Horticultural mobile elevating work platforms (H/MEWP) are complex pieces of equipment that are used in hazardous conditions. As the current state of knowledge
has changed around the use of this equipment these best practice guidelines are an update of the 2003 version. Since 2004, 17 serious harm accidents involving H/MEWPs have been reported to MBIE. Nine of these accidents involved tip-overs of the H/MEWP and two serious harm injuries occurred when operators fell from the work platform. In two separate accidents the operator suffered an electric shock when the H/MEWP touched power lines. In three serious harm injuries operators suffered amputations after becoming entangled in the moving parts of an H/MEWP. Additionally, two serious harm accidents occurred when orchard workers were run over by moving H/MEWPs.
These guidelines provide guidance on safe work practices for the use and maintenance of H/MEWPs in the horticultural industry and are supplementary to other guidance on working at heights and the use of elevating work platforms. These are industry-specific best practice guidelines which are intended to cover only the following industry activities:
- horticulture plant and machinery
- hirehorticultural contractors
- nurseries, parks and reserves.
Source : http://www.osh.govt.nz/order/catalogue/pdf/platforms-hort.pdf
Mobile Elevated Work Platforms (MEWPs) are commonly used across all industrial sectors by a whole variety of trades, including mechanical and electrical contractors, and painters and decorators, as a safe, temporary method of working at height. There is a large range of MEWPs on the market and their controls and functionality varies depending on the category, manufacturer, model and size of machine. As their popularity and range of applications has grown, concerns have emerged about trapping/crushing accidents involving MEWPs. This report identifies accidents involving MEWPs and analyses common factors found. The work has focused on MEWP occupants being trapped against overhead or adjacent objects whilst in the platform of the MEWP, particularly when the operator becomes trapped over the controls (sustained involuntary operation of control). Typically, this has occurred when the operator has been moving the MEWP within relatively confined areas. This research has centred on person-machine interface/human factors analysis rather than engineering issues.
Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr961.pdf
HSE has carried out a programme of research projects focused on MEWPs, in order to provide a better understanding of some of the issues involved and to help work towards their improved and safer design and operation. An initial phase of work, reported in HSE Research Report RR961, examined the human factors involved in such accidents as a means of identifying possible solutions. The subsequent phase of work (to be published later in 2013) went on to critically evaluate MEWP control interfaces and platform environments. The work detailed in this current report is the third phase of MEWPs research and has aimed to capture MEWP end users knowledge in relation to the key risk factors for entrapment/crushing whilst operating MEWPS, using insights gained from their experiences of near misses/incidents. Suggestions for how these might be addressed are also considered.
Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr960.pdf
Since cranes and tower cranes are complex installations they constitute critical aspects of safety at construction sites. The risks posed by cranes are specific and should be treated as such. Prior to assessing the impact of management and organizational factors, accident analysis should first start with an analysis of the actual accident process. The Dutch Safety Board conducted such an accident analysis involving a non-mobile, peak less, trolley tower crane. This tower crane collapsed at a Rotterdam building site on July 10th 2008. The results show that the flexibility of the configuration of the mast and the horizontal arm of the crane or the jib was greater than that calculated by the design engineer. While hoisting a heavy load, the crane collapsed. The defects in the design of the crane were not identified, so the accident was classified as a ‘normal accident’, one that was essentially integral to the design and could also thus occur in other tower cranes of the same make. Such tower crane design shortcomings emerge as process disturbances once the crane is operational. Despite its shortcomings, the collapsed crane did have a CE mark. Other officially required safety audits and crane inspections did not address possible defects in the design, production, or operation of the crane. Once on the market there appears to be no further effective safety net for the detection of structural weaknesses. The article will also discuss the role of parties involved in construction and inspection of tower cranes.
Source : Paul Swuste, A ‘normal accident’ with a tower crane? An accident analysis conducted by the Dutch Safety Board, Safety Science, Volume 57, August 2013, Pages 276-282, ISSN 0925-7535, 10.1016/j.ssci.2013.03.002.
Condition based maintenance (CBM) in the process industry helps in determining the residual life of equipment, avoiding sudden breakdown and facilitating the maintenance staff to schedule repairs by optimizing demand–supply relationships. One of the prevalent issues in CBM is to predict the residual life of the equipment. This paper proposes a novel framework to predict the remnant life of the equipment, called residual life prediction, based on optimally parameterized wavelet transform and multi-step support vector regression (RWMS). In optimally parameterized wavelet transform, a generalized criterion is proposed to select the wavelet decomposition level which works for all the applications; decomposition nodes are selected by characterizing their dominancy level based upon relative fault signature–signal energy contents. The prediction model is based on multi-step support vector regression to determine the nonlinear crack propagation in the rotary machine according to Paris's fatigue model. The results both for the simulated as well as the actual vibration datasets validate the enhanced performance of RWMS in comparison with the existing techniques to predict the residual life of the equipment.
Source : Muhammad Farrukh Yaqub, Iqbal Gondal, and Joarder Kamruzzaman. Multi-step support vector regression and optimally parameterized wavelet packet transform for machine residual life prediction. Journal of Vibration and Control, May 2013, vol.19, p. 963-974, first published on March 7, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077546311435349
L'organisme suisse de prévention Suva propose une série de vidéos et de ressources interactives destinées à sensibiliser les salariés sur les risques liés à l'utilisation des machines à bois (scies, dégauchisseuse, toupie...). Un programme d'exercice permet aussi aux opérateurs de tester leurs connaissances sur les mesures et les réglages de sécurité de ces équipements.
Source : http://www.suva.ch/fr/startseite-suva/service-suva/lernprogramme-suva/holzbearbeitung-suva.htm?WT.seg_1=rss&WT.rss_f=RSS_FR_News&WT.rss_a=Menuisiers+-+Machines+%E0+travailler+le+bois&WT.rss_ev=r
Approved Code of Practice and guidance
This revised edition of L117 is aimed at employers and those responsible for the safe operation of lift trucks, as well as those in control of worksites, the self-employed, managers and supervisors. It includes an outline of the main legal requirements relating to lift trucks; the Approved Code of Practice text (unchanged from the previous edition) and guidance on operator training for stacking rider-operated lift trucks. It also includes some of the guidance from HSG6 Safety in working with lift trucks (and replaces HSG6), for example, information about lift truck features; guidance on the safe use of lift trucks and how to protect pedestrians; and guidance on the maintenance and thorough examination of lift trucks.
Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/priced/l117.pdf
Nail guns are used in workshops during assembly, for example bed manufacture or pallet making. They also get used a lot on site for shop fitting, timber frame erection, etc. The use of nail guns has increased dramatically over the last few years and nail gun incidents now feature in high numbers in HSE's woodworking accident statistics. Nail guns use a piston that is driven at high speed onto the head of a nail (or large staple) to force the fixing into the timber in one adjustable strike. The nails range in size from about 15mm to 100mm long and these are held in strips in a magazine. There are three main types of nail gun. For factory use the type operated by compressed air is most common. For site use the type using butane gas is widely used. The butane is mixed with air in a combustion chamber and ignited by an electric spark when the trigger is pulled. The third type are light weight and much less powerful and use an electric motor and spring to drive the piston - some of these are battery operated. This web page does not cover the use of much more powerful cartridge nail guns that are used for fixing materials into steel or concrete [...]
Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/woodworking/nail-guns.htm?ebul=gd-woodworking&cr=2/Mar13
Étude préliminaire de critères normatifs et d'utilisabilité
Pour éviter les accidents, parfois mortels, auxquels le renversement d'un chariot élévateur expose le cariste, le Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail a été modifié en 2008. Ces véhicules doivent dorénavant être munis d'un dispositif de retenue, par exemple, une ceinture de sécurité, une cabine fermée ou des portes grillagées. Une étude préalable a démontré que le port combiné d'une telle ceinture et d'un casque constitue la protection la plus efficace. On ne connaît toutefois pas les caractéristiques permettant de déterminer l'efficacité de ces équipements et de favoriser leur utilisation. Cette activité permettra de produire un répertoire des dispositifs actuellement utilisés dans les milieux de travail, d'établir les critères techniques et ergonomiques assurant la sécurité des travailleurs et enfin, de réaliser une revue critique des dispositifs existants en regard de ces critères. Ces connaissances contribueront à guider les entreprises dans le choix des ceintures et des casques de sécurité des caristes.
Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/R-765.pdf
Safe machines make a major contribution to personnel safety on the workplace. Safety of machines is often guaranteed or enhanced by safety devices. The choice of a safety device involves multiple criteria decision making and a ranking of alternatives according to often contrasting performance measures. In this paper, a systematic methodology for selecting safety measures aimed at reducing mechanical hazards of industrial machinery is presented. The method at first includes a classification of mechanical hazards and applicable safety devices, then introduces an exhaustive list of 15 factors useful to judge the suitability of safety devices for comparison purposes. A comparison of relative importance between the rating criteria is then carried out in the framework of the Analytic Hierarchy Process decision making approach, based on expert opinion, allowing unambiguous prioritization of the above decision making factors. This allows a rapid ranking of alternatives and the selection of the most suitable device for a given machine that suits the mission requirements and the preferences of the decision maker. An application example is included to demonstrate the utilization of the method.
Source : Caputo,A.C., Pelagagge,P.M., Salini,P. AHP-based methodology for selecting safety devices of industrial machinery, Safety Science, vol. 53, march 2013, p. 202–218.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.10.006
In recent years there has been a concerted effort to address many of the safety issues associated with physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). However, a number of challenges remain. For personal robots, and those intended to operate in unstructured environments, the problem of safety is compounded. In this paper we argue that traditional system design techniques fail to capture the complexities associated with dynamic environments. We present an overview of our safety-driven control system and its implementation methodology. The methodology builds on traditional functional hazard analysis, with the addition of processes aimed at improving the safety of autonomous personal robots. This will be achieved with the use of a safety system developed during the hazard analysis stage. This safety system, called the safety protection system, will initially be used to verify that safety constraints, identified during hazard analysis, have been implemented appropriately. Subsequently it will serve as a high-level safety enforcer, by governing the actions of the robot and preventing the control layer from performing unsafe operations. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the design, a series of experiments have been conducted using a MobileRobots PeopleBot. Finally, results are presented demonstrating how faults injected into a controller can be consistently identified and handled by the safety protection system.
Source : Woodman R, Winfield AFT, Harper C, Fraser M. Building safer robots: Safety driven control, Int. J. Rob. Res. 2012; 31(13): 1603-1626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0278364912459665
Préconisations AFIM / INRS pour la maîtrise des énergies
Le guide Sécurafim a été réalisé par l’Association française des ingénieurs et responsables de maintenance (AFIM) et l’INRS. Il propose une démarche pour faciliter et sécuriser les opérations de maintenance sur les équipements de travail, en rappelant les principes inhérents à la maîtrise des énergies. Il permet, d’après un modèle, la réalisation d’une fiche repère de consignation par machine et la mise en place d’une signalétique adaptée.
Truck-mounted changeable message signs (TMCMSs) are desirable for scheduled and unscheduled short-duration work operations to inform drivers of unexpected conditions. Temporary traffic control for short-duration operations has been limited traditionally to arrow boards and static warning messages mounted to the work vehicle. With advances in technology, TMCMSs can fill a gap and provide drivers with better information about short operations and required actions by the driver. Through a study in a human factors laboratory, researchers evaluated message designs that incorporated text and graphic alternatives to warn drivers about accidents, work zone areas, and lane closures. In this study, researchers determined many key points about motorist interpretations of TMCMS symbols and text messages. The study found that (a) the accident symbol was well understood and enhanced motorists' abilities to recall the situation during limited viewing times, (b) the sign with the "Man Working" figure without the diamond background outline was recommended because it elicited the best reaction time by study participants, and (c) the lane-blocked symbols worked well to communicate lane conditions to drivers.
Source : Ullman BR, Trout ND, Sun D. Truck-Mounted Changeable Message Signs with Symbols for Work Zone Operations, Transp. Res. Rec. 2012, vol. 2272, p. 78-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2272-09
Ce document traite des mesures de prévention contre les risques mécaniques. Il a pour objet de faciliter leur choix. Il présente des exemples de moyens de protection connus à ce jour, dont on peut s'inspirer pour supprimer ou réduire les risques mécaniques engendrés par les machines. Les deux premiers chapitres de ce recueil reprennent les principales définitions et résument la démarche à suivre pour le choix des mesures de prévention. Les troisième et quatrième chapitres sont dédiés à l'identification des phénomènes dangereux et aux mesures de prévention intrinsèque. Les chapitres suivants permettent l'aide au choix des mesures de prévention.
Cette brochure annule et remplace la brochure ED 807 "Sécurité des machines et des équipements de travail. Moyens de protection contre les risques mécaniques", dont la dernière édition datait de 2006.
Le site propose, en complément du texte intégral de la brochure, une liste de fabricants de dispositifs de protection, périodiquement mise à jour
Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%206122
Each year tractor rollovers cause injuries or deaths for farmers despite the fact that an effective safeguard was available in the form of a rollover protective structure (ROPS); however, many ROPS were removed by the tractor's owners, because the ROPS is too tall to allow tractors to enter farm fields because it may damage produce located on low hanging tree branches while working in an orchard, and the loss of crops means loss of money for farmers. The NIOSH AutoROPS will provide the same level of protection as the conventional ROPS, but instead of having the post as one solid part as with the ROPS, the AutoROPS has a fixed posts located inside the outside deployable posts to meet the farmer's need of low clearance. This study addressed the need to build and test the NIOSH 3rd generation of the AutoROPS model based on Alkhaledi et al. (2002) model, which was smaller in size with low overhead clearance zone and to insure that the built model would comply with the SAE J2194 standard for static testing. The results showed that the 3rd generation AutoROPS absorbed all applied loads in sequence, thus satisfying the SAE J2194 standard requirements. No signs of failure were shown for the AutoROPS' base and the latching mechanisms. The successful testing the NIOSH designed AutoROPS lead to the development of the ANSI/ASABE S599 industry standard, which was approved November 2010 as an American national standard for standardized deployment performance of an automatically deployable ROPS for turf & landscape equipment.
Source : Alkhaledi K, Means K, McKenzie Jr. E, Smith J. Reducing occupational fatalities by using NIOSH 3rd generation automatically deployable rollover protective structure, Safety Sci., 2013, 51(1), p. 427-431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.08.004
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