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Safety Culture: An Integration of Existing Models and a Framework for Understanding Its Development
Objective: This study reviews theoretical models of organizational safety culture to uncover key factors in safety culture development. Background: Research supports the important role of safety culture in organizations, but theoretical progress has been stunted by a disjointed literature base. It is currently unclear how different elements of an organizational system function to influence safety culture, limiting the practical utility of important research findings. Method: We reviewed existing models of safety culture and categorized model dimensions by the proposed function they serve in safety...
The importance of commitment, communication, culture and learning for the implementation of the Zero Accident Vision in 27 companies in Europe
In this paper the findings are presented of a multinational study involving 27 companies that have adopted a ‘Zero Accident Vision’ (ZAV). ZAV is the ambition that all accidents are preventable, and this paper focuses on how companies implement ZAV through ZAV commitment, safety communication, safety culture and safety learning. Managers and workers took part in a survey (8,819 respondents), company interviews and national workshops in seven European countries. A common characteristic of all the companies was the high ZAV commitment of their managers and workers, which often were embedded...
Mind the gap: a qualitative approach to assessing why different sub-cultures within high-risk industries interpret safety rule gaps in different ways
Measuring the distance between the performance of safety rules as imagined and safety rules as enacted in high-risk environments has been an area of great interest and debate in recent years. Yet a significant gap in our understanding remains. Some authors have even advised us to “stop bitching about the gap” and start closing it (Hale and Borys, 2013a, p. 218). In this paper, we follow this call by investigating the relationship between safety rules as imagined, and enacted, in a rule-driven organization working in the oil and gas industry in Norway. Specifically, we investigate how...
Does Worksite Culture of Health (CoH) Matter to Employees?
Empirical Evidence Using Job-Related Metrics Objectives: This study examines the relationships between the workplace culture of health (CoH), job satisfaction, and turnover intention. We also examined the moderating effect of job classification. Methods: Structural equation modeling analysis was performed on data from employees of a Korean life insurance company (N=880). Results: Workplace CoH directly influenced job satisfaction (β=0.32; P<0.001) and was indirectly associated with intention to leave. Job satisfaction was directly associated with intention to leave (β=−0.42;...
Improving safety climate through a communication and recognition program for construction
A mixed methods study We evaluated the efficacy of a novel safety communication and recognition program (B-SAFE), designed to encourage improvement of physical working conditions and hazard reduction in construction. Using mixed methods, we determined that B-SAFE led to many positive changes, including an improvement in safety climate, awareness, team-building, and communication. The study has important implications for both research and practice. Source: Sparer EH, Catalano PJ, Herrick RF, Dennerlein JT. Scand J Work Environ Health , 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3569
Promoting Healthy Workplaces by Building Cultures of Health and Applying Strategic Communications
Objective: The aim of the study was to identify key success elements of employer-sponsored health promotion (wellness) programs. Methods: We conducted an updated literature review, held discussions with subject matter experts, and visited nine companies with exemplary programs to examine current best and promising practices in workplace health promotion programs. Results: Best practices include establishing a culture of health and using strategic communications. Key elements that contribute to a culture of health are leadership commitment, social and physical environmental support, and employee...
Association Between Organization Culture, Health Status, and Presenteeism
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships of organizational culture and health behaviors with presenteeism. Method: Data of a self-reported questionnaire were collected from 816 employees, who joined the study on a voluntary basis, in seven enterprises in northern Taiwan. Results: Organizational culture and health behaviors were found to be significantly associated with presenteeism. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of health complaints seemed to be more suitable than chronic diseases in predicting presenteeism. Conclusions: This study result implied that...
Reasons Why Physicians and Advanced Practice Clinicians Work While Sick
A Mixed-Methods Analysis Importance: When clinicians work with symptoms of infection, they can put patients and colleagues at risk. Little is known about the reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) work while sick. Objective: To identify a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why attending physicians and APCs work while sick. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a mixed-methods analysis of a cross-sectional, anonymous survey administered from January 15 through March 20, 2014, in a large children's hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Data...
Organizational Safety Climate and Supervisor Safety Enforcement
Multilevel Explorations of the Causes of Accident Underreporting According to national surveillance statistics, over 3 million employees are injured each year; yet, research indicates that these may be substantial underestimates of the true prevalence. The purpose of the current project was to empirically test the hypothesis that organizational safety climate and transactional supervisor safety leadership would predict the extent to which accidents go unreported by employees. Using hierarchical linear modeling and survey data collected from 1,238 employees in 33 organizations, employee-level supervisor...
Industrial relations practices related to psychosocial constraints at work in the steel sector
This report looks at industrial relations practices regarding health and safety strategies in the European steel sector. The findings are based on desk research and a comparative analysis of company practices in three company case studies: ArcelorMittal in France, Rautaruukki in Finland and Salzgitter AG in Germany. The report offers a transversal analysis, examining the main findings on the role of social dialogue and company practices regarding prevention while also highlighting some specific company and sectoral features triggering psychosocial risks and their prevention. Each of the three case...
Understanding safety in the context of business operations: An exploratory study using case studies
This exploratory research employs a series of cases studies and a multi-stakeholder perspective to examine safety practices and outcomes in the wider context of business operations. The aims of the research include enhancing the understanding of the practices critical for safe workplaces and of the business value (positive or negative) of safety. Four research questions related to safety practices and outcomes and operational practices and outcomes were addressed. The results provide new and novel insights into safety's role in the organization and show that when safety is examined in the wider...
Pre-conditioning for success: Characteristics and factors ensuring a safe build for the Olympic Park
This research has looked to identify factors which have contributed to the London 2012 Olympic Park being delivered on time, on budget and with an exemplary health and safety record. Where other research has captured 'how' things were done, this research has explored 'why' and focused on the underpinning human and organisational interactions. The research has tapped in to the close-out and lessons learnt activities for six of the venue and infrastructure projects. In addition interviews were conducted with executives from the Olympic Delivery Authority as client, their Delivery...
A Review of the Knowledge Base on Healthy Worksite Culture
Objective: To identify the need for worksite cultures of health, the organizational factors that support worksite cultures of health, the tools that have been used to measure worksite cultures of health, and the research needs related to healthy worksite culture. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving a sample of 500 companies representing a broad spectrum of industries and business sectors. A literature review was conducted. Results: Similar to a culture of safety that encourages safer behaviors and enables a safer workplace, a culture of health provides a supportive work leadership with...
Supervisor vs. employee safety perceptions and association with future injury in US limited-service restaurant workers
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have found management commitment to safety to be an important construct of safety climate. This study examined the association between supervisor and employee (shared and individual) perceptions of management commitment to safety and the rate of future injuries in limited-service restaurant workers. METHODS: A total of 453 participants (34 supervisors/managers and 419 employees) from 34 limited-service restaurants participated in a prospective cohort study. Employees' and managers' perceptions of management commitment to safety and demographic variables were collected...
Occupational Safety and Health culture assessment - A review of main approaches and selected tools
Occupational safety and health culture, or more briefly 'OSH culture', can be seen as a concept for exploring how informal organisational aspects influence OSH in a positive or negative way. The aim is to convey up-to-date information on this complex topic in a straightforward, condensed way, trying to build a bridge between research and practice. The main approaches and methods that exist to assess the safety culture in an organisation are presented and discussed. This review gives an overview and selection of useful tools and techniques from the EU domain and abroad. Source : http://osha...
Gestion des changements technologiques et organisationnels et représentations sociales
Impact sur la SST La recherche qui fait l'objet de ce rapport est centrée principalement sur les caractéristiques générales de l'organisation technique et sociale du travail et du milieu organisationnel, ainsi que sur les facteurs contextuels qui affectent celle-ci et en marquent l'évolution. Elle porte aussi sur les transformations du milieu organisationnel et de ses principales caractéristiques qui influencent l'état de la santé et de la sécurité du travail. L'analyse de ces changements repose en bonne partie...
Employee reactions to office redesign
A naturally occurring quasi-field experiment in a multi-generational setting Outcomes associated with an office redesign aimed at decreasing workspace while enhancing perceptions of organizational culture and work-related attitudes are examined within a financial services organization. Findings show that employees assigned to the redesigned office environment report less workspace and more distractions than those who remained in a cubicle environment, but that this finding was moderated by age generation. Human Relations , Vol. 63, No. 5, 609-636 (2010) Source : http://hum.sagepub.com/cgi/content...
Developing understanding of target audiences
Amongst the planned activities of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for 2009/10, a significant element is aimed at reaching and influencing two different audiences with regards to LEV (Local Exhaust Ventilation). These audiences are: supply-side stakeholders; and SME businesses that use LEV to control their employees' exposure to hazardous substances. To inform these activities, a qualitative research study was carried out with users and suppliers of LEV equipment in April, May and June 2009. Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr787.htm

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