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Une forme de gestion désincarnée de l’activité
L'exemple d'une formation en santé et sécurité du travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires au Québec Cet article a pour objectif d'illustrer les limites d'un mode de gestion désincarné de l'activité réelle de travail. Nous prenons l'exemple d'un mode de gestion « top-down » d'une formation en santé au travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires travaillant dans les organisations gériatriques au Québec...
Healthy working time arrangements for healthcare personnel and patients
A systematic literature review Background: A number of working time arrangements have been linked to negative consequences for both health personnel and their patients. A common hypothesis put forth to explain these findings suggests that certain working time arrangements lead to negative patient consequences due to the adverse impact they have on employee health. The purpose of this study is to use systematic reviews to investigate whether employee health explains the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed including...
Organisation et contraintes du temps de travail : une typologie en six catégories
En 2016, un peu moins de la moitié des salariés du secteur privé et des agents du secteur public ont des semaines de travail dites « standard ». Ce type de semaine est travaillé du lundi au vendredi selon des journées essentiellement « standard » (entre 7h et 20h) et rarement le week-end. Il concerne en grande partie les professions intermédiaires et les cadres et professions intellectuelles supérieures. Au sein de la fonction publique, ce type de semaine est plus courant parmi les fonctionnaires que parmi les contractuels...
Short time between shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers
A register-based cohort study Objectives: Short time between consecutive work shifts (quick returns, ie, ≤11 hours between shifts) is associated with sleepiness and fatigue, both of which have been linked to risk of injury. This paper aims to study quick returns between work shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers. Method: The study population included 69 200 employees, primarily working at hospitals, corresponding to 167 726 person years at risk between 2008–2015. Information on working hours was obtained from payroll data in the Danish Working Hour Database and linked...
Impact of shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm
A one-year longitudinal study in junior physicians Background: Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggests that shift work exerts harmful effects on human health. However, the physiological mechanisms are not well understood. This study aimed to examine the impact of shift work on the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, i.e. diurnal cortisol rhythm. Methods: Seventy physicians with a mean age 30 years participated in this one-year longitudinal study. Working schedules, either shift work or regular schedules with day shift, were assessed at baseline. Salivary cortisol samples...
Effects of night-time on-call work on heart rate variability before bed and sleep quality in visiting nurses
Purpose: In Japan, many visiting nurses work carrying cell phones to respond to calls from users even at night (on-call work). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether on-call work affected heart rate variability (HRV) before bed and decreased sleep quality in visiting nurses even if their sleep was not interrupted due to actual calls. Methods: Thirty-one visiting nurses (mean age, 49.8 years; standard deviation, 6.3 years) were asked to record their 2.5-min resting HRV before bed, and to undergo one-channel sleep electroencephalography (EEG) and subjective sleep evaluations upon waking...
Effects of night duty events on blood pressure and autonomic modulation in physicians
Background: The dynamic effects of duty events on the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) of physicians on duty are unknown. Methods: A study was conducted among 12 physicians on night duty. BP and HRV with and without the effect of a duty event were compared. The risk of higher BP and impaired HRV after a phone call were calculated. Results: Physicians had higher mean BP (122.4 ± 11.1; 76.9 ± 7.1 mmHg) within 30 min after a phone calls than without a phone call (113.5 ± 5.3; 69.0 ± 3...
Fly-in/fly-out et santé psychologique au travail dans les mines
Une recension des écrits La fatigue, associée aux longues heures de travail, aux courtes périodes de récupération entre les quarts de travail et à la qualité des installations d'hébergement, est considérée comme un des principaux enjeux en matière de santé et de sécurité au travail par les travailleurs miniers FIFO. Dans une étude, 70 % des travailleurs miniers FIFO interrogés déclarent vivre des troubles de sommeil. Selon une autre étude, 45 % des travailleurs miniers...
Comprendre l’influence de la régulation des contraintes temporelles sur l’appropriation des principes généraux de déplacement sécuritaire des bénéficiaires par les recrues préposés aux bénéficiaires
Les préposés aux bénéficiaires (PAB) ont comme mandat de réaliser l'ensemble des activités d'assistance envers les résidents des centres d'hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) au Québec. Ils exercent une fonction indispensable dans les CHSLD, alors que le vieillissement de la population s'accentue, que les problématiques physiques et cognitives des résidents s'aggravent et que la réponse à leurs besoins se complexifie. Les PAB forment également une catégorie...
Shiftwork and the Retinal Vasculature Diameters Among Police Officers
Objective: To investigate associations of central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE), a measure of retinal arteriolar width, and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), a measure of retinal venular width, with shiftwork in 199 police officers (72.9% men). Methods: Shiftwork (day, afternoon, night) was assessed using electronic payroll records. Four digital retinal images per officer were taken. Mean diameters of the retinal vasculature were compared across shifts using analysis of variance (ANOVA)/analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: Among all officers (mean age = 46.6 ± 6.8 years...
Dimensions sociales et psychologiques associées aux activités minières et impacts sur la qualité de vie
L'intérêt de l'industrie et du gouvernement pour la mise en valeur des ressources minérales du territoire québécois, particulièrement sur le territoire visé par le Plan Nord, convie les acteurs de la santé publique à étudier les activités qui y sont associées et leurs répercussions sanitaires. Afin de répondre au besoin du réseau de la santé publique de mieux comprendre les répercussions sanitaires associées aux activités minières, une revue de littérature...
Night Shift Work and Its Health Effects on Nurses
The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and...
Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?
Objective: It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method: The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more...
Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses’ Health Study II
Background: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk.Objectives: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort.Methods:We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination...
Rotating night shift work and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Studies
In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared shift work involving circadian disruption to be a “probable” carcinogen (group 2A), noting that human evidence was limited. This study examined associations between rotating night shift work and breast cancer risk in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS: 1988–2012, n = 78,516; NHS2: 1989–2013, n = 114,559), with 9,541 incident invasive breast malignancies and 24 years of follow-up. Women in NHS with 30+ years of shift work had no increased risk of breast cancer (Hazard ratio (HR) =...
Night-shift work is associated with increased pain perception
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine whether shift workers exhibit increased perception of experimentally induced pain after working night shifts. Methods: The study was a paired cross-over design with two sleep conditions, after at least two nights of habitual sleep and after two consecutive night shifts at work. Fifty-three nurses in rotating shift work participated. The sensitivity to electrically induced pain, heat pain, cold pain, pressure pain and pain inhibition was determined experimentally in each sleep condition. Sleepiness and vigilance were also assessed. Results...
Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort
Evidence on the association between shift work and mortality is limited. We found significantly enhanced all-cause, cardiovascular and diabetes mortality among nurses with night and evening shifts. We present novel finding of an increase in mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and potentially psychological disorders among night, evening, and rotating shift workers. Source: Jørgensen JT, Karlsen S, Stayner L, Hansen J, Andersen ZJ. (2016). Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3612
Working hours and the onset of depressive disorder
A systematic review and meta-analysis This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether working beyond the standard working hours was associated with a greater risk of depressive disorder among workers included in published prospective studies. This manuscript was prepared according to the PRISMA guideline checklist. A database search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES using a relevant set of keywords. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) participants were adult workers; (2) exposure was defined as overtime work; (3) outcome were depressive...
Les départs précoces des pâtissiers salariés de l'artisanat
Comprendre pour agir en prévention Le départ précoce de la plupart des pâtissiers salariés de l'artisanat, survenant bien avant l'âge légal de la retraite, constitue à la fois un paradoxe et un défi de prévention en santé au travail. Le présent article fondé sur une analyse pluridisciplinaire décrit l'activité et les altérations de santé caractéristiques de ce métier, ses contraintes et la tension entre deux configurations différentes d'exercice...
The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses
A Repeated Measures Study Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. Results: The work...
The Work Organization of Long-Haul Truck Drivers and the Association With Body Mass Index
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between work organization features of work hours, work schedules, and job stress with body mass indexes (BMIs) of long-haul truck drivers. Methods: Face-to-face survey data were collected first, followed by collection of anthropometric measures including height and weight (n?=?260). Logistic regression (backward stepwise model) was used to identify significant predictors of BMI and to analyze odds ratios. Results: Mean BMI was 33.40?kg/m2, with 64.2% obese (BMI > 30?kg/m2) and 18.4% extreme/morbidly obese (BMI > 40?kg/m2). Working...
Night shift work and other determinants of estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate among middle-aged nurses and midwives
The study examined the association between rotating night shift work and blood concentrations of selected sex hormones among nurses and midwives. A positive and significant association between the total duration of night shift work and estradiol level observed among postmenopausal women tends to support the hypothesis linking night shift work with increased risk of breast cancer. Source: Juvani A, Oksanen T, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Salo P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Scand J Work Environ Health , 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3581
The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses
A Repeated Measures Study Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. Results: The work...
Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing
A literature review Objectives: To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee's performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse events and client satisfaction) and wellbeing (including burnout, job satisfaction, absenteeism, intention to leave the job) in all sectors including healthcare. Review methods: The search was conducted between January and March 2015. Studies were drawn from all occupational sectors (i.e. health and non health), meeting the inclusion criteria: involved participants aged ≥18...
What is the preferred number of consecutive night shifts?
Results from a crossover intervention study among police officers in Denmark Among police officers in Denmark, we studied (i) how many consecutive night shifts participants preferred at baseline; (ii) preferences regarding three intervention conditions (two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts followed by the same number of days off/day shifts: ‘2 + 2', ‘4 + 4', ‘7 + 7') at follow-up; (iii) characteristics of participants preferring each of these intervention conditions. Questionnaire data from a crossover intervention study were used (baseline: n = 73; follow...
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