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Impact of shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm
A one-year longitudinal study in junior physicians Background: Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggests that shift work exerts harmful effects on human health. However, the physiological mechanisms are not well understood. This study aimed to examine the impact of shift work on the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, i.e. diurnal cortisol rhythm. Methods: Seventy physicians with a mean age 30 years participated in this one-year longitudinal study. Working schedules, either shift work or regular schedules with day shift, were assessed at baseline. Salivary cortisol samples...
Effects of night-time on-call work on heart rate variability before bed and sleep quality in visiting nurses
Purpose: In Japan, many visiting nurses work carrying cell phones to respond to calls from users even at night (on-call work). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether on-call work affected heart rate variability (HRV) before bed and decreased sleep quality in visiting nurses even if their sleep was not interrupted due to actual calls. Methods: Thirty-one visiting nurses (mean age, 49.8 years; standard deviation, 6.3 years) were asked to record their 2.5-min resting HRV before bed, and to undergo one-channel sleep electroencephalography (EEG) and subjective sleep evaluations upon waking...
Effects of night duty events on blood pressure and autonomic modulation in physicians
Background: The dynamic effects of duty events on the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) of physicians on duty are unknown. Methods: A study was conducted among 12 physicians on night duty. BP and HRV with and without the effect of a duty event were compared. The risk of higher BP and impaired HRV after a phone call were calculated. Results: Physicians had higher mean BP (122.4 ± 11.1; 76.9 ± 7.1 mmHg) within 30 min after a phone calls than without a phone call (113.5 ± 5.3; 69.0 ± 3...
Night Shift Work and Its Health Effects on Nurses
The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and...
Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses’ Health Study II
Background: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk.Objectives: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort.Methods:We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination...
Rotating night shift work and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Studies
In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared shift work involving circadian disruption to be a “probable” carcinogen (group 2A), noting that human evidence was limited. This study examined associations between rotating night shift work and breast cancer risk in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS: 1988–2012, n = 78,516; NHS2: 1989–2013, n = 114,559), with 9,541 incident invasive breast malignancies and 24 years of follow-up. Women in NHS with 30+ years of shift work had no increased risk of breast cancer (Hazard ratio (HR) =...
Night-shift work is associated with increased pain perception
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine whether shift workers exhibit increased perception of experimentally induced pain after working night shifts. Methods: The study was a paired cross-over design with two sleep conditions, after at least two nights of habitual sleep and after two consecutive night shifts at work. Fifty-three nurses in rotating shift work participated. The sensitivity to electrically induced pain, heat pain, cold pain, pressure pain and pain inhibition was determined experimentally in each sleep condition. Sleepiness and vigilance were also assessed. Results...
Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort
Evidence on the association between shift work and mortality is limited. We found significantly enhanced all-cause, cardiovascular and diabetes mortality among nurses with night and evening shifts. We present novel finding of an increase in mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and potentially psychological disorders among night, evening, and rotating shift workers. Source: Jørgensen JT, Karlsen S, Stayner L, Hansen J, Andersen ZJ. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3612
The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses
A Repeated Measures Study Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. Results: The work...
The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses
A Repeated Measures Study Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. Results: The work...
Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing
A literature review Objectives: To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee's performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse events and client satisfaction) and wellbeing (including burnout, job satisfaction, absenteeism, intention to leave the job) in all sectors including healthcare. Review methods: The search was conducted between January and March 2015. Studies were drawn from all occupational sectors (i.e. health and non health), meeting the inclusion criteria: involved participants aged ≥18...
Night shift work and incidence of diabetes in the Danish Nurse Cohort
Objectives: Night shift work has been associated with poor sleep, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, which are recognised risk factor for diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of shift work on diabetes risk. Here, we study the association between shift work and incidence of diabetes in Danish nurses. Methods: We used the Danish Nurse Cohort with 28 731 participating female nurses recruited in 1993 (19 898) or 1999 (8833), when self-reported baseline information on diabetes prevalence, lifestyle and working time were collected, and followed them in the Danish Diabetes Register...
Circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes of rotating night shift nurses
Objective : It has been hypothesized that the underlying mechanism of elevated breast cancer risk among long-term, night-working women involves circadian genes expression alteration caused by exposure to light at night and/or irregular work hours. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of rotating night shift work on expression of selected core circadian genes. Methods : The cross-sectional study was conducted on 184 matched nurses and midwives, who currently work either day or rotating night shifts, to determine the effect of irregular work at night on circadian gene expression...

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