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The impact of night shift work on breast cancer
Results from the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Canada Study Background: We estimated the proportion and number of female breast cancer cases in Canada attributable to night shift work, a probable cause of breast cancer. Methods: Levin's equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) among Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts from 1961 to 2000, accounting for labor turnover and survival to the year 2011. The calculated PAFs were applied to 2011 Canadian breast cancer incidence statistics to obtain the number of attributable cases. Results: Approximately...
Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted...
Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted...
Shift work and the incidence of prostate cancer
A 10-year follow-up of a German population-based cohort study Objectives: We investigated the association of shift and night work with the incidence of prostate cancer using data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study from the highly industrialized Ruhr area in Germany. Methods: Participants of the baseline survey were recruited between 2000–2003. A follow-up survey including, a detailed interview on shift and night work, was conducted from 2011–2014. We included 1757 men who did not report a history of prostate cancer at baseline. We assessed shift- and night...
Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses’ Health Study II
Background: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk.Objectives: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort.Methods:We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination...
Chronic Disease Risks From Exposure to Long-Hour Work Schedules Over a 32-Year Period
Objectives: This study aims at evaluating the chronic disease risk related to prolonged work in long-hour schedules for eight major chronic diseases: heart disease, non-skin cancer, arthritis, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, chronic depression, and hypertension. Methods: The study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 covering 32 years of job history (1978 to 2009) for 7492 respondents. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between average weekly work hours, and the reported prevalence of those conditions for each individual. Results...
Night shift work and incidence of diabetes in the Danish Nurse Cohort
Objectives: Night shift work has been associated with poor sleep, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, which are recognised risk factor for diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of shift work on diabetes risk. Here, we study the association between shift work and incidence of diabetes in Danish nurses. Methods: We used the Danish Nurse Cohort with 28 731 participating female nurses recruited in 1993 (19 898) or 1999 (8833), when self-reported baseline information on diabetes prevalence, lifestyle and working time were collected, and followed them in the Danish Diabetes Register...
Gender-specific association between night-work exposure and type-2 diabetes
Results from longitudinal study of adult health, ELSA-Brasil Objectives Diabetes is a multifactorial disease of increasing prevalence. The literature suggests an impact of night work on metabolic components, though the relationship with diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to investigate gender-specific associations between night work and type-2 diabetes (DM2) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods The cohort comprised 15 105 civil servants, aged 35–74 years. Baseline assessments (2008–2010) included...
For better or worse? Changing shift schedules and the risk of work injury among men and women
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the risk of work injury associated with changes in shift schedules and identify whether work injury risks differ between men and women. Methods: Longitudinal panels from the Survey of Labor and Income Dynamics were used to describe work schedule patterns over a 6-year period among a representative sample of Canadian workers (N=19 131). Cox regression was used to estimate the risk of work injury among workers who (i) switched from regular day to nonstandard shifts, (ii) switched from nonstandard to day shifts and (iii) remained in nonstandard shifts...
Combined Effects of Shiftwork and Individual Working Time Control on Long-Term Sickness Absence
A Prospective Study of Finnish Employees Objective: To investigate whether the effects of shiftwork on long-term sickness absence vary according to the level of individual working time control (WTC). Methods: A representative sample of Finnish employees (1447 men and 1624 women) was combined with a register-based follow-up. A negative binomial model was used in the analysis of long-term sickness absence days. The results were adjusted for various background and work-related factors. Results: Individual WTC decreased long-term sickness absence. The higher rate of sickness absences in shiftwork was...
Nested case–control study of night shift work and breast cancer risk among women in the Danish military
Objectives : Growing but limited evidence suggests that night shift work is associated with breast cancer. The authors conducted a nationwide case–control study nested within a cohort of 18?551 female military employees born in 1929–1968 to investigate the risk for breast cancer after night shift work and to explore the role of leisure time sun exposure and diurnal preference. Methods : The authors documented 218 cases of breast cancer (1990–2003) and selected 899 age-matched controls from the cohort by incidence density sampling. Information on shift work, sun exposure habits...
Circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes of rotating night shift nurses
Objective : It has been hypothesized that the underlying mechanism of elevated breast cancer risk among long-term, night-working women involves circadian genes expression alteration caused by exposure to light at night and/or irregular work hours. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of rotating night shift work on expression of selected core circadian genes. Methods : The cross-sectional study was conducted on 184 matched nurses and midwives, who currently work either day or rotating night shifts, to determine the effect of irregular work at night on circadian gene expression...
Work at night and breast cancer
Report on evidence-based options for preventive actions In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive actions, 16 researchers in basic, epidemiological and applied sciences convened at a workshop in Copenhagen 26–27 October 2011. This paper summarizes the evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies and presents possible recommendations...
Study finds that working shifts may increase the risk of developing diabetes in nurses
Examining the association between rotating shift work (≥3 nights/month plus days and evenings) and Type 2 diabetes among 177,000 female nurses aged 25–67 (the Nurses' Health Study), this large-scale study revealed a graded association between the duration of working life the nurses had been engaged in shift work and risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes. Compared with women who reported no shift work, participants with 1–2 years of shift work had a 5% excess risk of T2D, rising to 20% after 3–9 years, 40% after 10–19 years, and almost 60% for ≥20 years. These data...
Breast cancer link to shiftwork confirmed
Nearly 2,000 women contract breast cancer every year in the UK because they work night shifts, according to a new report. The figure, published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), is based on 2005 data and attributes 1,969 new cases of breast cancer and 555 deaths from the disease that year to shiftwork. It says: 'The estimate of nearly 2,000 breast cancer registrations due to shiftwork in our study is 54 per cent of all female occupationally-related cancer registrations.' Professor Andrew Watterson, head of occupational health research at Stirling University, urged HSE last year...

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