ASTM F1001 - 12(2017) - Standard Guide for Selection of Chemicals to Evaluate Protective Clothing Materials

This guide establishes a recommended list of challenge chemicals to encourage those who evaluate chemical protective clothing to test a minimum number of chemicals in common. This list will simplify the comparison of data from different sources.
This guide may also serve material developers or evaluators in screening candidate protective clothing materials.


ASTM F1868-17 - Standard Test Method for Thermal and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials Using a Sweating Hot Plate

The thermal resistance and evaporative resistance provided by fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies, is of considerable importance in determining their suitability for use in fabricating protective clothing systems.
The thermal interchange between people and their environment is, however, an extremely complicated subject that involves many factors in addition to the steady-state resistance values of fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies. Therefore, thermal resistance values and evaporative resistance values measured on a hot plate may or may not indicate relative merit of a particular material or system for a given clothing application. While a possible indicator of clothing performance, measurements produced by the testing of fabrics have no proven correlation to the performance of clothing systems worn by people. Clothing weight, drape, tightness of fit, and so forth, can minimize or even neutralize the apparent differences between fabrics or fabric assemblies measured by this test method.


Reliability of N95 respirators for respiratory protection before, during, and after nursing procedures

Background: The adequate fit of an N95 respirator is important for health care workers to reduce the transmission of airborne infectious diseases in the clinical setting. This study aimed to evaluate whether adequately sealed N95 respirators may provide consistent protection for the wearer while performing nursing procedures.
Methods: Participants were a group of nursing students (N = 120). The best fitting respirator for these participants was identified from the 3 common models, 1860, 1860S, and 1870+ (3M), using the quantitative fit test (QNFT) method. Participants performed nursing procedures for 10-minute periods while wearing a backpack containing the portable aerosol spectrometers throughout the assessment to detect air particles inside the respirator.
Results: The average fit factor of the best fitting respirator worn by the participants dropped significantly after nursing procedures (184.85 vs 134.71) as detected by the QNFT. In addition, significant differences in particle concentration of different sizes (>0.3, >0.4, >1.0, and >4.0 µm) inside the respirator were detected by the portable aerosol spectrometers before, during, and after nursing procedures.
Conclusions: Body movements during nursing procedures may increase the risk of face seal leakage. Further research, including the development of prototype devices for better respirator fit, is necessary to improve respiratory protection of users.

Source: Suen, L. K., Yang, L., Ho, S. S., Fung, K. H., Boost, M. V., Wu, C. S., ... & O'Donoghue, M. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.

Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses

Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs.
Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days. Regression modeling was used to examine predictors of personal protective equipment use, engineering controls, and adverse events involving antineoplastic drugs.

Source: DeJoy, D. M., Smith, T. D., Woldu, H., Dyal, M. A., Steege, A. L., & Boiano, J. M. (2017). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.

NF EN 207 Mai 2017 - Protection individuelle de l'œil

Filtres et protecteurs de l'œil contre les rayonnements laser (lunettes de protection laser)
La présente Norme européenne s'applique aux protecteurs de l'oeil utilisés contre l'exposition accidentelle aux rayonnements laser tels que définis dans l'EN 60825-1:2007 dans le domaine spectral compris entre 180 nm (0,18 micron m) et 1 000 micron m. Elle définit les exigences, les méthodes d'essai et le marquage.


Personal protective equipment and women

Guidance for workplace representatives on ensuring it is a safe fit
Despite a legal duty on bosses to provide the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to their staff free of charge, only 3 in 10 women (29%) told a survey that the PPE they wear to keep them safe at work is specifically designed for women.
Women responding to the survey work in a range of jobs, including in the emergency services, retail and manufacturing, engineering and scientific research.
Many reported that ill-fitting PPE which isn't designed to protect women workers gets in the way of them doing their job safely. For example, the wrong shoes or overalls can increase the chances of tripping, and safety harnesses, belts and body armour can rub against the skin if they do not accommodate breasts or hips.
The report also reveals:
- More than half of women (57%) responding to the survey said that their PPE sometimes or significantly hampered their work – including 95% of women working in emergency services.
- More than 2 in 5 (41%) women said that the protective trousers that were given to them were inappropriate.
- More than 1 in 3 (35%) found their overalls unsuitable for carrying out their work duties.


Occupational Fatalities Resulting from Falls in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry, United States, 2005–2014

During 2003–2013, fatality rates for oil and gas extraction workers decreased for all causes of death except those associated with fall events, which increased 2% annually during 2003–2013 (1). To better understand risk factors for these events, CDC examined fatal fall events in the oil and gas extraction industry during 2005–2014 using data from case investigations conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Sixty-three fatal falls were identified, accounting for 15% of all fatal events. Among fatal falls, 33 (52%) workers fell from a height of >30 feet (9 meters), and 22 (35%) fell from the derrick board, the elevated work platform located in the derrick (structure used to support machinery on a drilling rig). Fall fatalities occurred most frequently when drilling rigs were being assembled or disassembled at the well site (rigging up or rigging down) (14; 22%) or when workers were removing or inserting drill pipe into the wellbore (14; 22%). Measures that target derrickmen and workers engaged in assembling and disassembling drilling rigs (rigging up and down) could reduce falls in this industry. Companies should annually update their fall protection plans and ensure effective fall prevention programs are in place for workers at highest risk for falls, including providing trainings on proper use, fit, and inspection of personal protective equipment.


Protection respiratoire. Réaliser des essais d'ajustement

Lors du processus de sélection d'un appareil de protection respiratoire, il est indispensable de s'assurer que le modèle choisi est adapté à son porteur en réalisant un essai d'ajustement.
Cette brochure décrit l'objectif des essais d'ajustement, les différentes méthodes d'essai existantes, le rôle de l'opérateur d'essai d'ajustement. Elle précise les critères permettant de considérer l'étanchéité au visage comme satisfaisante.


Évaluation d’un système de corde d’assurance horizontale, de connecteurs d’ancrage et de fermes contreventées comme structure d’accueil lors de la pose de toitures résidentielles

La pose de fermes de toit présente particulièrement des risques et des dangers de chute pour les travailleurs de la construction parce qu'elle se fait en hauteur et dans des conditions difficiles. Les travailleurs, en équilibre précaire sur la charpente, risquent de perdre l'équilibre et/ou de chuter lors de la pose des fermes. Pour protéger ses travailleurs contre les chutes de hauteur lors de la pose de fermes, de contreplaqués et de bardeaux, un entrepreneur de construction domiciliaire a récemment développé un système de corde d'assurance horizontale (SCAH) constitué de deux potelets en aluminium et d'un câble en acier en utilisant la toiture comme structure d'accueil. Le SCAH, quoique fonctionnel, est lourd et peu convivial, ce qui freine son utilisation dans les chantiers. Cependant, des essais préliminaires effectués sur un toit pour lequel les travaux étaient complétés, ont montré que ce système présentait un potentiel comme composante d'un système antichute. Ainsi, à la demande de l'ASP Construction, l'Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST) a entrepris la présente étude qui visait, dans un premier temps, à évaluer le SCAH pour le rendre efficace, convivial et fiable en améliorant sa méthode d'installation et en réduisant son poids. Dans un second temps, l'étude avait comme objectif de vérifier la résistance des fermes de toit contreventées comme structure d'accueil d'un cordon d'assujettissement d'un travailleur, du SCAH et des connecteurs d'ancrage certifiés CAN/CSA Z259.15 – Connecteurs d'ancrage.


Factors affecting fall severity from a ladder

Impact of climbing direction, gloves, gender and adaptation
Ladder falls cause many fatal injuries. The factors that affect whether a ladder perturbation leads to a fall are not well understood. This study quantified the effects of several factors on a person's ability to recover from a ladder perturbation. Thirty-five participants each experienced six unexpected ladder missteps, for three glove conditions (bare hands, high friction, low friction) and two climbing directions (ascent, descent). Fall severity was increased during ladder descent (p < 0.001). Gloves did not affect fall severity. Females compared to males had greater fall severity during ascent (p < 0.001) and descent (p = 0.018). During ascent, females had greater fall severity during the second perturbation but similar fall severity to males during the other perturbations. Additional protection may be needed when descending a ladder. Also, females may benefit from targeted interventions like training. This study does not suggest that gloves are effective for preventing ladder falls.

Source: Pliner, E. M., Seo, N. J., & Beschorner, K. E. (2017). Applied Ergonomics, 60, 163-170.

Market surveillance of FFP3 disposable respirators

Filtering Facepieces (FFPs) are disposable Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) for protection against dusts, particles and aerosols. They are often referred to as 'disposable dust masks', are widely used, and generally require no cleaning or maintenance. They are available in three classes: FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3, with the higher numbers corresponding to better filtering efficiency. As with all types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) sold in the UK, they must comply with the EU PPE Directive 89/686/EEC. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer or person placing the RPE on the European single market to ensure compliance. For FFPs this is invariably achieved by compliance with the harmonised standard EN149:2001+A1:2009.
This report describes market surveillance testing of samples of ten FFP3 respirator models from ten different manufacturers that are available on the UK market. The aim was to determine whether each sample meets a range of health and safety performance requirements required by the standard.


Use of moulded hearing protectors by child care workers

An interventional pilot study
Background: Employees of a multi-site institution for children and adolescents started to wear moulded hearing protectors (MHPs) during working hours, as they were suffering from a high level of noise exposure. It was agreed with the institutional physician and the German Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) that this presented an opportunity to perform a scientific study to investigate potential beneficial effects on risk of burnout and subjective noise exposure at work when child care workers wear MHPs.
Methods: This was an intervention study which compared the initial values with those after a follow-up of 12 months. All teaching child care workers employed by the multi-site institution were offered the opportunity to take part. Forty-five (45) employees in 16 institutions participated. The subjects were provided with personally adapted MHPs and documented the periods of wear in a diary. At the start and end of the intervention, the subjects had to answer a questionnaire related to subjective noise exposure and burnout risk. In parallel, employees were surveyed who had not taken part in the intervention.
Results: Thirty-three (33) subjects took part in the follow-up after 12 months (follow-up rate 73 %). The median period of wear of MHPs was 34.6 h. During the period of observation, the mean subjective noise exposure increased by 2.7 %, and mean burnout risk by 2.5 scale points (baseline: 55.2, follow-up 57.7). Neither difference was statistically significant. 67 % of the participants reported that they were still capable of fulfilling their teaching duties when wearing the MHPs. In the reference group without the intervention, the increase in burnout risk was 3.9 points, which was even less favourable (baseline: 50.6, follow-up: 54.5).
Conclusions: Within the working environment of the child care workers, wearing MHPs did not reduce subjective noise exposure or burnout risk; the satisfaction of the study subjects with wearing MHPs decreased over time. There were however signs that the level of stress increased over time and that this might have been alleviated in the intervention group by wearing MHPs.

Source: Koch, P., Stranzinger, J., Kersten, J. F., & Nienhaus, A. (2016). Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 11(1), 50.

Prévention des risques liés aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes

État des lieux et actions à mener pour une meilleure protection individuelle
Au Québec, on dénombrait près de 29 000 exploitations qui procuraient 125 000 emplois à des travailleurs du secteur de la production agricole (2007). Alors que les pesticides ont pour fonction de lutter contre les parasites des cultures, ils peuvent avoir des effets, à court et long termes, sur la santé des producteurs qui y sont exposés, majoritairement par la peau. Leur utilisation est donc encadrée et des mesures de prévention du risque sont proposées, au nombre desquelles les équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) jouent un rôle essentiel. Dans un contexte de quasi-absence de données sur les maladies et lésions professionnelles relatives aux agents causaux « pesticides » au Québec, le message de prévention actuel ne donne pas tous les résultats attendus. Ainsi, cette étude pluridisciplinaire présente un état des lieux sur la prévention par les ÉPI utilisés contre les pesticides en agriculture, dresse un portrait des contextes et pratiques de travail de la production de pommes québécoise, et définit une liste préliminaire de pesticides dont il faudrait se protéger, prioritairement dans ce secteur. Des pistes d'action sont finalement suggérées et discutées.


Évaluation d’une politique obligatoire de vaccination contre l’influenza ou de port d’un masque pour les travailleurs de la santé

L'objectif d'une telle politique est de réduire le fardeau de l'influenza transmis par les travailleurs non vaccinés aux patients et de prévenir les éclosions dans les milieux de soins. Les prémisses sous-jacentes à cette politique sont que ce fardeau est important et que la vaccination des travailleurs contre l'influenza ou le port du masque le réduira substantiellement. Il est difficile d'obtenir, sur une base volontaire, des couvertures vaccinales de plus de 70 % chez les travailleurs des hôpitaux de soins aigus, alors que les politiques de vaccination obligatoire ou de VoM permettent d'atteindre et même dépasser ce niveau de couverture vaccinale.


Z94.3.1-16 - Guideline for selection, use, and care of eye and face protectors

This is the second edition of CSA Z94.3.1, Guideline for selection, use, and care of eye and face protectors. It supersedes the previous edition, published in 2009 under the title Selection, use, and care of protective eyewear.
The Guideline covers the selection, use, and care of eye and face protectors and provides advice for the proper selection of eye and face protection for specific hazardous activities.
 Major changes to this edition include the following:
 a) added terminology on compliance and certification of eye and face protectors (see Table 1);
 b) revised the laser classes in accordance with the current edition of ANSI Z136.1 (see Clause 6.1);
 c) added allowance for arc flash protectors and requirements that apply to arc flash protective equipment (see Clause 6.2);
 d) updated the lens materials and properties (see Clause 7);
 e) added guidelines for safety eyewear fit testing (see Clause 8); and
 f) added two new hazard types, Hazard Types I (lasers) and J (electric arc flash) in the selection of protectors for each hazard type (see Clauses 12 and 13).


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