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The effects of sleep on workplace cognitive failure and safety
Healthy employee sleep is important for occupational safety, but the mechanisms that explain the relationships among sleep and safety-related behaviors remain unknown. We draw from Crain, Brossoit, and Fisher's (in press) work, nonwork, and sleep (WNS) framework and Barnes' (2012) model of sleep and self-regulation in organizations to investigate the influence of construction workers' self-reported sleep quantity (i.e., duration) and quality (i.e., feeling well-rest upon awakening, ability to fall asleep and remain asleep) on workplace cognitive failures (i.e., lapses in attention,...
The impact of night shift work on breast cancer
Results from the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Canada Study Background: We estimated the proportion and number of female breast cancer cases in Canada attributable to night shift work, a probable cause of breast cancer. Methods: Levin's equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) among Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts from 1961 to 2000, accounting for labor turnover and survival to the year 2011. The calculated PAFs were applied to 2011 Canadian breast cancer incidence statistics to obtain the number of attributable cases. Results: Approximately...
Long-term occupational trajectories and suicide
A 22-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study Objective: Most suicides occur among individuals of working age. Risk is elevated in some occupational groups, however relations between long-term occupational trajectories and suicide are not well known. We describe career-long occupational trajectories and examine their influence on suicide. Methods: Data come from GAZEL, a French cohort study set among employees of a large national utilities company. Occupational grade was obtained from company records from the time of hiring (1953?1988). Groupbased trajectory models were used to define occupational...
Les ouvriers intérimaires sont-ils plus exposés aux risques professionnels?
En France, les ouvriers intérimaires, qui représentent la majorité des personnes en intérim et 8 % des ouvriers, sont très fortement exposés à des contraintes physiques dans leur travail. Ils sont 22 % à manipuler des charges lourdes plus de 20 heures par semaine contre 12 % pour l’ensemble des ouvriers. Ces contraintes s’expliquent toutefois davantage par les caractéristiques des métiers qu’exercent les intérimaires que par leur statut d’intérimaire. À première vue, les ouvriers...
Gender differences in injuries attributed to workplace violence in Ontario 2002-2015
Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare trends in the incidence of injury resulting from workplace violence for men and women at the population level over the period 2002–2015 among working-age adults in Ontario, Canada. Methods: Administrative records of injury resulting from workplace violence were obtained from two population-based data sources in Ontario: 21 228 lost-time workers' compensation claims (2002–2015) and 13 245 records of non-scheduled emergency department visits (2004–2014), where the main problem was attributed to a workplace violence...
Job burnout: The contribution of emotional stability and emotional self-efficacy beliefs
Consistent with insights from both trait and social cognitive theories, this study presents a theoretical model positing emotional self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions at work as a key mechanism that contributes to mediate the negative relationship between emotional stability – a trait highly associated with positive affect and mental health – and job burnout. To test this assertion, a two-wave study using a representative sample of 416 new military cadets of an Italian military academy was designed. Military cadets were involved in the study 2 months after their entrance...
Do age and gender contribute to workers’ burnout symptoms?
Background: Despite mounting evidence on the association between work stress and burnout, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which workers' age and gender are associated with burnout. Aims: To evaluate the relationship between age, gender and their interaction with burnout in a sample of Canadian workers. Methods: Data were collected in 2009–12 from a sample of 2073 Canadian workers from 63 workplaces in the province of Quebec. Data were analysed with multilevel regression models to test for linear and non-linear relationships between age and burnout. Analyses adjusted for...
Worsening Workers' Health by Lowering Retirement Age: The Malign Consequences of a Benign Reform
In 2003, the retirement age of Swiss construction workers was lowered from 65 to 60. This reform has been intended to improve their health. Our study shows the opposite outcome. The human capital theory suggests that investments in employees’ productivity by the employer and the employees themselves depend on the time remaining until their retirement. Hence, we hypothesize that pension reforms that reduce employees’ working horizon decrease investments in work-related human capital, which translates into a higher prevalence of sickness absences, a longer absence duration, and worse...
Post-traumatic Reactions and Their Predictors among Workers Who Experienced Serious Violent Acts
Are There Sex Differences? Background: Serious violent acts (e.g. physical violence, robbery, sexual aggression and death threats) are among the most visible and notable examples of workplace violence. Although women are commonly found to be at higher risk for post-traumatic reactions following workplace violence, little is known as regards sex differences concerning the types of post-traumatic reactions and their predictors. Objective: This study aimed to describe sex differences in the post-traumatic reactions of serious violent acts and the predictors of such reactions. Methods: The study was...
Is perception of safety climate a relevant predictor for occupational accidents?
Prospective cohort study among blue-collar workers Objectives: The capability of safety climate to predict accidents has been the target of widespread debate in occupational health and safety research. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to employ a shortened five-item safety climate survey to investigate whether safety climate reports in 2012 are predictive for accidents reported within the last 12 months in 2014. Methods: In both 2012 and 2014, 3864 blue-collar workers answered the Danish Working Environment and Health Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to study the association...
Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted...
Les blessures professionnelles et leurs déterminants
Mieux comprendre le rôle du secteur industriel et de la profession L'ampleur actuelle de la morbidité et de la mortalité liées aux blessures professionnelles (c.-à-d. accidents du travail, troubles liés aux mouvements répétitifs) pèse lourd sur la productivité des travailleurs, des entreprises et de la société canadienne. Annuellement, les données révèlent qu'un Canadien sur quinze est blessé dans l'exercice de son travail, alors que les coûts économiques générés...
Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted...
Pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire, stratégie de faire face et stratégie de défense chez les enseignants débutants
Un autre regard sur les éléments contributifs d’une vulnérabilité au phénomène de décrochage professionnel Cet article porte sur la pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire dans l’enseignement secondaire en France. À partir de présupposés issus d’une approche transactionnelle du stress et d’une psychodynamique du travail son originalité est d’en documenter la complémentarité pour analyser les facteurs contributifs de cette pénibilité et pour comprendre...
Associations Between Age, Psychosocial Work Conditions, Occupational Well-Being, and Telomere Length in Geriatric Care Professionals
A Mixed-Methods Study Objective: We identified associations between age, psychosocial work characteristics, occupational well-being, and—as a measure of biological age—leukocyte telomere length in geriatric care professionals. Methods: This is a multisource study of self-reports on psychosocial work characteristics, standardized physician's evaluations of health, and relative telomere length measures of peripheral blood leukocytes. We included 141 geriatric care professionals. Telomere length was assessed by an improved polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Results: Increased...
Factors underlying observed injury rate differences between temporary workers and permanent peers
BACKGROUND: Temporary workers face increased risk of injury as compared to permanent workers in similar occupations. This study explores the role played by several potential risk factors. METHODS: Injured temporary and permanent workers, matched by industry, tenure and demographic characteristics, were interviewed to isolate the association of temporary employment with several injury risk factors. RESULTS: Temporary workers had higher workers' compensation claims rates than their permanent worker-peers. In interviews temporary workers a reported a lower frequency of exposure to hazards. However...
Shift work and the incidence of prostate cancer
A 10-year follow-up of a German population-based cohort study Objectives: We investigated the association of shift and night work with the incidence of prostate cancer using data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study from the highly industrialized Ruhr area in Germany. Methods: Participants of the baseline survey were recruited between 2000–2003. A follow-up survey including, a detailed interview on shift and night work, was conducted from 2011–2014. We included 1757 men who did not report a history of prostate cancer at baseline. We assessed shift- and night...
Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses’ Health Study II
Background: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk.Objectives: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort.Methods:We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination...
Work orientations, well-being and job content of self-employed and employed professionals
Drawing on psychology-derived theories and methods, a questionnaire survey compared principal kinds of work orientation, job content and mental well-being between self-employed and organisationally employed professional workers. Self-employment was found to be particularly associated with energised well-being in the form of job engagement. The presence in self-employment of greater challenge, such as an enhanced requirement for personal innovation, accounted statistically for self-employed professionals' greater job engagement, and self-employed professionals more strongly valued personal challenge...
Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?
Purpose: To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45–64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. Results: During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses...
Pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire, stratégie de faire face et stratégie de défense chez les enseignants débutants
Un autre regard sur les éléments contributifs d'une vulnérabilité au phénomène de décrochage professionnel Cet article porte sur la pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire dans l'enseignement secondaire en France. À partir de présupposés issus d'une approche transactionnelle du stress et d'une psychodynamique du travail son originalité est d'en documenter la complémentarité pour analyser les facteurs contributifs de cette pénibilité et pour comprendre les stratégies...
Employment Status of Depressed Individuals in an 11-Year Follow-up
Results From the Finnish Health 2011 Survey Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the employment and mental health status of persons with depressive disorders after an 11-year follow-up, and identify individual and work-related factors that predict adverse outcomes. Methods: Two nationally representative health surveys, Health 2000 and its follow-up, Health 2011 were used, and persons with depressive disorders at baseline (n = 275) were re-interviewed after 11 years. Results: Information on employment status was available for all 263 participants in 2011. About 15.7% had been granted...
Les jeunes Québécois qui font appel aux agences de placement
Comment perçoivent-ils leurs conditions de travail et quels avantages en retirent-ils? Ce texte examine la situation des jeunes travailleurs embauchés par les agences de placement au Québec. Il est fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche menée par le biais d'entrevues semi-dirigées auprès de 40 jeunes de la grande région de Québec. Nos analyses montrent que les jeunes travailleurs d'agence sont fortement scolarisés, ont de faibles revenus et sont en importante proportion des immigrants et des étudiants...
Les travailleurs invisibles
Les risques pour la santé des travailleurs des agences de location de personnel La croissance du marché de l'emploi atypique contribue à la précarisation des conditions de vie et de travail d'un nombre important de travailleurs. Bien que toutes les formes d'emploi atypique ne soient pas nécessairement précaires, elles offrent généralement une moins bonne protection sociale et des salaires moins élevés. Le travail par l'intermédiaire des agences de location de personnel, une forme d'emploi atypique,...
Empirical measurement and improvement of hazard recognition skill
One explanation for high injury rates and the recent plateau in construction safety performance is that workers remain unable to recognize and manage hazards in dynamic and transient construction environments. This notion is supported by recent experimental studies, which revealed that workers are typically unable to identify and manage over 55% of hazards in their immediate work environment. These alarming discoveries prompted a series of multiple baseline experiments that tested three interventions thought to improve hazard recognition. In these studies, data were gathered from over 3000 h of...
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