ASTM F1461 - 17 - Standard Practice for Chemical Protective Clothing Program

This practice is intended to promote the proper selection, use, maintenance, and understanding of the limitations of chemical protective clothing (CPC) by users, employers, employees, and other persons involved in programs requiring CPC, thereby limiting potentially harmful and unnecessary skin exposures.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1461.htm

Glove: Use for safety or overuse?

Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids presents a major safety risk for bloodborne viruses to all health care workers (HCWs). In response to human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV), various strategies were adopted to reduce this risk. The most important and cost-effective strategy was the introduction of gloves as part of personal protective equipment (PPE) for all potential or expected exposures to blood and body fluid. The term gloves in this report refer to nonsterile, medical, and examination gloves.

Source: Jain, S., Clezy, K., & McLaws, M. L. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.08.029

Protéger les travailleurs du froid : mieux comprendre pour mieux agir

Dans de nombreux secteurs industriels, les travailleurs sont confrontés à des contraintes thermiques extrêmes et en particulier à des froids pouvant être intenses. Des normes internationales définissent le travail au froid à des températures égales ou inférieures à 10°C. Par exemple, les ouvriers de l'industrie alimentaire de transformation sont exposés, plusieurs heures par jour, à des températures comprises entre 0 et +10°C pour maintenir la chaine du froid (à des fins de conservation des denrées alimentaires) voire même à des températures inférieures à -20°C pour les produits congelés. Que ce soit dans des lieux fermés (entrepôts frigorifiques, abattoirs) ou en extérieur (construction, agriculture, services publics, etc.), la contrainte thermique par le froid peut avoir des conséquences importantes sur la santé (gelures, hypothermie), sur la sécurité (perte de vigilance et de sensibilité) et s'avérer parfois fatale.
Le premier article de cette veille explore les performances cognitives de huit participants humains exposés 24 heures à une température de 7,5°C. Il en découle quelques recommandations en cas d'exposition prolongée au froid. Le second article présente de récents travaux menés sur le transfert de chaleur à travers différentes couches textiles, utilisées dans la conception de vêtement de protection contre le froid (VPF). En particulier, il rapporte l'influence des caractéristiques géométriques, structurelles et de masse de ces couches sur les propriétés de transfert de masse et de chaleur, et donc sur le confort thermique, à travers des VPF.

Source: http://bvs.mag.anses.fr/sites/default/files/BVS-mg-032-Vinches-Halle.pdf

Modified gloves: A chance for the prevention of nosocomial infections

Background: Non-sterile gloves primarily serve as a barrier protection for health care workers (HCWs). However, pathogens may often contaminate the skin of HCWs during glove removal; therefore, pathogens may be further transmitted and cause nosocomial infections.
Methods: A field study was conducted comparing contamination rates when using standard gloves or a new modified product equipped with an additional flap (doffing aid) for easier removal. Gloves were removed after bathing gloved hands in an artificial fluorescent lotion. The number of contamination spots was then visually examined using ultraviolet light.
Results: There were 317 individuals who participated in this study: 146 participants (104 nurses and 42 physicians) used standard gloves, whereas 171 participants (118 nurses and 53 physicians) used the modified product. Use of the modified gloves instead of the standard product (15.8% vs 73.3%, respectively; P < .001) and being a physician rather than a nurse (29.5% vs 47.7%, respectively; P = .003) were the only independent risk factors for reduction of contamination.
Conclusions: This study shows that the modified product could, at least in vitro, significantly reduce the rate of hand and wrist contamination during removal compared with standard gloves. By this, it may significantly improve the overall quality of patient care when used on the wards directly at the patient's site.

Source: Gleser, M., Schwab, F., Solbach, P., & Vonberg, R. P. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.08.024

Evaluation of surgical glove integrity and factors associated with glove defect

Background: Surgical glove perforation may expose both patients and staff members to severe complications. This study aimed to determine surgical glove perforation rate and the factors associated with glove defect.
Material and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2017 at a Tunisian university hospital center in 3 different surgical departments: urology, maxillofacial, and general and digestive. The gloves were collected and tested to detect perforations using the water-leak test as described in European Norm NF EN 455-1. For percentage comparisons, the χ2 test was used with a significance threshold of 5%.
Results: A total of 284 gloves were collected. Of these, 47 were found to be perforated, a rate of 16.5%. All perforations were unnoticed by the surgical team members. The majority of perforated gloves (61.7%) were collected after urology procedures (P = .00005), 77% of perforated gloves were detected when the duration of the procedure exceeded 90 minutes (P = .001), and 96% were from brand A, which were the thicker gloves (P = .015).
Conclusions: This study highlighted an important problem neglected by surgical teams. The findings reaffirm the importance of double-gloving and changing gloves in surgeries of more than 90 minutes' duration.

Source: Tlili, M. A., Belgacem, A., Sridi, H., Akouri, M., Aouicha, W., Soussi, S., ... & Dhiab, M. B. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.07.016

Z259.11-F17 - Absorbeurs d'énergie individuels et cordons d'assujettissement

Ce document constitue la troisième édition de CSA Z259.11, Absorbeurs d'énergie individuels et cordons d'assujettissement. Il remplace les éditions antérieures, publiées en 2005 sous le titre Absorbeurs d'énergie et cordons d'assujettissement et en 1992 sous le titre Absorbeurs d'énergie pour dispositifs antichutes.
Le but de cette norme est de prescrire des exigences visant la performance, la conception, la mise à l'essai, l'étiquetage et le marquage des absorbeurs d'énergie individuels et des cordons d'assujettissement.

Source: http://shop.csa.ca/fr/canada/securite-perioperatoire/z25911-f17/invt/27000562017

ISO 12127 - Vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et la flamme

La présente partie de l'ISO 12127 spécifie une méthode d'essai pour la détermination de la transmission thermique par contact. Elle est applicable aux vêtements de protection (y compris les gants de protection) et à leurs matériaux constitutifs destinés à protéger l'utilisateur contre des températures de contact élevées.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-en-iso-12127-1/vetements-de-protection-contre-la-chaleur-et-la-flamme-determination-de-la-transmission-thermique-par-contact-a-travers-les-ve/article/702846/fa162101

Safe use and best practices for mast climbing work platforms (MCWPs) / Training for mast climbing work platforms

The purpose of this Standard is to specify minimum requirements for the establishment of criteria for safe use and best practices in order to achieve the following objectives:
a) prevention of personal injuries and accidents;
b) uniformity in ratings; and
c) understanding by manufacturers, dealers, installers, maintenance personnel, operators, owners, and users of their respective responsibilities.

Source: http://shop.csa.ca/en/canada/elevated-work-platforms/b35410-17b35411-17/invt/27041922017

Scénarios d’accidents occasionnés par une perturbation du mouvement dans les secteurs de la construction et de la métallurgie

Pour une prévention locale et diversifiée
La prévention des lésions consécutives à des heurts, des glissades, des coincements ou toute autre perturbation du mouvement au travail constitue un enjeu considérable. Cent quarante-trois récits d'accidents survenus dans les secteurs de la construction et de la métallurgie ont été analysés au moyen d'une approche probabiliste pour en extraire les scénarios récurrents. Ces récits ont été décrits par 30 facteurs génériques puis par 8 scénarios récurrents. Les perturbations du mouvement se produisaient le plus souvent alors que le travailleur manipulait un objet. Elles s'expliquent par l'intervention notamment d'incidents techniques, de coactivité ou de contraintes liées au travail collectif, soulignant le rôle de l'organisation du travail. Les facteurs/scénarios identifiés étaient plus ou moins présents (voire absents) suivant le secteur d'activité considéré. Les résultats plaident pour une prévention locale et diversifiée, croisant les logiques de production et de sécurité et recherchant un équilibre entre une conception défensive de la sécurité et une augmentation de la résilience du système.

Source: Leclercq, S., Abdat, F., Cuny, X. et Tissot, C. (2017). Pistes, 19(2).
http://pistes.revues.org/5219

Occupational factors related to slips, trips and falls among home healthcare workers

Objectives: Slip, trip and fall (STFs) injuries are a significant problem in all industries, yet there are no significant prior reports assessing the relationship between occupational factors and STFs among home healthcare workers (HHCWs) who represent an ever increasing number of workers in the healthcare sector. The unpredictable nature of the work environment specific to HHCWs may lead to an increase in injuries from STFs. The purpose of this study was to quantify associations between occupational factors and STFs among HHCWs.
Methods: This cross-sectional study of 870 HHCWs assessed relationships between 12-month period prevalence of falls and occupational factors. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results: Nearly 18% (N = 152) of HHCWs reported at least one fall in 12 months. Nurses were significantly more likely to have had a fall (OR = 3.33). Years worked in HHC, and near miss accidents were also related to falls. Patient care factors related to falls included feeling rushed or hurried, increasing number of patients, patient's weight bearing status, combative patients, and issues of patient's homes (e.g. dangerous animals, problems with access to beds or toilets).
Conclusions: Numerous work organizational and patient care factors are associated with increased risk of falls among HHCWs. Many of these are readily modifiable and should be a focus for intervention.

Source: Merryweather, A. S., Thiese, M. S., Kapellusch, J. M., Garg, A., Fix, D. J., & Hegmann, K. T. (2017). Safety Science.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.07.002

Les appareils de protection respiratoire

Choix et utilisation
Ce guide s'adresse à toute personne qui, en situation de travail, doit procéder au choix d'un appareil de protection respiratoire pour une situation de travail où il existe un risque d'altération de la santé par inhalation d'un air pollué par des gaz, vapeurs, poussières, aérosols ou d'un air appauvri en oxygène . Il a été élaboré avec le concours des constructeurs d'appareils et du Syndicat national des matériels et articles de protection (SYNAMAP).
Après un rappel des spécifications normatives et des exigences réglementaires en matière de conception, de marquage et d'utilisation des appareils de protection respiratoire, ce guide propose une description détaillée des différents types de matériels puis une méthode d'aide au choix de l'appareil le plus adapté à une situation de travail donnée.
Il fournit également des critères d'utilisation, de stockage et d'entretien de chaque type d'équipement.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206106

Influence des efforts de poussée-préhension et des gants anti-vibratiles sur le transfert des vibrations à la main

Un dispositif expérimental a été mis en place par l'INRS pour mesurer et analyser les effets mécaniques locaux des vibrations transmises au système main/doigts. Ce banc de cartographie d'accélération pourrait être utilisé pour tester et hiérarchiser les performances de solutions anti-vibratiles et celles de matériaux amortissants.

Source: http://www.hst.fr/dms/hst/data/articles/HST/TI-NT-50/nt50.pdf

Disinfection of gloved hands for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient

Most hand hygiene guidelines recommend that gloves should be changed during patient care when an indication for hand disinfection occurs. Observational studies indicate that the majority of healthcare workers (HCWs) do not disinfect their hands at all during continued glove wear. The aim of this narrative review is to assess the potential benefits and risks for disinfecting gloved hands during patient care for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient. Continued glove wear for multiple activities on the same patient often results in performing procedures, including aseptic procedures with contaminated gloves, especially in a setting where there are many indications in a short time, e.g. anaesthetics or accident and emergency departments. Of further note is that hand hygiene compliance is often lower when gloves are worn. To date, three independent studies have shown that decontamination is at least as effective on gloved hands as on bare hands and that puncture rates are usually not higher after up to 10 disinfections. One study on a neonatal intensive care unit showed that promotion of disinfecting gloved hands during care on the same patient resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of late-onset infections and of necrotizing enterocolitis. We conclude that disinfection of gloved hands by HCWs can substantially reduce the risk of transmission when gloves are indicated for the entire episode of patient care and when performed during multiple activities on the same patient.

Source: Kampf, Günter, & Lemmen, Sebastian. (2017). Journal of Hospital Infection.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2017.06.021

ASTM F2053 - 00(2017) - Standard Guide for Documenting the Results of Airborne Particle Penetration Testing of Protective Clothing Materials

This guide is intended to encourage thorough and consistent documentation of airborne particle penetration testing and its results. Uniform information and performance data increase the likelihood of selecting proper particle protective clothing by direct comparison of one material with another. A standard format for test information and data also encourages computer storage of test results for easy retrieval, comparison, and correlations.
This guide provides a format for documenting information and performance data for an airborne particle penetration test. Documented data and information are grouped into five categories that define important aspects of each test:
- Description of material tested,
- Challenge particles,
- Test method,
- Test results, and
- Source of the data.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F2053.htm

ASTM F1407 - 12(2017) - Standard Test Method for Resistance of Chemical Protective Clothing Materials to Liquid Permeation

Permeation Cup Method
This test method establishes a standard procedure for rapidly (in 1 h or less) determining the chemical resistance of specimens of protective clothing materials. This test method can be used to rank materials as to their suitability for use with liquids of known or unknown composition.
The breakthrough detection time, permeation rate, or cumulative permeation can be used to identify protective clothing materials that are more likely to limit potential exposures to chemicals. Longer breakthrough detection times and lower cumulative amounts permeated and permeation rates are characteristics of materials that are better barriers to the test chemical.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1407.htm

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