Scénarios d’accidents occasionnés par une perturbation du mouvement dans les secteurs de la construction et de la métallurgie

Pour une prévention locale et diversifiée
La prévention des lésions consécutives à des heurts, des glissades, des coincements ou toute autre perturbation du mouvement au travail constitue un enjeu considérable. Cent quarante-trois récits d'accidents survenus dans les secteurs de la construction et de la métallurgie ont été analysés au moyen d'une approche probabiliste pour en extraire les scénarios récurrents. Ces récits ont été décrits par 30 facteurs génériques puis par 8 scénarios récurrents. Les perturbations du mouvement se produisaient le plus souvent alors que le travailleur manipulait un objet. Elles s'expliquent par l'intervention notamment d'incidents techniques, de coactivité ou de contraintes liées au travail collectif, soulignant le rôle de l'organisation du travail. Les facteurs/scénarios identifiés étaient plus ou moins présents (voire absents) suivant le secteur d'activité considéré. Les résultats plaident pour une prévention locale et diversifiée, croisant les logiques de production et de sécurité et recherchant un équilibre entre une conception défensive de la sécurité et une augmentation de la résilience du système.

Source: Leclercq, S., Abdat, F., Cuny, X. et Tissot, C. (2017). Pistes, 19(2).
http://pistes.revues.org/5219

Occupational factors related to slips, trips and falls among home healthcare workers

Objectives: Slip, trip and fall (STFs) injuries are a significant problem in all industries, yet there are no significant prior reports assessing the relationship between occupational factors and STFs among home healthcare workers (HHCWs) who represent an ever increasing number of workers in the healthcare sector. The unpredictable nature of the work environment specific to HHCWs may lead to an increase in injuries from STFs. The purpose of this study was to quantify associations between occupational factors and STFs among HHCWs.
Methods: This cross-sectional study of 870 HHCWs assessed relationships between 12-month period prevalence of falls and occupational factors. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results: Nearly 18% (N = 152) of HHCWs reported at least one fall in 12 months. Nurses were significantly more likely to have had a fall (OR = 3.33). Years worked in HHC, and near miss accidents were also related to falls. Patient care factors related to falls included feeling rushed or hurried, increasing number of patients, patient's weight bearing status, combative patients, and issues of patient's homes (e.g. dangerous animals, problems with access to beds or toilets).
Conclusions: Numerous work organizational and patient care factors are associated with increased risk of falls among HHCWs. Many of these are readily modifiable and should be a focus for intervention.

Source: Merryweather, A. S., Thiese, M. S., Kapellusch, J. M., Garg, A., Fix, D. J., & Hegmann, K. T. (2017). Safety Science.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.07.002

Les appareils de protection respiratoire

Choix et utilisation
Ce guide s'adresse à toute personne qui, en situation de travail, doit procéder au choix d'un appareil de protection respiratoire pour une situation de travail où il existe un risque d'altération de la santé par inhalation d'un air pollué par des gaz, vapeurs, poussières, aérosols ou d'un air appauvri en oxygène . Il a été élaboré avec le concours des constructeurs d'appareils et du Syndicat national des matériels et articles de protection (SYNAMAP).
Après un rappel des spécifications normatives et des exigences réglementaires en matière de conception, de marquage et d'utilisation des appareils de protection respiratoire, ce guide propose une description détaillée des différents types de matériels puis une méthode d'aide au choix de l'appareil le plus adapté à une situation de travail donnée.
Il fournit également des critères d'utilisation, de stockage et d'entretien de chaque type d'équipement.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206106

Influence des efforts de poussée-préhension et des gants anti-vibratiles sur le transfert des vibrations à la main

Un dispositif expérimental a été mis en place par l'INRS pour mesurer et analyser les effets mécaniques locaux des vibrations transmises au système main/doigts. Ce banc de cartographie d'accélération pourrait être utilisé pour tester et hiérarchiser les performances de solutions anti-vibratiles et celles de matériaux amortissants.

Source: http://www.hst.fr/dms/hst/data/articles/HST/TI-NT-50/nt50.pdf

Disinfection of gloved hands for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient

Most hand hygiene guidelines recommend that gloves should be changed during patient care when an indication for hand disinfection occurs. Observational studies indicate that the majority of healthcare workers (HCWs) do not disinfect their hands at all during continued glove wear. The aim of this narrative review is to assess the potential benefits and risks for disinfecting gloved hands during patient care for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient. Continued glove wear for multiple activities on the same patient often results in performing procedures, including aseptic procedures with contaminated gloves, especially in a setting where there are many indications in a short time, e.g. anaesthetics or accident and emergency departments. Of further note is that hand hygiene compliance is often lower when gloves are worn. To date, three independent studies have shown that decontamination is at least as effective on gloved hands as on bare hands and that puncture rates are usually not higher after up to 10 disinfections. One study on a neonatal intensive care unit showed that promotion of disinfecting gloved hands during care on the same patient resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of late-onset infections and of necrotizing enterocolitis. We conclude that disinfection of gloved hands by HCWs can substantially reduce the risk of transmission when gloves are indicated for the entire episode of patient care and when performed during multiple activities on the same patient.

Source: Kampf, Günter, & Lemmen, Sebastian. (2017). Journal of Hospital Infection.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2017.06.021

ASTM F2053 - 00(2017) - Standard Guide for Documenting the Results of Airborne Particle Penetration Testing of Protective Clothing Materials

This guide is intended to encourage thorough and consistent documentation of airborne particle penetration testing and its results. Uniform information and performance data increase the likelihood of selecting proper particle protective clothing by direct comparison of one material with another. A standard format for test information and data also encourages computer storage of test results for easy retrieval, comparison, and correlations.
This guide provides a format for documenting information and performance data for an airborne particle penetration test. Documented data and information are grouped into five categories that define important aspects of each test:
- Description of material tested,
- Challenge particles,
- Test method,
- Test results, and
- Source of the data.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F2053.htm

ASTM F1407 - 12(2017) - Standard Test Method for Resistance of Chemical Protective Clothing Materials to Liquid Permeation

Permeation Cup Method
This test method establishes a standard procedure for rapidly (in 1 h or less) determining the chemical resistance of specimens of protective clothing materials. This test method can be used to rank materials as to their suitability for use with liquids of known or unknown composition.
The breakthrough detection time, permeation rate, or cumulative permeation can be used to identify protective clothing materials that are more likely to limit potential exposures to chemicals. Longer breakthrough detection times and lower cumulative amounts permeated and permeation rates are characteristics of materials that are better barriers to the test chemical.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1407.htm

ASTM F1001 - 12(2017) - Standard Guide for Selection of Chemicals to Evaluate Protective Clothing Materials

This guide establishes a recommended list of challenge chemicals to encourage those who evaluate chemical protective clothing to test a minimum number of chemicals in common. This list will simplify the comparison of data from different sources.
This guide may also serve material developers or evaluators in screening candidate protective clothing materials.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1001.htm

ASTM F1868-17 - Standard Test Method for Thermal and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials Using a Sweating Hot Plate

The thermal resistance and evaporative resistance provided by fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies, is of considerable importance in determining their suitability for use in fabricating protective clothing systems.
The thermal interchange between people and their environment is, however, an extremely complicated subject that involves many factors in addition to the steady-state resistance values of fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies. Therefore, thermal resistance values and evaporative resistance values measured on a hot plate may or may not indicate relative merit of a particular material or system for a given clothing application. While a possible indicator of clothing performance, measurements produced by the testing of fabrics have no proven correlation to the performance of clothing systems worn by people. Clothing weight, drape, tightness of fit, and so forth, can minimize or even neutralize the apparent differences between fabrics or fabric assemblies measured by this test method.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1868.htm

Reliability of N95 respirators for respiratory protection before, during, and after nursing procedures

Background: The adequate fit of an N95 respirator is important for health care workers to reduce the transmission of airborne infectious diseases in the clinical setting. This study aimed to evaluate whether adequately sealed N95 respirators may provide consistent protection for the wearer while performing nursing procedures.
Methods: Participants were a group of nursing students (N = 120). The best fitting respirator for these participants was identified from the 3 common models, 1860, 1860S, and 1870+ (3M), using the quantitative fit test (QNFT) method. Participants performed nursing procedures for 10-minute periods while wearing a backpack containing the portable aerosol spectrometers throughout the assessment to detect air particles inside the respirator.
Results: The average fit factor of the best fitting respirator worn by the participants dropped significantly after nursing procedures (184.85 vs 134.71) as detected by the QNFT. In addition, significant differences in particle concentration of different sizes (>0.3, >0.4, >1.0, and >4.0 µm) inside the respirator were detected by the portable aerosol spectrometers before, during, and after nursing procedures.
Conclusions: Body movements during nursing procedures may increase the risk of face seal leakage. Further research, including the development of prototype devices for better respirator fit, is necessary to improve respiratory protection of users.

Source: Suen, L. K., Yang, L., Ho, S. S., Fung, K. H., Boost, M. V., Wu, C. S., ... & O'Donoghue, M. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.03.028

Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses

Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs.
Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days. Regression modeling was used to examine predictors of personal protective equipment use, engineering controls, and adverse events involving antineoplastic drugs.

Source: DeJoy, D. M., Smith, T. D., Woldu, H., Dyal, M. A., Steege, A. L., & Boiano, J. M. (2017). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2017.1285496

NF EN 207 Mai 2017 - Protection individuelle de l'œil

Filtres et protecteurs de l'œil contre les rayonnements laser (lunettes de protection laser)
La présente Norme européenne s'applique aux protecteurs de l'oeil utilisés contre l'exposition accidentelle aux rayonnements laser tels que définis dans l'EN 60825-1:2007 dans le domaine spectral compris entre 180 nm (0,18 micron m) et 1 000 micron m. Elle définit les exigences, les méthodes d'essai et le marquage.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-en-207/protection-individuelle-de-l-il-filtres-et-protecteurs-de-l-il-contre-les-rayonnements-laser-lunettes-de-protection-laser/article/865412/fa186066

Personal protective equipment and women

Guidance for workplace representatives on ensuring it is a safe fit
Despite a legal duty on bosses to provide the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to their staff free of charge, only 3 in 10 women (29%) told a survey that the PPE they wear to keep them safe at work is specifically designed for women.
Women responding to the survey work in a range of jobs, including in the emergency services, retail and manufacturing, engineering and scientific research.
Many reported that ill-fitting PPE which isn't designed to protect women workers gets in the way of them doing their job safely. For example, the wrong shoes or overalls can increase the chances of tripping, and safety harnesses, belts and body armour can rub against the skin if they do not accommodate breasts or hips.
The report also reveals:
- More than half of women (57%) responding to the survey said that their PPE sometimes or significantly hampered their work – including 95% of women working in emergency services.
- More than 2 in 5 (41%) women said that the protective trousers that were given to them were inappropriate.
- More than 1 in 3 (35%) found their overalls unsuitable for carrying out their work duties.

Source: https://www.tuc.org.uk/sites/default/files/PPEandwomenguidance.pdf

Occupational Fatalities Resulting from Falls in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry, United States, 2005–2014

During 2003–2013, fatality rates for oil and gas extraction workers decreased for all causes of death except those associated with fall events, which increased 2% annually during 2003–2013 (1). To better understand risk factors for these events, CDC examined fatal fall events in the oil and gas extraction industry during 2005–2014 using data from case investigations conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Sixty-three fatal falls were identified, accounting for 15% of all fatal events. Among fatal falls, 33 (52%) workers fell from a height of >30 feet (9 meters), and 22 (35%) fell from the derrick board, the elevated work platform located in the derrick (structure used to support machinery on a drilling rig). Fall fatalities occurred most frequently when drilling rigs were being assembled or disassembled at the well site (rigging up or rigging down) (14; 22%) or when workers were removing or inserting drill pipe into the wellbore (14; 22%). Measures that target derrickmen and workers engaged in assembling and disassembling drilling rigs (rigging up and down) could reduce falls in this industry. Companies should annually update their fall protection plans and ensure effective fall prevention programs are in place for workers at highest risk for falls, including providing trainings on proper use, fit, and inspection of personal protective equipment.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6616a2.htm?s_cid=mm6616a2_e

Protection respiratoire. Réaliser des essais d'ajustement

Lors du processus de sélection d'un appareil de protection respiratoire, il est indispensable de s'assurer que le modèle choisi est adapté à son porteur en réalisant un essai d'ajustement.
Cette brochure décrit l'objectif des essais d'ajustement, les différentes méthodes d'essai existantes, le rôle de l'opérateur d'essai d'ajustement. Elle précise les critères permettant de considérer l'étanchéité au visage comme satisfaisante.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206273

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