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Burnout among Pilots
Psychosocial Factors related to Happiness and Score on Simulator Training In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their...
Effort–Reward Imbalance, Work–Privacy Conflict, and Burnout Among Hospital Employees
Objective: Studies investigating the relative importance of effort–reward imbalance and work–privacy conflict for burnout risk between professional groups in the health care sector are rare and analyses by educational attainment within professional groups are lacking. Methods: The study population consists of 1422 hospital employees in Switzerland. Multivariate linear regression analyses with standardized coefficients were performed for the overall study population and stratified for professional groups refined for educational attainment. Results: Work–privacy conflict is a strong...
Les blessures professionnelles et leurs déterminants
Mieux comprendre le rôle du secteur industriel et de la profession L'ampleur actuelle de la morbidité et de la mortalité liées aux blessures professionnelles (c.-à-d. accidents du travail, troubles liés aux mouvements répétitifs) pèse lourd sur la productivité des travailleurs, des entreprises et de la société canadienne. Annuellement, les données révèlent qu'un Canadien sur quinze est blessé dans l'exercice de son travail, alors que les coûts économiques générés...
Mental Health in the Working World - Determining the current state of scientific evidence
The "Mental Health in the Working World" project aimed to assess psychological strain factors in terms of substantiated scientific and academic research, to gain new information surrounding the new work-related requirements arising due to the changing world of work, and to identify open research questions. Following a description of the project goals and approach, the project results have been presented under the differing topic fields of "Work tasks", "Leadership and organisation", "Working time", "Technical factors", "Design approaches"...
Mental Disorder Symptoms among Public Safety Personnel in Canada
Background: Canadian public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers) are exposed to potentially traumatic events as a function of their work. Such exposures contribute to the risk of developing clinically significant symptoms related to mental disorders. The current study was designed to provide estimates of mental disorder symptom frequencies and severities for Canadian PSP. Methods: An online survey was made available in English or French from September 2016 to January 2017. The survey assessed current symptoms, and participation...
An Occupational Portrait of Emotional Labor Requirements and Their Health Consequences for Workers
Scholarship has revealed inconsistent evidence on the issue of whether emotional labor represents an occupational health risk. Drawing from emotion regulation theory, the conservation of resources model and the interactive service work literature, we examine the association between occupational emotional labor requirements and worker well-being. Analyses of a national sample of American workers merged with occupational information from the O*NET database reveal no evidence that these requirements are associated with psychological distress or high blood pressure; in contrast, emotional labor requirements...
Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression
Systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression. We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant...
Climate congruence: How espoused psychosocial safety climate and enacted managerial support affect emotional exhaustion and work engagement
The alignment between espoused (saying) and enacted (doing) psychosocial safety climate (PSC; a climate for worker psychological health) is important to consider in relation to health and work outcomes. This diary study explored the interplay (moderation and mediation processes) between espoused PSC (organizational level PSC) and daily enacted PSC (operationalized in the specific domain of managerial support) and their relationships to worker psychological health (i.e., daily emotional exhaustion) and motivation (i.e., daily work engagement). In all, 545 diary data points were collected within...
A two-wave study on workplace bullying after organizational change
A moderated mediation analysis The role of organizational change in the process leading to the development of bullying has received only little attention so far. The present longitudinal study aimed at filling this gap by examining a moderated mediation model through Structural Equation Modelling where the mediating effect of psychological strain in the relationship between workload and workplace bullying is moderated by the experience of organizational change. Data were available for 141 university employees (65.2% females). The moderating role of organizational change was tested through the multi...
Associations between common diseases and work ability and sick leave among health care workers
Purpose: This study investigates whether common diseases, i.e., musculoskeletal diseases (MSD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), mental disorders (MD), and respiratory diseases (RD), influence work ability and sick leave and whether lifestyle-related factors, and psychosocial and physical work-related factors are associated with low work ability and sick leave. Methods: In a cross-sectional study among 8364 Dutch health care employees, self-reported information was acquired concerning common diseases, lifestyle-related factors, psychosocial and physical work-related factors, work ability, and sick...
Effort–reward imbalance at work and risk of depressive disorders
A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies Objective: The aim of this review was to determine whether employees exposed to effort–reward imbalance (ERI) at work have a higher risk of depressive disorders than non-exposed employees. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies examining the association of ERI at baseline with onset of depressive disorders at follow-up. The work was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and a detailed...
What do we know about emotional labour in nursing?
A narrative review Nurses have to manage their emotions and the expression of emotion to perform best care, and their behaviours pass through emotional labour (EL). However, EL seems to be an under-appreciated aspect of caring work and there is no synthetic portrait of literature about EL in the nursing profession. This review was conducted to synthesise and to critically analyse the literature in the nursing field related to EL. Twenty-seven papers were included and analysed with a narrative approach, where two main themes were found: EL strategies and EL antecedents and consequences. Hence, EL...
Vers l’amélioration des services et des soins palliatifs de fin de vie
Adapter et implanter des programmes de soutien en milieu de travail et évaluer leur effet sur la satisfaction, le sens au travail et le bien-être des infirmières (SATIN II) Le projet SATIN II propose l'étude de quatre programmes de soutien en milieu de travail. Ces initiatives ont pour but l'amélioration de la satisfaction et du bien-être au travail ainsi que la diminution des FRPS chez des infirmières et des cliniciens qui assurent les SFV. La démarche est guidée par les recommandations du Medical Research Council (MRC-UK) afin...
Emotional Labour and Wellbeing: What Protects Nurses?
Although compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for patients, it can be emotionally demanding for healthcare staff. This may be a particular problem for those with little experience in a caring role. This study utilises the job demands-resources model to examine links between “emotional labour” and emotional exhaustion in student nurses. In line with the triple-match principle—whereby interactive effects are more likely when job demands, resources, and outcomes are within the same qualitative domain—the protective role of emotional support and emotion-focused coping...
Bullying and Harassment in Australian Workplaces
Results from the Australian Workplace Barometer 2014/15 Why has this research been done? •To better understand the prevalence of workplace bullying and harassment in Australian workplaces and to identify workplace risk factors associated with the occurrence of bullying and harassment. What did we find? •Bullying was measured using both a widely accepted international definition and the Australian definition used by Safe Work Australia. The prevalence rates using the international and the Australian definitions were similar: 9.7 per cent and 9.4 per cent of Australian workers respectively...
How institutions matter for job characteristics, quality and experiences
A comparison of home care work for older people in Australia and Sweden This article seeks to understand a puzzling finding: that workers in publicly funded home care for older people in Australia, compared to those in Sweden, feel that they are better able to meet their clients' needs, that their workplaces are less pressed, and that their work is less burdensome and more compatible with their family and social commitments. This finding seems to challenge expectations fostered by comparative sociological research that job quality and care services are inferior in Australia compared to Sweden...
Interventions to prevent and reduce physician burnout
A systematic review and meta-analysis Physician burnout has reached epidemic levels, as documented in national studies of both physicians in training and practising physicians. The consequences are negative effects on patient care, professionalism, physicians' own care and safety, and the viability of health-care systems. A more complete understanding than at present of the quality and outcomes of the literature on approaches to prevent and reduce burnout is necessary. Source: West, C. P., Dyrbye, L. N., Erwin, P. J., & Shanafelt, T. D. (2016). The Lancet . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140...
Des conditions de travail en EHPAD vécues comme difficiles par des personnels très engagés
Les conditions de travail des soignants d'établissements d'hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes changent sous l'effet de l'évolution récente des profils de résidents : amplification des tâches sanitaires au détriment du relationnel, renforcement des exigences de qualification des professionnels et du contrôle qualité, exigence accrue des résidents.Aux dires des personnels soignants, travailler en EHPAD est difficile, aussi bien physiquement que psychiquement, et la charge mentale y est...
Born and Bred to Burn out: A Life-Course View and Reflections on Job Burnout
Burnout is a response to prolonged stressors at work, and is defined as a chronic syndrome including exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The 40 years of research on burnout have yielded thousands of studies on its measurement, antecedents, correlates, and consequences. However, most of these studies have used a cross-sectional design, and only very few have addressed burnout from a life-course perspective. In the first part of this article, we reflect on the ideas that inspired our multidisciplinary “A 35-Year Follow-Up Study on Burnout Among Finnish Employees,”...
Workplace bullying and the association with suicidal ideation/thoughts and behaviour
A systematic review The established links between workplace bullying and poor mental health provide a prima facie reason to expect that workplace bullying increases the risk of suicidal ideation (thoughts) and behaviours. Until now, there has been no systematic summary of the available evidence. This systematic review summarises published studies reporting data on workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, or behaviour. The review sought to ascertain the nature of this association and highlight future research directions. 5 electronic databases were searched. 2 reviewers independently selected the...
Job Burnout in Mental Health Providers
A Meta-Analysis of 35 Years of Intervention Research Burnout is prevalent among mental health providers and is associated with significant employee, consumer, and organizational costs. Over the past 35 years, numerous intervention studies have been conducted but have yet to be reviewed and synthesized using a quantitative approach. To fill this gap, we performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of burnout interventions for mental health workers. We completed a systematic literature search of burnout intervention studies that spanned more than 3 decades (1980 to 2015). Each eligible study was...
Building Resilience in an Urban Police Department
Objective: The aim of this study is to examine a resilience training intervention that impacts autonomic responses to stress and improves cardiovascular risk, psychological, and physiological outcomes in police. Methods: Officers [(n=38) 22 to 54 years] modified emotional and physical responses to stress using self-regulation. Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals. Results: Age was significantly (P<0.05) associated with changes on several measures of psychological...
Emotional demands at work and the risk of clinical depression
A longitudinal study in the Danish public sector OBJECTIVE: This study is a 2-year follow-up study of different dimensions of work-related emotional demands as a predictor for clinical depression. METHODS: In a two-wave study, 3224 (72%) public employees from 474 work-units participated twice by filling in questionnaires. Sixty-two cases of clinical depression were diagnosed. Emotional demands were examined as perceived and content-related emotional demands, individually reported and work-unit based. Support, meaningful work, and enrichment were considered as potential effect modifiers. RESULTS...
High Stress and Negative Health Behaviors
A Five-Year Wellness Center Member Cohort Study Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between having a high stress level and health behaviors in employees of an academic medical center. Methods: Beginning January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2013, an annual survey was completed by 676 worksite wellness members. Results: Each year, about one-sixth of members had a high stress level, high stress individuals visited the wellness center less often, and most years there was a significant relationship (P<0.05) between stress level and poor physical health behaviors (physical...
The effect of motherhood and work on women's time pressure
A cohort analysis using the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health This is the first study using the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women´s Health to identify time stress in younger Australian women over a 17-year period with a focus on motherhood and work. Understanding the sources of time stress is important if policy-makers want to design and successfully implement health policies, and family-friendly parental leave and childcare policies. Source: Otterbach S, Tavener M, Forder P, Powers J, Loxton D, Byles J. Scand J Work Environ Health , 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.5271...
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