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Healthy working time arrangements for healthcare personnel and patients
A systematic literature review Background: A number of working time arrangements have been linked to negative consequences for both health personnel and their patients. A common hypothesis put forth to explain these findings suggests that certain working time arrangements lead to negative patient consequences due to the adverse impact they have on employee health. The purpose of this study is to use systematic reviews to investigate whether employee health explains the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed including...
Short time between shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers
A register-based cohort study Objectives: Short time between consecutive work shifts (quick returns, ie, ≤11 hours between shifts) is associated with sleepiness and fatigue, both of which have been linked to risk of injury. This paper aims to study quick returns between work shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers. Method: The study population included 69 200 employees, primarily working at hospitals, corresponding to 167 726 person years at risk between 2008–2015. Information on working hours was obtained from payroll data in the Danish Working Hour Database and linked...
Comprendre l’influence de la régulation des contraintes temporelles sur l’appropriation des principes généraux de déplacement sécuritaire des bénéficiaires par les recrues préposés aux bénéficiaires
Les préposés aux bénéficiaires (PAB) ont comme mandat de réaliser l'ensemble des activités d'assistance envers les résidents des centres d'hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) au Québec. Ils exercent une fonction indispensable dans les CHSLD, alors que le vieillissement de la population s'accentue, que les problématiques physiques et cognitives des résidents s'aggravent et que la réponse à leurs besoins se complexifie. Les PAB forment également une catégorie...
Night Shift Work and Its Health Effects on Nurses
The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and...
Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses’ Health Study II
Background: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk.Objectives: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort.Methods:We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination...
Rotating night shift work and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Studies
In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared shift work involving circadian disruption to be a “probable” carcinogen (group 2A), noting that human evidence was limited. This study examined associations between rotating night shift work and breast cancer risk in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS: 1988–2012, n = 78,516; NHS2: 1989–2013, n = 114,559), with 9,541 incident invasive breast malignancies and 24 years of follow-up. Women in NHS with 30+ years of shift work had no increased risk of breast cancer (Hazard ratio (HR) =...
Night-shift work is associated with increased pain perception
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine whether shift workers exhibit increased perception of experimentally induced pain after working night shifts. Methods: The study was a paired cross-over design with two sleep conditions, after at least two nights of habitual sleep and after two consecutive night shifts at work. Fifty-three nurses in rotating shift work participated. The sensitivity to electrically induced pain, heat pain, cold pain, pressure pain and pain inhibition was determined experimentally in each sleep condition. Sleepiness and vigilance were also assessed. Results...
Influence of organizational context on nursing home staff burnout
A cross-sectional survey of care aides in Western Canada Purpose: Our study examined care aide characteristics, organizational context, and frequency of dementia-related resident responsive behaviours associated with burnout. Burnout is the experience of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Care aide burnout has implications for turnover, staff health, and quality of care. Design and methods: We used surveys collected from 1194 care aides from 30 urban nursing homes in three Western Canadian provinces. We used a mixed-effects regression analysis to assess care aide characteristics...
The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses
A Repeated Measures Study Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. Results: The work...
Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing
A literature review Objectives: To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee's performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse events and client satisfaction) and wellbeing (including burnout, job satisfaction, absenteeism, intention to leave the job) in all sectors including healthcare. Review methods: The search was conducted between January and March 2015. Studies were drawn from all occupational sectors (i.e. health and non health), meeting the inclusion criteria: involved participants aged ≥18...
Night shift work and incidence of diabetes in the Danish Nurse Cohort
Objectives: Night shift work has been associated with poor sleep, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, which are recognised risk factor for diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of shift work on diabetes risk. Here, we study the association between shift work and incidence of diabetes in Danish nurses. Methods: We used the Danish Nurse Cohort with 28 731 participating female nurses recruited in 1993 (19 898) or 1999 (8833), when self-reported baseline information on diabetes prevalence, lifestyle and working time were collected, and followed them in the Danish Diabetes Register...
Total and Cause-Specific Mortality of U.S. Nurses Working Rotating Night Shifts
Background : Rotating night shift work imposes circadian strain and is linked to the risk of several chronic diseases. Purpose : To examine associations between rotating night shift work and all-cause; cardiovascular disease (CVD); and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort study of 74,862 registered U.S. nurses from the Nurses' Health Study. Methods : Lifetime rotating night shift work (defined as ≥3 nights/month) information was collected in 1988. During 22 years (1988–2010) of follow-up, 14,181 deaths were documented, including 3,062 CVD and 5,413 cancer deaths. Cox proportional...
Short rest periods between work shifts predict sleep and health problems in nurses at 1-year follow-up
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the number of work shifts separated by less than 11 hours (quick returns) at baseline (T1) could predict health problems in nurses at 1-year follow-up (T2). METHODS: 1224 nurses responded to a questionnaire-based survey in 2009 (T1) and 2010 (T2). Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were completed to assess the association between annual number of quick returns at T1 and the following outcome variables at T2: shift work disorder (SWD), excessive sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), pathological fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale) and anxiety and depression...
Work schedule and client characteristics associated with workplace violence experience among nurses and midwives in sub-Saharan Africa
Violence against health care workers perpetrated by clients and/or their friends and family (Type II) is a growing problem that can severely impact health care delivery. We examined the prevalence of Type II workplace violence among nurses and midwives in sub-Saharan Africa and its association with work status, schedule, and client characteristics. Nurses and midwives (n = 712) completed an anonymous survey while attending nursing meetings. Generalized estimating equation models, accounting for clustering within residing countries, were employed. Participants who were exposed to risky client characteristics...
Circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes of rotating night shift nurses
Objective : It has been hypothesized that the underlying mechanism of elevated breast cancer risk among long-term, night-working women involves circadian genes expression alteration caused by exposure to light at night and/or irregular work hours. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of rotating night shift work on expression of selected core circadian genes. Methods : The cross-sectional study was conducted on 184 matched nurses and midwives, who currently work either day or rotating night shifts, to determine the effect of irregular work at night on circadian gene expression...
Psychosocial precursors and physical consequences of workplace violence towards nurses
A longitudinal examination with naturally occurring groups in hospital settings BACKGROUND: Workplace violence towards nurses is prevalent and consequential, contributing to nurses' reduced health and safety, worsened job attitudes, and compromised productivity. OBJECTIVES: To examine if organizational violence prevention climate as perceived by nurses predicts nurses' physical violence exposure and if physical violence exposure predicts nurses' somatic symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder symptoms. DESIGN: A two-wave longitudinal design with naturally occurring groups, with a 6-month...
Nurses' Work Schedule Characteristics, Nurse Staffing, and Patient Mortality
Background: Although nurse staffing has been found to be related to patient mortality, there has been limited study of the independent effect of work schedules on patient care outcomes. Objective: To determine if, in hospitals where nurses report more adverse work schedules, there would be increased patient mortality, controlling for staffing. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used, with multilevel data from a 2004 survey of 633 nurses working in 71 acute nonfederal hospitals in North Carolina and Illinois. Mortality measures were the risk-adjusted Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
Overcrowding in hospital wards increases andtidepressant use among personnel
Overcrowding in terms of high bed occupancy increases antidepressant use among hospital personnel, says recent research coordinated by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. The study has just been published online in the high-quality American Journal of Psychiatry. "This study suggests that patient overcrowding increases mental disorders requiring medica-tion, such as depression, among employees", says special researcher Marianna Virtanen from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. "Risk for depression seems to increase after at least six months' patient overcrowding"...

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