ASTM F2010 / F2010M - 18 - Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Glove Effects on Wearer Finger Dexterity Using a Modified Pegboard Test

Scope: This test method is used for evaluating finger dexterity while wearing gloves.
This test method covers procedures in which the wearer picks up small objects between the thumb and index finger.
This test method is suitable for evaluating gloves and other forms of hand protection that allow the wearer to pick up small objects between their thumb and index finger.
This test method does not address all effects of glove use on hand function. Other methods should be considered to evaluate the effects of gloves on grip, tactility, and other hand functions of interest.
The values stated in SI units or in other units shall be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system must be used independently of the other, without combining values in any way.


Risk of self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment

Background: The aim of this study was to describe the risk of self-contamination associated with doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and to compare self-contamination with various PPE protocols.
Methods: We tested 10 different PPE donning and doffing protocols, recommended by various health organizations for Ebola. Ten participants were recruited for this study and randomly assigned to use 3 different PPE protocols. After donning of PPE, fluorescent lotion and spray were applied on the external surface of the PPE to simulate contamination, and ultraviolet light was used to count fluorescent patches on the skin.
Results: After testing 30 PPE sequences, large fluorescent patches were recorded after using “WHO coverall and 95” and “North Carolina coverall and N95” sequences, and small patches were recorded after using “CDC coverall and N95” and “Health Canada gown and N95” sequences. Commonly reported problems with PPE use were breathing difficulty, suffocation, heat stress, and fogging-up glasses. Most participants rated PPE high (18/30) or medium (11/30) for ease of donning/doffing and comfort. PPE sequences with powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and assisted doffing were generally associated with fewer problems and were rated the highest.
Conclusion: This study confirmed the risk of self-contamination associated with the doffing of PPE. PAPR-containing protocols and assisted doffing should be preferred whenever possible during the outbreak of highly infectious pathogens.

Source: Chughtai, A. A., Chen, X. et Macintyre, C. R. (2018). American journal of infection control.

Identification and Characterization of Failures in Infectious Agent Transmission Precaution Practices in Hospitals

A Qualitative Study
Importance: Using personal protective equipment (PPE) and transmission-based precautions are primary strategies for reducing the transmission of infectious agents.
Objective: To identify and characterize failures in transmission-based precautions, including PPE use, by health care personnel that could result in self-contamination or transmission during routine, everyday hospital care.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study involved direct observation inside and outside patient rooms on clinical units from March 1, 2016, to November 30, 2016. Observations occurred in the medical and/or surgical units and intensive care units at an academic medical center and a Veterans Affairs hospital, as well as the emergency department of the university hospital. Trained observers recorded extensive field notes while personnel provided care for patients in precautions for a pathogen transmitted through contact (eg, Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) or respiratory droplet (eg, influenza). Specific occurrences involving potential personnel self-contamination were identified through a directed content analysis. These occurrences were further categorized, using a human factors model of human error, as active failures, such as violations, mistakes, or slips.
Conclusions and Relevance: Active failures in PPE use and transmission-based precautions, potentially leading to self-contamination, were commonly observed. The factors that contributed to these failures varied widely, suggesting the need for a range of strategies to reduce potential transmission risk during routine hospital care.

Source: Krein, S. L., Mayer, J., Harrod, M., Weston, L. E., Gregory, L., Petersen, L., ... et Drews, F. A. (2018). JAMA Intern Med., 178(8), 1051-1057.

NFPA 1999 - Standard on Protective Clothing and Ensembles for Emergency Medical Operations

This standard specifies requirements for EMS protective clothing to protect personnel performing patient care during emergency medical operations from contact with blood and body fluid-borne pathogens. It also includes additional requirements that provide limited protection from specified CBRN terrorism agents.


NF EN ISO 27065 - Habillement de protection - Exigences de performance pour les vêtements de protection portés par les opérateurs appliquant des pesticides et pour les travailleurs de rentrée

Le présent document établit les exigences de performance minimale, de classification et de marquage pour les vêtements de protection portés par les opérateurs manipulant des pesticides ainsi que par les travailleurs de rentrée. Aux fins du présent document, le terme "pesticide" s'applique aux insecticides, herbicides, fongicides et autres substances appliquées sous forme liquide qui sont destinés à prévenir, détruire, repousser ou contenir les organismes nuisibles ou les mauvaises herbes en milieu agricole, dans les espaces verts, sur les bords de routes, etc. Il ne couvre pas les produits biocides utilisés en milieu agricole et non agricole. La manipulation des pesticides inclut les opérations de mélange et chargement et d'application, et d'autres activités telles que le nettoyage des équipements et récipients contaminés. Les pesticides concentrés font généralement l'objet de manipulations lors du mélange et du chargement. Les vêtements de protection concernés par le présent document comprennent, entre autres, les chemises, vestes, pantalons, combinaisons, tabliers, manchettes de protection, casquettes/chapeaux et autres couvre-chefs (exclusion faite des casques de protection constitués de matériaux rigides, par exemple les casques portés par les travailleurs du bâtiment) , ainsi que les accessoires utilisés en dessous des pulvérisateurs à dos. Le présent document ne traite pas des articles utilisés pour la protection des voies respiratoires, des mains et des pieds. Il ne traite pas de la protection contre les fumigants.


ASTM F2412 - 18a - Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection

These test methods contain requirements to evaluate the performance of footwear for the following:
- Impact resistance for the toe area of footwear (I),
- Compression resistance for the toe area of footwear (C),
- Metatarsal protection that reduces the chance of injury to the metatarsal bones at the top of the foot (Mt),
- Conductive properties which reduce hazards that may result from static electricity buildup, and reduce the possibility of ignition of explosives and volatile chemicals (Cd),
- Electric hazard to protect the wearer when accidentally stepping on live electric wires (EH),
- Static dissipative properties to reduce hazards that result from a build up of static charge where there is an underlying risk of accidental contact with live electrical circuits (SD), and
- Puncture resistance footwear devices (PR).


Preventing falls: Choosing compatible Fall Protection Supplementary Devices (FPSD) for bridge maintenance work using virtual prototyping

Apart from struck-by safety incidents, fall-related injuries are a major concern in bridge maintenance work. To protect against falls from bridge decks, maintenance workers largely rely on existing bridge guardrails. However, a large number of bridge guardrails do not comply with the regulatory height requirement of 42 ± 3 in. for sufficient fall protection – although appropriate for vehicular traffic. To address this fall protection issue, a few departments of transportation (DOTs) have adopted Fall Protection Supplementary Devices (FPSDs). These devices are temporarily installed on existing bridge guardrails to sufficiently increase the barrier height while work is performed on bridge decks. However, not all FPSDs are compatible with every bridge guardrail. Therefore, to provide sufficient protection, DOT decision makers are tasked with identifying FPSDs that are compatible for each guardrail application. This generally has involved physically installing FPSDs and assessing compatibility on a trial-and-error basis. The use of such inefficient techniques have resulted in significant errors, wasted resources, productivity losses, and an increased likelihood of struck-by safety incidents. To address this issue, the objective of this study is to propose an efficient, cost-effective, and safe approach to assessing compatibility using virtual prototyping methods. In addition, to illustrate the use of the proposed method, a case example of the compatibility testing between two bridge guardrails in North Carolina and three separate FPSDs is presented. It is expected that the proposed method will provide a useful mechanism for DOTs to select suitable FPSDs to protect their workforce.

Source: Zuluaga, C. M. et Albert, A. (2018). Safety science, 108, 238-247.

ASTM F903 - 18 - Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Liquids

Significance and Use: This test method is normally used to evaluate the barrier effectiveness against penetration of liquids through materials, seams, closures, or other planar assemblies used in protective clothing and specimens from finished items of protective clothing. Finished items of protective clothing include gloves, arm protectors, aprons, coveralls, suits, hoods, boots, and similar items.
Scope: This test method is used to test specimens of protective clothing materials, assemblies such as seams and closures, or interfaces used in the construction of protective clothing. The resistance to visible penetration of the test liquid is determined with the liquid in continuous contact with the normally outside (exterior) surface of the test specimen.


ASTM F2669 - 12(2018) - Standard Performance Specification for Protective Clothing Worn by Operators Applying Pesticides

This specification establishes minimum performance, classification, and labeling requirements for protective clothing worn by operators applying pesticide products, primarily field strength, in liquid form. Protective clothing items covered by this specification include, but are not necessarily limited to, liquid-tight or spray-tight garments, coveralls, jackets, shirts, and pants. This specification addresses protection provided by protective accessories, with the exception of those used for the protection of the head, hands, and feet. This specification does not address protection against biocides, fumigants, or highly volatile liquids. The values given in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.


Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Respiratory Protection Handbook

Since 2001, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established performance and design standards for respiratory protective devices (RPDs) to protect against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) hazards and toxic industrial chemicals. Prior to 2001, there were no standards for the use of RPDs by U.S. emergency response personnel that covered the full range of expected CBRN threats. Federal regulations require emergency response personnel to use respirators approved by NIOSH for the expected hazards. Equipment performance standards were needed to protect against CBRN threats. Neither industrial nor military respirators provided protection from all potential CBRN respiratory hazards. Several federal agencies partnered to provide research and testing to produce the necessary standards: Department of Justice (DOJ); Department of Homeland Security (DHS); Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOMa); Department of Commerce (DOC), National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST); and the Department of Labor (DOL), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).


ASTM F2130 - 11(2018) - Standard Test Method for Measuring Repellency, Retention, and Penetration of Liquid Pesticide Formulation Through Protective Clothing Materials

Significance and Use: This test method can be used for laboratory screening of protective clothing material used to manufacture garments and accessories worn by pesticide workers. This test method can be used for the development and evaluation of new protective clothing materials. This test method can be used for the evaluation of protective clothing materials against new pesticide formulations.
Scope: This test method measures repellency, retention, and penetration of a known volume of liquid pesticide when applied to protective clothing material. No external hydrostatic or mechanical pressure is applied to the test specimen during or after the application of the liquid pesticide. This test method is designed to measure performance of protective clothing materials at two levels of contamination. Low level of contamination is achieved by applying 0.1 mL liquid formulation and high level by applying 0.2 mL. This test method does not measure resistance to permeation or degradation. This test method is suitable for field-strength pesticide formulations. This test method may not be suitable for testing protective clothing materials against volatile pesticides.


ASTM E3108-18 - Standard Practice for Conformity Assessment of Protective Gloves Worn by Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers

This practice establishes the conformity assessment requirements for protective gloves worn by law enforcement and corrections officers. It was developed based on end user input regarding hazards of concern and operational requirements of officers.2
This practice provides two options for conformity assessment: (1) supplier's declaration of conformity (SDOC) and (2) certification.
This practice is intended to be used by purchasers and suppliers in the procurement of gloves that meet Specification E3109, and the purchaser is responsible for selecting either SDOC or certification.


ASTM E3109-18 - Standard Specification for Protective Gloves Worn by Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers

This specification addresses protective gloves worn by law enforcement and corrections officers.
This specification and related standards were developed by subject matter experts, including experienced end users, using data from a survey of more than 800 U.S. law enforcement and corrections officers.
This specification addresses performance requirements, performance ratings, and test methods for whole gloves and for glove components (for example, materials, layers).


Influences on use of hand moisturizers in nurses

Background: Nurses are at high risk of hand dermatitis. Regular hand moisturizing can prevent dermatitis, but nurses' use of hand moisturizers is suboptimal.
Aims: To establish (i) what beliefs about hand dermatitis and hand moisturizer use are associated with hand moisturizer use by nurses at home and at work and (ii) if hand moisturizer use behaviours in nurses are associated with the prevalence of hand dermatitis.
Methods: We used a questionnaire to investigate nurses' knowledge, beliefs and behaviours regarding hand dermatitis and use of hand moisturizers.
Results: The response rate was 55/65 (85%). Forty-two (76%) participants agreed that applying hand moisturizers reduced the risk of dermatitis, and 53 (96%) agreed that dermatitis increased the risk of skin carrying pathogenic organisms. Frequent moisturizer application was associated with beliefs that it was part of the nurse's role to apply hand creams, a belief that they had had training in the use of moisturizers and believing that patients approved of them moisturizing their hands.
Conclusions: Hand moisturizer use by nurses can be improved by enhancing their beliefs that it is part of their professional role to apply hand cream regularly.

Source: Burke, K. M., Wright, A. J., Parsons, V. et Madan, I. (2018). Occupational Medicine, 68(5), 340-342.

ANSI/ISEA 203-2018 – American National Standard for Secondary Single-Use Flame Resistant Protective Clothing for Use Over Primary Flame Resistant Protective Clothing

ISEA has developed this new standard to establish minimum performance and labeling requirements for secondary single-use flame resistant protective clothing. These are commonly used in utility work and refinery maintenance and in steel processing facilities where metal is being cut or welded.
Apparel covered by ANSI/ISEA 203-2018 is designed for use in industrial settings where flame hazards may exist and such clothing will not negatively impact the thermal performance afforded by the primary flame resistant protective clothing that is worn underneath. Compliant items are independently evaluated for flame resistance and evaluated for flash fire exposure by layering the garment over a primary thermal garment.


Prévention de l’exposition cutanée aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes et facteurs influençant le port des vêtements de protection

Des recherches internationales ont déterminé que la peau constituait la principale voie d'exposition aux pesticides utilisés en agriculture. L'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) joue un rôle clé dans la prévention des risques liés à l'exposition. L'utilisation non systématique des ÉPI prescrits est toutefois documentée et constitue une cible prioritaire des interventions pour la réduction de l'exposition aux pesticides. Cette étude approfondit les résultats d'une première enquête auprès des producteurs de pommes en ciblant spécifiquement l'exposition cutanée aux pesticides et l'utilisation des vêtements de protection (VP). Elle a comme objectif de décrire les situations d'exposition lors des activités principales liées à l'utilisation des pesticides et de les mettre en relation avec les perceptions du risque des producteurs, leur utilisation des VP et leurs pratiques de prévention. Les résultats contribuent à l‘avancement des connaissances sur les facteurs qui facilitent ou qui font obstacle à l'utilisation des VP.


A Pilot Study of Nanoparticle Levels and Field Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators on Construction Sites

Little attention has been paid to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels on construction jobsites. This information is needed because cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is well known now. In addition, the performance of particulate respirators generally used by construction workers has never been evaluated in field conditions against ultrafine and nano-sized particles. We hypothesized that workers on construction jobsites are exposed to high levels of nanoparticles and current NIOSH-recommended N95 respirators may not provide them adequate protection against aerosolized nanoparticles. Our exposure assessments of ultrafine and nanoparticles on several construction sites using SMPS nanoparticle counters showed that particle mass concentrations ranged between 1.41 and 99.96 μg/m3. The real-time filtration efficiency of N95 respirators against nanoparticles greater than 20.5 nm in aerodynamic diameter was often less than 95%. When surface electrostatic charge was removed in N95 respirators by isopropanol treatment, the filtration efficiency of larger nanoparticles dropped compared to smaller nanoparticles of <27.5 nm sizes.


Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities

Objectives: As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation.
Methods: Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were compared to assess the impact of adjustment on exposure estimation.
Results: Respirator use was noted for 37% of 12 402 full-shift personal TPM samples. Measured TPM concentration ranged from less than detectable to 8220 mg/m3, with arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation being 10.6, 0.87 and 130 mg/m3, respectively. Respirators were used more often in smelting facilities (52% of TPM measurements) than in fabricating (17%) or refinery facilities (28%) (P<0.01). Sixty-two percent of jobs in smelting facilities were subject to respirator-use adjustment, whereas it was 20% and 70% in fabricating and refinery facilities, respectively. Applying protection factors to TPM measurements significantly reduced estimated job mean TPM exposures and changed exposure categories in these facilities, with larger impact in smelting than fabricating facilities.
Conclusions: Respirator use varied by time, facility and job. Adjusting respirator use resulted in differential impact in smelting and fabricating facilities, which will need to be incorporated into ongoing epidemiologic studies accordingly.

Source: Liu S, Noth E, Eisen E, Cullen MR, Hammond K. (2018). Scand J Work Environ Health

Fatal work-related falls in the United States, 2003-2014

Background: Falls are the second leading cause of work-related fatalities among US workers. We describe fatal work-related falls from 2003 to 2014, including demographic, work, and injury event characteristics, and changes in rates over time.
Methods: We identified fatal falls from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and estimated rates using the BLS Current Population Survey.
Results: From 2003 to 2014, there were 8880 fatal work-related falls, at an annual rate of 5.5 per million FTE. Rates increased with age. Occupations with the highest rates included construction/extraction (42.2 per million FTE) and installation/maintenance/repair (12.5 per million FTE). Falls to a lower level represented the majority (n = 7521, 85%) compared to falls on the same level (n = 1128, 13%).
Conclusions: Falls are a persistent source of work-related fatalities. Fall prevention should continue to focus on regulation adherence, Prevention through Design, improving fall protection, training, fostering partnerships, and increasing communication.

Source: Socias-Morales, C. M., Chaumont Menéndez, C. K. et Marsh, S. M. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine, 61(3), 204-215.

Assessment of the effectiveness of modular clothing protecting against the cold based on physiological tests

At many workstations in a cold environment, protective clothing provided for the workers is characterized by inadequate thermal insulation, which results in an adverse impact of the cold environment on the worker's body. The purpose of this article is to present developed new ergonomic modular cold protective clothing, which allows for easy adaptation of the thermal insulation of clothing to a worker's individual needs. This clothing was compared in a laboratory study with the clothing having so far been used by workers in a cold environment using physiological and physical measurements, subjective ratings of the thermal state as well as a questionnaire for subjective assessment of the used clothing. These measurements and ratings confirmed that the modular cold protective clothing is more effective in the process of ensuring thermal comfort to the wearer during work in a cold environment than the clothing having so far been used.

Source: Marszalek, A., Bartkowiak, G. et Dabrowska, A. (2018). International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.

Coefficient of friction, walking speed and cadence on slippery and dry surfaces: shoes with different groove depths

Objective. The present study aimed to determine the coefficient of friction (COF), walking speed (WS) and cadence while walking on slippery and dry surfaces using shoes with different sole groove depths to predict likelihood of fall. Background. Design of shoe sole groove is crucial to prevent slipping during walking. Methods. 22 healthy young men (mean age 24.5, body mass index 22.5) volunteered for this semi-experimental study. Six different conditions of the test (combination of three shoes and two surfaces) were defined and the condition was repeated three times. In total, 396 trials (22 subjects × 3 groove depths × 2 surfaces × 3 times) were obtained for data analysis. COF was recorded by force platform at 1000 Hz and walking parameters recorded using 3D motion analysis with six infrared cameras at 200 Hz. Results. The highest COF was obtained from the deepest groove depth (5.0 mm) on both dry and slippery surfaces. The COF on slippery surfaces was significantly lower in comparison with dry surfaces. WS and cadence were not significantly different on dry and slippery surfaces. Conclusion. The deeper groove is better to prevent slipping because the COF increases by increasing the shoe sole groove depth. WS did not change on dry and slippery surfaces.

Source: Ziaei, M., Mokhtarinia, H. R., Tabatabai Ghomshe, F. et Maghsoudipour, M. (2017). International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics.

Modified gloves: A chance for the prevention of nosocomial infections

Background: Non-sterile gloves primarily serve as a barrier protection for health care workers (HCWs). However, pathogens may often contaminate the skin of HCWs during glove removal; therefore, pathogens may be further transmitted and cause nosocomial infections.
Methods: A field study was conducted comparing contamination rates when using standard gloves or a new modified product equipped with an additional flap (doffing aid) for easier removal. Gloves were removed after bathing gloved hands in an artificial fluorescent lotion. The number of contamination spots was then visually examined using ultraviolet light.
Results: There were 317 individuals who participated in this study: 146 participants (104 nurses and 42 physicians) used standard gloves, whereas 171 participants (118 nurses and 53 physicians) used the modified product. Use of the modified gloves instead of the standard product (15.8% vs 73.3%, respectively; P < .001) and being a physician rather than a nurse (29.5% vs 47.7%, respectively; P = .003) were the only independent risk factors for reduction of contamination.
Conclusions: This study shows that the modified product could, at least in vitro, significantly reduce the rate of hand and wrist contamination during removal compared with standard gloves. By this, it may significantly improve the overall quality of patient care when used on the wards directly at the patient's site.

Source: Gleser, M., Schwab, F., Solbach, P. et Vonberg, R. P. (2018). American journal of infection control, 46(3), 266-269.

Débroussaillage - 3e édition

Cette brochure traite des travaux de débroussaillage, des techniques de travail et des situations dangereuses. On y décrit également les responsabilités de l'employeur et du travailleur, l'équipement de protection individuelle à utiliser et des règles à suivre en matière de premiers secours et de premiers soins. Pour cette 3e édition, des changements importants ont été apportés aux pages 14-15 et 16 où il est question du choix des lames.


‘VIOLET’: a fluorescence-based simulation exercise for training healthcare workers in the use of personal protective equipment

Background: Healthcare workers caring for patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCIDs) require protection from pathogen exposure, for example by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Protection is acquired through the inherent safety of the PPE components, but also their safe and correct use, supported by adequate training and user familiarity. However, the evidence base for HCID PPE ensembles and any associated training is lacking, with subsequent variation between healthcare providers.
Aim: To develop an evidence-based assessment and training tool for evaluating PPE ensembles and doffing protocols, in the assessment of patients with suspected HCIDs.
Methods: VIOLET (Visualising Infection with Optimised Light for Education and Training) comprises a healthcare mannequin adapted to deliver simulated bodily fluids containing UV-fluorescent tracers. On demand and remotely operated, the mannequin projectile vomits (blue), coughs (red), has diarrhoea (yellow) and is covered in sweat (orange). Wearing PPE, healthcare staff participate in an HCID risk assessment and examination of the ‘patient’, thereby becoming exposed to these bodily fluids. Contamination of PPE is visualized and body-mapped under UV light before and after removal. Observational findings and participant feedback, around its use as a training exercise, is also recorded.
Findings: Significant contamination from different exposure events was seen, enabling evaluation of PPE and doffing procedures used. Observational data and participant feedback demonstrated its strengths and success as a training technique.
Conclusion: Simulation exercises using VIOLET provide evidence-based assessment of PPE ensembles, and are a valuable resource for training of healthcare staff in wearing and safe doffing of PPE.

Source: Poller, B., Hall, S., Bailey, C., Gregory, S., Clark, R., Roberts, P., ... et Evans, C. (2018). Journal of Hospital Infection.

Les chutes de hauteur

Des chutes à ne pas prendre de haut
Fréquentes et aux conséquences parfois dramatiques, les chutes de hauteur sont un risque majeur dans de nombreuses entreprises. Et ce quel que soit le secteur d'activité. Pourtant, de tels accidents n'ont rien d'une fatalité. Que ce soit en intervenant sur l'organisation du travail, le choix du matériel ou encore à travers la formation de différents acteurs de l'entreprise, il est tout à fait possible de les prévenir.

Source: (2018). Travail & Sécurité (792).>

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