Tower crane safety on construction sites: A complex sociotechnical system perspective

Tower crane is the lifeline of the construction industry, but tower crane accidents are still too frequent. Despite the significant progress in tower crane safety research, system thinking-based approaches are lacking. The aim of this paper is to analyze tower crane safety from a complex sociotechnical system perspective through implementing both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. Characteristics of five tower crane safety system components are summarized with a new framework comprised of five system-based levels based on Rasmussen's risk management theory. Fifty-six contributing factors of tower crane safety were identified. The AcciMap technique was applied to qualitatively build a generic model for tower crane safety, which comprehensively presents the systems levels and casual paths of the contributing factors. A survey was conducted to quantitatively research the tower crane safety system. Nine main dimensions and 25 critical factors were found pertaining to the tower crane safety system. These results provide a new lens for tower crane safety and contribute new systems thinking applications in tower crane safety management.

Source: Zhou, W., Zhao, T., Liu, W. et Tang, J. (2018). Safety Science, 109, 95-108.

Literature review on the incentives and solutions for the bypassing of guards and protective devices on machinery

Bypassing guards and protective devices on machinery can lead to serious and fatal accidents. The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review that sheds light on the definition of bypassing, related regulations and standards, workers' incentives to bypass, and possible solutions to overcome this issue. The review generated 72 incentives to bypass guards and protective devices and 82 solutions. Some of the most frequent incentives included the necessity to remove safeguards in order to perform activities (e.g. adjustment, troubleshooting, maintenance, and installation), a lack of visibility, failures and a lack of reliability of the safeguards. This literature analysis suggests classifying the incentives into five categories: ergonomics, productivity, machine or safeguarding, behavior, and corporate climate. The solutions, which are related to the design, manufacturing, and usage phases, are classified into technical, organizational, and individual factors. These are all factors that influence the prevention of bypassing. The review shows that there is a lack of an integrated tool to prevent bypassing. This paper serves as a foundation to develop such a tool, as well as to provide useful insights into the incentives for bypassing, as well as preventive solutions that could be used as a guideline for researchers and OHS preventionists.

Source: Haghighi, A., Chinniah, Y. et Jocelyn, S. (2018). Safety Science.

Estimation of probability of harm in safety of machinery using an investigation systemic approach and Logical Analysis of Data

In safety of machinery, estimating the probability of occurrence of harm is a recurrent problem. This paper proposes and applies a new method to estimate that probability. Information regarding accidents involving machinery that is gathered and analyzed by experts is formatted based on a systemic-inspired model using the MELITO concept. Then, Logical Analysis of Data (LAD) is used to extract knowledge automatically to characterize accidents. MELITO describes the context in which the accident has occurred, gathering information about the moment (M), equipment (E), location (L), individual (I), task (T) and organization (O). LAD is a data mining algorithm that infers knowledge learning from a database. In this paper, a case study consisting of twenty-three fatal and serious accident reports involving belt conveyors is presented. Data on these accidents is classified according to MELITO. The inferred knowledge is presented in the form of interpretable patterns that characterize and distinguish fatalities from non-fatal harm. Each pattern consists of a Boolean equation from MELITO and covers a subset of accidents. Based on each pattern, the probability of the occurrence of harm related to a hazardous situation is estimated. Such probability is useful in monitoring risk behavior after the occurrence of a new accident, for instance.

Source: Jocelyn, S., Ouali, M. S. et Chinniah, Y. (2018). Safety science, 105, 32-45.

Worker safety and injury severity analysis of earthmoving equipment accidents

Introduction: Research on construction worker safety associated with construction equipment has mostly focused on accident type rather than injury severity and the embedded factor relationships. Significant variables and their effects on the degree of injury are examined for earthmoving equipment using data from OSHA. Four types of equipment, backhoe, bulldozer, excavator, and scraper are included in the study. Accidents involving on-foot workers and equipment operators are investigated collectively, as well as separately. Methods: Cross tabulation analysis was conducted to establish the associations between selected categorical variables, using degree of injury as a dichotomous dependent variable (fatal vs. nonfatal) and a number of independent variables having different values. Odds ratios were calculated to determine how much a certain variable/factor increases the odds of fatality in an accident, and the odds ratios were ranked to determine the relative impact of a given factor. Results: It was found that twelve variables were significantly associated with injury severity. Rankings based on odds ratios showed that inadequate safety training (2.54), missing equipment protective system (2.38), being a non-union worker (2.26), being an equipment operator (1.93), and being on or around inadequately maintained equipment (1.58) produced higher odds for fatality. Conclusion: A majority of the earthmoving equipment accidents resulted in fatality. Backhoes were the most common equipment involved in accidents and fatalities. Struck-by accidents were the most prevalent and most fatal. Non-OSHA compliant safety training, missing seatbelt, operator not using seatbelt, malfunctioning back-up alarms, and poorly maintained equipment were factors contributing to accidents and fatalities. On-foot workers experienced a higher number of accidents than operators, while fatality odds were higher for the operators. Practical applications: Safety professionals should benefit from our findings in planning and delivering training and providing oversight to workers in earthmoving equipment operations.

Source: Kazan, E. et Usmen, M. A. (2018). Journal of safety research, 65, 73-81.

ASME B30.9-2018 - Slings

Volume B30.9 includes provisions that apply to the fabrication, attachment, use, inspection, testing, and maintenance of slings used for load handling purposes, used in conjunction with equipment described in other volumes of the B30 Standard, except as restricted in ASME B30.12 and ASME B30.23. Slings fabricated from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, synthetic fiber rope, synthetic webbing, and polyester fiber yarns in a protective cover(s) are addressed.
Careful application of B30 safety standards will help users to comply with applicable regulations within their jurisdictions, while achieving the operational and safety benefits to be gained from the many industry best-practices detailed in these volumes.
Intended for manufacturers, owners, employers, users and others concerned with the specification, buying, maintenance, training and safe use of slings and hooks with B30 equipment, plus all potential governing entities.


Common human factors underlying worker fatalities in the waste and recycling industry

Research was carried out to identify common human factors underlying fatal incidents and to provide insights into possible options for concerted action to help reduce the likelihood of serious incidents or fatalities. The research reviewed 18 fatal incidents and included in-depth interviews with HSE inspectors involved in the incident investigations. Of these incidents, 12 were in ‘small and medium enterprises', SMEs (with less than 250 employees) and 6 in large enterprises (250 or more).
The research identified two priority human factors areas to tackle to reduce worker fatalities: equipment factors including design, use and maintenance; and safety management systems. For example, whilst it is foreseeable that some organisations (both SMEs and large) may think their SMS is adequate and well documented the analysis indicated this was not always the case.
The research also identified potential options for solutions to tackle these human factors issues. These options are intended to act as discussion points between the regulator and industry to inform decisions on what will work in practice and what can be adapted to work within industry. The options focus on: equipment selection, use and maintenance in the industry; and raising awareness of the risks associated with equipment and the legal requirements for equipment use and maintenance. Related to this is the need for effective safety management systems and the sharing of good practice.


ANSI/ASSP A10.21 – 2018 Safety Requirements for Safe Construction and Demolition of Wind Generation/Turbine Facilities

This standard establishes the minimum requirements for protecting the safety and health of persons involved in construction and demolition operations addressing utility-scale land-based wind generation/turbine facilities.


Installations électriques: comment intervenir en toute sécurité?

Elle ne se voit pas mais nous percevons les manifestations de son utilisation, telle que la lumière, la chaleur et le mouvement. Aujourd'hui énergie la plus utilisée, l'électricité est devenue indispensable dans la vie courante et dans l'entreprise. La prévention repose, d'une part, sur la mise en sécurité des matériels et installations et, d'autre part, sur le respect des règles de sécurité par les personnes. Ce dossier aborde les différents aspects de la prévention de ce risque: conception et maintien en état des installations électriques, choix des équipements de protection, formation préalable à l'habilitation, réglementation et normalisation. il propose également un retour d'expérience d'une initiative industrielle pour améliorer la sécurité lors des interventions.

Source: (2018). Revue Hygiène et Sécurité du travail (250).

Robotique collaborative : perception et attentes des industriels

Grâce aux innovations techniques, la robotique industrielle évolue et devient "collaborative". En créant des situations de coactivité entre l'homme et le robot, elle soulève aussi des questions de santé et de sécurité. Comment vérifier que cette technologie réponde aux exigences de sécurité pour l'opérateur, tout en satisfaisant les besoins des industriels? Pour le savoir, une enquête exploratoire a été menée auprès d'utilisateurs de robots industriels, sur leurs besoins et leur perception des apports potentiels en matière de robotique collaborative.

Source: Thay, David. (2018). Hygiène et sécurité au travail (250).

Débroussaillage - 3e édition

Cette brochure traite des travaux de débroussaillage, des techniques de travail et des situations dangereuses. On y décrit également les responsabilités de l'employeur et du travailleur, l'équipement de protection individuelle à utiliser et des règles à suivre en matière de premiers secours et de premiers soins. Pour cette 3e édition, des changements importants ont été apportés aux pages 14-15 et 16 où il est question du choix des lames.


Qualitative study on the control of hazardous energy on machinery using lockout and alternative methods

In Canada, like many countries, the national standard and provincial regulations require that workers performing maintenance, repair, and un-jamming activities on machinery must follow lockout procedures. However, the high number of accidents linked to hazardous energies and machinery shows that organizations have difficulty with the application of lockout arrangements or use of alternative methods. Therefore, it is important to understand how organizations implement lockout programs and procedures, and the extent to which they are in accordance with relevant standards and regulations. In this qualitative research, the application of lockout and alternative methods was studied in 13 organizations in Quebec, through a group interview, document review and site observation in each organization. In each organiztion, the researchers conducted a group interview and completed a questionnaire, which included more than a hundred questions on the lockout program, application of lockout procedures, alternative methods, sub-contractor management, training, and audit/inspection. The researchers then used observation data and documentation collected from each organization to verify interviewee responses and to finalize the questionnaire. The shortcomings found included: (i) incomplete lockout programs; (ii) missing steps in general lockout procedures; (iii) not reading the placards; (iv) using alternative methods without risk assessment; (v) poor training for alternative methods; (vi) absence of supervision and coordination of subcontractors; (vii) and lack of audit tools and documentation of audit results. Despite the shortcomings, actual lockout practices in the organizations visited were better than what was described in their lockout programs. Recommendations for addressing identified shortcomings are proposed.

Source: Karimi, B., Chinniah, Y., Burlet-Vienney, D. et Aucourt, B. (2018). Safety Science, 107, 22-34.

Critères d’aménagement sécuritaire et ergonomique des postes de haleur et de support à casiers des homardiers du Québec

La pratique de la pêche commerciale est reconnue comme l'un des métiers les plus dangereux à l'échelle mondiale. Entre 2012 et 2014, elle a fait l'objet de deux projets de recherche qui ont été réalisés en Gaspésie et aux Îles-de-la-Madeleine. Le premier visait à analyser les activités de travail et les risques de chute par-dessus bord des homardiers ainsi que leurs déterminants, tandis que le deuxième consistait en l'étude des aménagements aux postes de travail « haleur et support à casiers ». La présente recherche découle de ces projets et porte sur l'amélioration de l'ergonomie et de la sécurité de ces deux emplacements. Les objectifs poursuivis sont : 1) mettre en évidence les avantages du point de vue de l'efficacité, de la sécurité et de l'ergonomie de certains aménagements aux postes de haleur et de support à casiers; 2) formuler des paramètres de conception et étudier la faisabilité de leur mise en œuvre lors de modifications d'installations existantes; 3) démontrer cette faisabilité en réalisant trois bancs d'essai; 4) décrire et analyser la démarche de coconception avec la collaboration des pêcheurs.


NF EN ISO 9241-960 - Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système

Partie 960 : cadre et lignes directrices relatives aux interactions gestuelles
Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices pour la sélection ou la création des gestes devant être utilisés dans une interface gestuelle. Il traite de l'utilisabilité des gestes et fournit des informations sur leur conception, le processus de conception et les paramètres pertinents à prendre en compte. En outre, il fournit des lignes directrices relatives à la manière dont il convient de documenter les gestes. Le présent document concerne les gestes effectués par un humain et non la réponse du système générée lorsque les utilisateurs effectuent ces gestes.


Z462-18 - Workplace electrical safety

Now in its fourth edition, CSA Z462 – Electrical Workplace Safety aims to help workers install, operate, and maintain electrical equipment safely and provide additional safeguards to those who work in close proximity to energized electrical equipment. The Standard provides details on recognized methods for identifying electrical hazards & risk assessment, and defines best safety practices and training to help you work on and around electrical equipment.
Based on the latest research, and in conjunction with the latest editions of NFPA 70E – Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace and the 2018 Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, the 2018 edition of CSA Z462 builds upon previous editions by including new definitions that harmonize with other safety standards such as CSA Z1000 and CSA Z1002 and those dealing with arc flash and shock hazards. It also features additional requirements aimed at establishing more robust electrical safety programs.


NF ISO 12117-2 - Engins de terrassement - Essais de laboratoire et exigences de performance des structures de protection des pelles

Partie 2 : structures de protection au retournement (ROPS) pour pelles de terrassement de plus de 6 t
La présente partie de l'ISO 12117 établit un moyen uniforme et reproductible pour évaluer les caractéristiques de charge des structures de protection au retournement (ROPS) pour les pelles sous charges statiques et spécifie les critères de performance d'un échantillon représentatif dans ces conditions de charge.


Interventions à proximité des réseaux électriques aériens

Place des détecteurs de lignes électriques dans la démarche de prévention
Les ouvrages et les lignes électriques aériennes exposent les personnes présentes dans leur environnement à un risque mortel.
L'objectif de cette brochure est de présenter aux responsables de projet, aux exécutants de travaux et aux préventeurs :
- les caractéristiques des réseaux électriques aériens et les risques qu'ils peuvent générer ;
- les principes d'une démarche générale de prévention à mettre en oeuvre ;
- les différents dispositifs de détection des réseaux électriques et leur positionnement dans le cadre de cette démarche de prévention.


Les espaces confinés

Les espaces confinés sont présents dans tous les secteurs d'activité. Ils sont néanmoins encore souvent méconnus ou mal identifiés et, par conséquent, ils constituent un parent pauvre en matière de prévention des risques. Pourtant, le personnel qui évolue en leur sein est exposé à des risques mortels. Des mesures de prévention et des formations existent pour assurer les interventions le plus en sécurité possible.

Source: (2017). Travail & sécurité (789), 13-24.

NF E09-031 - Interrupteurs à pédale de mise en marche et d'arrêt

Spécifications techniques de prévention - Contrôles et essais
Le présent document spécifie pour les interrupteurs à pédale de marche et d'arrêt, à usage professionnel, déplaçables ou fixes, les valeurs minimales des caractéristiques qui ont une incidence sur la prévention des accidents, et les contrôles et essais destinés à la vérification du respect des valeurs ou données prescrites.


ISO 17757:2017 - Earth-moving machinery and mining

Autonomous and semi-autonomous machine system safety
This document provides safety requirements for autonomous machines and semi-autonomous machines used in earth-moving and mining operations, and their autonomous or semi-autonomous machine systems (ASAMS). It specifies safety criteria both for the machines and their associated systems and infrastructure, including hardware and software, and provides guidance on safe use in their defined functional environments during the machine and system life cycle. It also defines terms and definitions related to ASAMS.


NF EN ISO 16093 - Machines à scier les métaux à froid

Le présent document traite de tous les phénomènes dangereux, situations dangereuses et événements dangereux significatifs pour les machines à scier telles que définies dans l'Article 3, destinées principalement au sciage des métaux à froid (ferreux et non ferreux) ou des matériaux constitués partiellement de métaux à froid, et dans des conditions de mauvaise utilisation qui sont raisonnablement prévisibles par le fabricant (voir l'Article 4) . Le présent document est applicable aux machines à scier (les métaux) fabriquées après la date de publication du présent document. Lorsqu'un traitement supplémentaire (c'est-à-dire fraisage, alésage, marquage, opération de finition, etc.) est envisagé, le présent document peut servir de base pour les exigences de sécurité. Pour des informations plus détaillées, se reporter à la Bibliographie. Le présent document traite des phénomènes dangereux engendrés par le bruit mais ne fournit pas de code d'essai acoustique complet. Il est prévu d'intégrer un tel code lors de la prochaine révision du présent document. Le présent document ne contient pas d'exigences ni de mesures de sécurité pour les phénomènes dangereux d'incendie et d'explosion. Il est prévu de les traiter lors de la prochaine révision du présent document.


Validation of the impact of architectural flaws in six machine risk estimation tools

To address the hazards inherent in industrial machinery, machine designers and users must conduct risk assessments and use risk reduction measures. Machine risk estimation plays a crucial role in choosing and prioritizing risk reduction methods (e.g., level of performance required for the safety-related control system). A large number of machine risk estimation tools exist, and each tool has its own specific parameters and architecture. Flaws in a tool may bias risk estimation and lead to the adoption of inappropriate or insufficient risk reduction methods. An earlier study identified potential flaws in risk estimation tool parameters and architecture and proposed construction rules. In this paper, potential flaws in the architecture of six tools are tested by 25 machine safety experts. Four scenarios involving industrial machines and representing different risk levels were used for that purpose. The experimentation served to validate the potential flaws which were the impact of (i) a non-uniform distribution of risk levels, (ii) greater relative weight given to one parameter, (iii) discontinuity in risk levels and (iv) an overly sensitive risk matrix. Construction rules for machine risk estimation tools that should help improve inter- and intra-user repeatability, making the tools more reliable and robust, are proposed. The recommendations can potentially guide users of risk estimation tools when choosing, designing or using a tool. The results of this study will also help improve national and international standards in machinery risk assessment.

Source: Chinniah, Y., Gauthier, F., Aucourt, B., Burlet-Vienney, D. (2018). Safety Science, 101, 248–259.

E.CLOS - Un outil pour la gestion des risques en espace clos

L’IRSST vient de mettre en ligne un outil d’analyse et de gestion des risques pour les interventions en espace clos. Nommé E.CLOS, cet outil est destiné aux personnes qualifiées en la matière, soit les préventeurs, gestionnaires, donneurs d’ouvrage, maîtres d’œuvre, concepteurs-intégrateurs et sauveteurs.
L’outil prend en considération les principaux dangers potentiels et il tient compte du contexte normatif et réglementaire du Québec.
E.CLOS peut servir autant à la conception qu’à l’évaluation d’un espace clos existant. Il comporte cinq modules qui permettent de décrire l’espace clos et l’intervention, de déterminer les dangers potentiels, de choisir les moyens de prévention et d’estimer le risque avant et après la mise en place de ces moyens. L’utilisateur peut sauvegarder ses résultats. Ainsi, selon ses besoins, il pourra générer des rapports, ajouter ou modifier des informations dans les différents modules et disposer de l’information pertinente à la préparation de documents tels un permis d'entrée, un audit ou un appel d'offres à des sous-traitants.


Les dispositifs d'assistance physique

Exosquelette, cobot, robot collaboratif… Sous ces dénominatifs parfois un peu barbares, se cache une technologie de plus en plus présente dans le monde du travail : les dispositifs d'assistance physique. Qu'ils soient à contention ou sans, ces systèmes sont destinés à aider physiquement des opérateurs dans l'accomplissement de tâches parfois simples en apparence, mais éprouvantes. Objectif : prévenir l'apparition des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) et la pénibilité en limitant la charge physique ou la répétitivité, ou encore prendre en compte le vieillissement au travail ou un handicap et favoriser le maintien dans l'emploi…

Source: (2017). Travail & sécurité.

Introduction of the human factor in the estimation of accident frequencies through fuzzy logic

The frequency of occurrence of an accident scenario is one of the key aspects to take into consideration in the field of risk assessment. This frequency is commonly assessed by a generic failure frequency approach. Although every data source takes into account different variables, aspects such as the human factor are not explicitly detailed, mainly because this factor is laborious to quantify. In the present work, the generic failure frequencies are modified using fuzzy logic. This theory allows the inclusion of qualitative variables that are not considered by traditional methods and to deal with the uncertainty involved. This methodology seems to be a suitable tool to integrate the human factor in risk assessment since it is specially oriented to rationalize the uncertainty related to imprecision or vagueness. A fuzzy modifier has been developed in order to introduce the human factor in the failure frequency estimation.
In order to design the proposed model, it is necessary to consider the opinion of the experts. Therefore, a questionnaire on the variables was designed and replied by forty international experts. To test the model, it was applied to two real case studies of chemical plants. New frequency values were obtained and together with the consequence assessment, new iso-risk curves were plotted allowing to compare them to the ones resulting from a quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Since the human factor is now reflected in the failure frequency estimation, the results are more realistic and accurate, and consequently they improve the final risk assessment.

Source: Dan, J. G., Arnaldos, J., & Darbra, R. M. (2017). Safety science, 97, 134-143.

Appareils de levage. Grue de chargement

L'utilisation des appareils de levage fait l'objet de règles, touchant à la fois aux choix, aux vérifications, aux conditions d'utilisation, à la maintenance du matériel et à la formation du personnel. Ce manuel aborde précisément ces règles. Il s'adresse aux chefs d'établissements, chargés de sécurité, formateurs et bien sûr aux conducteurs eux-mêmes.


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