mental ill-health are ‘disabled' by their work environments. This article explains how examination of the social suffering experienced in workplaces by people with mental illness could enhance understanding of the inter-relationships between mental health and workplace conditions, including experiences and characteristics of the overarching labour process. It examines how workplace perceptions and narratives around mental illness act as discursive resources to influence the social realities of people with mental ill-health. It applies Labour Process Theory to highlight how such discursive resources could be used by workers and employers to influence the power, agency and control in workplace environments and the labour process, and the implications such attempts might have for social suffering. It concludes with an agenda for future research exploring these issues.

Source: Woods, M., Macklin, R., Dawkins, S. et Martin, A. (2019). Work, Employment and Society.
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0950017019866650

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