Slips, Trips, and Falls Among Home Care Aides

A Mixed-Methods Study
Objective: To address the gap of knowledge about slips, trips, and falls (STFs) among home care aides (HCAs) who work in clients' homes.
Methods: This mixed method study used survey and focus group data of HCAs in a Medicaid-funded homecare program.
Results: STFs were common with over 12% of HCAs reporting occurrence in the previous 12 months, of whom 58% fell to the ground. Both survey and focus group data identified ice, clutter, workload, rushing and other hazards. Focus group data explained the reasons for not reporting STFs, even among those who sustained injury, and added HCAs' voices to the understanding of causes, consequences and prevention strategies for STFs.
Conclusions: Empowering HCAs with knowledge, training, and involvement may transform “near miss” STFs into opportunities to prevent STFs among care workers and their clients.

Source: Muramatsu, N., Sokas, R. K., Chakraborty, A., Zanoni, J. P. et Lipscomb, J. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(9), 796-803.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001355

Les vêtements de protection appropriés aux travaux de soudage et de techniques connexes

Ce guide porte sur les vêtements de protection qui doivent être portés par les soudeurs et tous les travailleurs et employeurs qui utilisent des procédés de soudage ou des techniques connexes, régulièrement ou à l'occasion. Les techniques connexes sont les opérations qui présentent des risques semblables à ceux du soudage, par exemple l'oxycoupage, le gougeage à la flamme ou à l'arc et la projection thermique. Il s'adresse à l'ensemble des responsables intervenant dans la chaîne de fabrication, de distribution, d'achat, d'entretien et d'utilisation des vêtements de protection pour les travaux de soudage et de techniques connexes.

Source: https://www.cnesst.gouv.qc.ca/Publications/200/Pages/DC-200-995.aspx

NF EN 14458 - Visières haute performance uniquement destinées à une utilisation avec des casques de protection

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences minimales s'appliquant aux visières spécifiquement conçues pour une utilisation exclusive avec des casques de protection, tels que des casques de sapeurs-pompiers, conformes à l'EN 443, l'EN 16471 et l'EN 16473 et des casques de protection à haute performance pour l'industrie conformes à l'EN 14052. Il peut s'agir de visières fixées de manière permanente au casque, ou de visières amovibles.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/pr-nf-en-14458/equipement-de-protection-des-yeux-visieres-haute-performance-uniquement-destinees-a-une-utilisation-avec-des-casques-de-protec/article/870026/fa163575

NF EN 14594 - Appareils de protection respiratoire

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques minimales exigées des appareils de protection respiratoire (APR) isolants à adduction d'air comprimé à débit continu utilisés avec des masques complets, des demi-masques, des cagoules, des casques ou des combinaisons, ainsi que des appareils utilisés dans les opérations de projection d'abrasifs en tant qu'appareils de protection respiratoire.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-en-14594/appareils-de-protection-respiratoire-appareils-de-protection-respiratoire-isolants-a-adduction-d-air-comprime-a-debit-continu-ex/article/875333/fa188028

NF EN 14325 - Habillement de protection contre les produits chimiques

La présente Norme européenne spécifie la classification de la performance et les méthodes d'essai pour les matériaux utilisés dans les vêtements de protection chimique, y compris les gants et les chaussures. Lorsque les gants et les bottes font partie intégrante du vêtement, il convient que les exigences en matière de barrière de protection chimique auxquelles ils sont soumis soient les mêmes pour que pour les étoffes. Il s'agit d'une norme de référence à laquelle les normes de performance des vêtements de protection chimique peuvent faire référence en tout ou partie, mais cette norme n'est pas exhaustive, au sens où les normes de produits peuvent aussi exiger des essais selon des normes de méthodes d'essai qui ne figurent pas dans la présente norme.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/pr-nf-en-14325/vetements-de-protection-contre-les-produits-chimiques-methodes-d-essai-et-classification-de-performance-des-materiaux-couture/article/867700/fa163979

Analyse du potentiel d’application des textiles intelligents en santé et en sécurité au travail

Les textiles intelligents sont des structures capables de détecter, de réagir et de s'adapter à un grand nombre de stimuli : électriques, magnétiques, thermiques, optiques, acoustiques, mécaniques, chimiques, etc. Ils offrent potentiellement des perspectives très intéressantes dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité au travail, par exemple, pour des systèmes de localisation intégrés, le suivi des conditions physiologiques des travailleurs, des systèmes chauffants et refroidissants intégrés, des dispositifs de communication, la captation d'énergie, etc. Cette étude avait pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse des connaissances tirées de la littérature technique et scientifique et d'identifier les technologies, solutions et produits sur le marché des textiles intelligents qui peuvent avoir des applications en santé et en sécurité au travail (SST), afin de mettre en évidence des pistes de recherche et de développement dans ce domaine.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/101008/n/textiles-intelligents

ASTM F2010 / F2010M - 18 - Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Glove Effects on Wearer Finger Dexterity Using a Modified Pegboard Test

Scope: This test method is used for evaluating finger dexterity while wearing gloves.
This test method covers procedures in which the wearer picks up small objects between the thumb and index finger.
This test method is suitable for evaluating gloves and other forms of hand protection that allow the wearer to pick up small objects between their thumb and index finger.
This test method does not address all effects of glove use on hand function. Other methods should be considered to evaluate the effects of gloves on grip, tactility, and other hand functions of interest.
The values stated in SI units or in other units shall be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system must be used independently of the other, without combining values in any way.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F2010.htm

Risk of self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment

Background: The aim of this study was to describe the risk of self-contamination associated with doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and to compare self-contamination with various PPE protocols.
Methods: We tested 10 different PPE donning and doffing protocols, recommended by various health organizations for Ebola. Ten participants were recruited for this study and randomly assigned to use 3 different PPE protocols. After donning of PPE, fluorescent lotion and spray were applied on the external surface of the PPE to simulate contamination, and ultraviolet light was used to count fluorescent patches on the skin.
Results: After testing 30 PPE sequences, large fluorescent patches were recorded after using “WHO coverall and 95” and “North Carolina coverall and N95” sequences, and small patches were recorded after using “CDC coverall and N95” and “Health Canada gown and N95” sequences. Commonly reported problems with PPE use were breathing difficulty, suffocation, heat stress, and fogging-up glasses. Most participants rated PPE high (18/30) or medium (11/30) for ease of donning/doffing and comfort. PPE sequences with powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and assisted doffing were generally associated with fewer problems and were rated the highest.
Conclusion: This study confirmed the risk of self-contamination associated with the doffing of PPE. PAPR-containing protocols and assisted doffing should be preferred whenever possible during the outbreak of highly infectious pathogens.

Source: Chughtai, A. A., Chen, X. et Macintyre, C. R. (2018). American journal of infection control.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2018.06.003

Identification and Characterization of Failures in Infectious Agent Transmission Precaution Practices in Hospitals

A Qualitative Study
Importance: Using personal protective equipment (PPE) and transmission-based precautions are primary strategies for reducing the transmission of infectious agents.
Objective: To identify and characterize failures in transmission-based precautions, including PPE use, by health care personnel that could result in self-contamination or transmission during routine, everyday hospital care.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study involved direct observation inside and outside patient rooms on clinical units from March 1, 2016, to November 30, 2016. Observations occurred in the medical and/or surgical units and intensive care units at an academic medical center and a Veterans Affairs hospital, as well as the emergency department of the university hospital. Trained observers recorded extensive field notes while personnel provided care for patients in precautions for a pathogen transmitted through contact (eg, Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) or respiratory droplet (eg, influenza). Specific occurrences involving potential personnel self-contamination were identified through a directed content analysis. These occurrences were further categorized, using a human factors model of human error, as active failures, such as violations, mistakes, or slips.
Conclusions and Relevance: Active failures in PPE use and transmission-based precautions, potentially leading to self-contamination, were commonly observed. The factors that contributed to these failures varied widely, suggesting the need for a range of strategies to reduce potential transmission risk during routine hospital care.

Source: Krein, S. L., Mayer, J., Harrod, M., Weston, L. E., Gregory, L., Petersen, L., ... et Drews, F. A. (2018). JAMA Intern Med., 178(8), 1051-1057. http://dx.doi.org/0.1001/jamainternmed.2018.1898

NFPA 1999 - Standard on Protective Clothing and Ensembles for Emergency Medical Operations

This standard specifies requirements for EMS protective clothing to protect personnel performing patient care during emergency medical operations from contact with blood and body fluid-borne pathogens. It also includes additional requirements that provide limited protection from specified CBRN terrorism agents.

Source: https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=1999

NF EN ISO 27065 - Habillement de protection - Exigences de performance pour les vêtements de protection portés par les opérateurs appliquant des pesticides et pour les travailleurs de rentrée

Le présent document établit les exigences de performance minimale, de classification et de marquage pour les vêtements de protection portés par les opérateurs manipulant des pesticides ainsi que par les travailleurs de rentrée. Aux fins du présent document, le terme "pesticide" s'applique aux insecticides, herbicides, fongicides et autres substances appliquées sous forme liquide qui sont destinés à prévenir, détruire, repousser ou contenir les organismes nuisibles ou les mauvaises herbes en milieu agricole, dans les espaces verts, sur les bords de routes, etc. Il ne couvre pas les produits biocides utilisés en milieu agricole et non agricole. La manipulation des pesticides inclut les opérations de mélange et chargement et d'application, et d'autres activités telles que le nettoyage des équipements et récipients contaminés. Les pesticides concentrés font généralement l'objet de manipulations lors du mélange et du chargement. Les vêtements de protection concernés par le présent document comprennent, entre autres, les chemises, vestes, pantalons, combinaisons, tabliers, manchettes de protection, casquettes/chapeaux et autres couvre-chefs (exclusion faite des casques de protection constitués de matériaux rigides, par exemple les casques portés par les travailleurs du bâtiment) , ainsi que les accessoires utilisés en dessous des pulvérisateurs à dos. Le présent document ne traite pas des articles utilisés pour la protection des voies respiratoires, des mains et des pieds. Il ne traite pas de la protection contre les fumigants.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-en-iso-27065/habillement-de-protection-exigences-de-performance-pour-les-vetements-de-protection-portes-par-les-operateurs-appliquant-des-pes/article/822857/fa176009

ASTM F2412 - 18a - Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection

These test methods contain requirements to evaluate the performance of footwear for the following:
- Impact resistance for the toe area of footwear (I),
- Compression resistance for the toe area of footwear (C),
- Metatarsal protection that reduces the chance of injury to the metatarsal bones at the top of the foot (Mt),
- Conductive properties which reduce hazards that may result from static electricity buildup, and reduce the possibility of ignition of explosives and volatile chemicals (Cd),
- Electric hazard to protect the wearer when accidentally stepping on live electric wires (EH),
- Static dissipative properties to reduce hazards that result from a build up of static charge where there is an underlying risk of accidental contact with live electrical circuits (SD), and
- Puncture resistance footwear devices (PR).

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F2412.htm

Preventing falls: Choosing compatible Fall Protection Supplementary Devices (FPSD) for bridge maintenance work using virtual prototyping

Apart from struck-by safety incidents, fall-related injuries are a major concern in bridge maintenance work. To protect against falls from bridge decks, maintenance workers largely rely on existing bridge guardrails. However, a large number of bridge guardrails do not comply with the regulatory height requirement of 42 ± 3 in. for sufficient fall protection – although appropriate for vehicular traffic. To address this fall protection issue, a few departments of transportation (DOTs) have adopted Fall Protection Supplementary Devices (FPSDs). These devices are temporarily installed on existing bridge guardrails to sufficiently increase the barrier height while work is performed on bridge decks. However, not all FPSDs are compatible with every bridge guardrail. Therefore, to provide sufficient protection, DOT decision makers are tasked with identifying FPSDs that are compatible for each guardrail application. This generally has involved physically installing FPSDs and assessing compatibility on a trial-and-error basis. The use of such inefficient techniques have resulted in significant errors, wasted resources, productivity losses, and an increased likelihood of struck-by safety incidents. To address this issue, the objective of this study is to propose an efficient, cost-effective, and safe approach to assessing compatibility using virtual prototyping methods. In addition, to illustrate the use of the proposed method, a case example of the compatibility testing between two bridge guardrails in North Carolina and three separate FPSDs is presented. It is expected that the proposed method will provide a useful mechanism for DOTs to select suitable FPSDs to protect their workforce.

Source: Zuluaga, C. M. et Albert, A. (2018). Safety science, 108, 238-247.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.08.006

ASTM F903 - 18 - Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Liquids

Significance and Use: This test method is normally used to evaluate the barrier effectiveness against penetration of liquids through materials, seams, closures, or other planar assemblies used in protective clothing and specimens from finished items of protective clothing. Finished items of protective clothing include gloves, arm protectors, aprons, coveralls, suits, hoods, boots, and similar items.
Scope: This test method is used to test specimens of protective clothing materials, assemblies such as seams and closures, or interfaces used in the construction of protective clothing. The resistance to visible penetration of the test liquid is determined with the liquid in continuous contact with the normally outside (exterior) surface of the test specimen.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F903.htm

ASTM F2669 - 12(2018) - Standard Performance Specification for Protective Clothing Worn by Operators Applying Pesticides

Scope:
This specification establishes minimum performance, classification, and labeling requirements for protective clothing worn by operators applying pesticide products, primarily field strength, in liquid form. Protective clothing items covered by this specification include, but are not necessarily limited to, liquid-tight or spray-tight garments, coveralls, jackets, shirts, and pants. This specification addresses protection provided by protective accessories, with the exception of those used for the protection of the head, hands, and feet. This specification does not address protection against biocides, fumigants, or highly volatile liquids. The values given in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F2669.htm

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Respiratory Protection Handbook

Since 2001, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established performance and design standards for respiratory protective devices (RPDs) to protect against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) hazards and toxic industrial chemicals. Prior to 2001, there were no standards for the use of RPDs by U.S. emergency response personnel that covered the full range of expected CBRN threats. Federal regulations require emergency response personnel to use respirators approved by NIOSH for the expected hazards. Equipment performance standards were needed to protect against CBRN threats. Neither industrial nor military respirators provided protection from all potential CBRN respiratory hazards. Several federal agencies partnered to provide research and testing to produce the necessary standards: Department of Justice (DOJ); Department of Homeland Security (DHS); Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOMa); Department of Commerce (DOC), National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST); and the Department of Labor (DOL), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2018-166/

ASTM F2130 - 11(2018) - Standard Test Method for Measuring Repellency, Retention, and Penetration of Liquid Pesticide Formulation Through Protective Clothing Materials

Significance and Use: This test method can be used for laboratory screening of protective clothing material used to manufacture garments and accessories worn by pesticide workers. This test method can be used for the development and evaluation of new protective clothing materials. This test method can be used for the evaluation of protective clothing materials against new pesticide formulations.
Scope: This test method measures repellency, retention, and penetration of a known volume of liquid pesticide when applied to protective clothing material. No external hydrostatic or mechanical pressure is applied to the test specimen during or after the application of the liquid pesticide. This test method is designed to measure performance of protective clothing materials at two levels of contamination. Low level of contamination is achieved by applying 0.1 mL liquid formulation and high level by applying 0.2 mL. This test method does not measure resistance to permeation or degradation. This test method is suitable for field-strength pesticide formulations. This test method may not be suitable for testing protective clothing materials against volatile pesticides.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F2130.htm

ASTM E3108-18 - Standard Practice for Conformity Assessment of Protective Gloves Worn by Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers

Scope:
This practice establishes the conformity assessment requirements for protective gloves worn by law enforcement and corrections officers. It was developed based on end user input regarding hazards of concern and operational requirements of officers.2
This practice provides two options for conformity assessment: (1) supplier's declaration of conformity (SDOC) and (2) certification.
This practice is intended to be used by purchasers and suppliers in the procurement of gloves that meet Specification E3109, and the purchaser is responsible for selecting either SDOC or certification.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3108.htm

ASTM E3109-18 - Standard Specification for Protective Gloves Worn by Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers

Scope:
This specification addresses protective gloves worn by law enforcement and corrections officers.
This specification and related standards were developed by subject matter experts, including experienced end users, using data from a survey of more than 800 U.S. law enforcement and corrections officers.
This specification addresses performance requirements, performance ratings, and test methods for whole gloves and for glove components (for example, materials, layers).

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3109.htm

Influences on use of hand moisturizers in nurses

Background: Nurses are at high risk of hand dermatitis. Regular hand moisturizing can prevent dermatitis, but nurses' use of hand moisturizers is suboptimal.
Aims: To establish (i) what beliefs about hand dermatitis and hand moisturizer use are associated with hand moisturizer use by nurses at home and at work and (ii) if hand moisturizer use behaviours in nurses are associated with the prevalence of hand dermatitis.
Methods: We used a questionnaire to investigate nurses' knowledge, beliefs and behaviours regarding hand dermatitis and use of hand moisturizers.
Results: The response rate was 55/65 (85%). Forty-two (76%) participants agreed that applying hand moisturizers reduced the risk of dermatitis, and 53 (96%) agreed that dermatitis increased the risk of skin carrying pathogenic organisms. Frequent moisturizer application was associated with beliefs that it was part of the nurse's role to apply hand creams, a belief that they had had training in the use of moisturizers and believing that patients approved of them moisturizing their hands.
Conclusions: Hand moisturizer use by nurses can be improved by enhancing their beliefs that it is part of their professional role to apply hand cream regularly.

Source: Burke, K. M., Wright, A. J., Parsons, V. et Madan, I. (2018). Occupational Medicine, 68(5), 340-342.
https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqy068

ANSI/ISEA 203-2018 – American National Standard for Secondary Single-Use Flame Resistant Protective Clothing for Use Over Primary Flame Resistant Protective Clothing

ISEA has developed this new standard to establish minimum performance and labeling requirements for secondary single-use flame resistant protective clothing. These are commonly used in utility work and refinery maintenance and in steel processing facilities where metal is being cut or welded.
Apparel covered by ANSI/ISEA 203-2018 is designed for use in industrial settings where flame hazards may exist and such clothing will not negatively impact the thermal performance afforded by the primary flame resistant protective clothing that is worn underneath. Compliant items are independently evaluated for flame resistance and evaluated for flash fire exposure by layering the garment over a primary thermal garment.

Source: https://safetyequipment.org/product/ansi-isea-203-2018/

Prévention de l’exposition cutanée aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes et facteurs influençant le port des vêtements de protection

Des recherches internationales ont déterminé que la peau constituait la principale voie d'exposition aux pesticides utilisés en agriculture. L'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) joue un rôle clé dans la prévention des risques liés à l'exposition. L'utilisation non systématique des ÉPI prescrits est toutefois documentée et constitue une cible prioritaire des interventions pour la réduction de l'exposition aux pesticides. Cette étude approfondit les résultats d'une première enquête auprès des producteurs de pommes en ciblant spécifiquement l'exposition cutanée aux pesticides et l'utilisation des vêtements de protection (VP). Elle a comme objectif de décrire les situations d'exposition lors des activités principales liées à l'utilisation des pesticides et de les mettre en relation avec les perceptions du risque des producteurs, leur utilisation des VP et leurs pratiques de prévention. Les résultats contribuent à l‘avancement des connaissances sur les facteurs qui facilitent ou qui font obstacle à l'utilisation des VP.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100993/n/exposition-cutanee-pesticides-producteurs-pommes-vetements-protection

A Pilot Study of Nanoparticle Levels and Field Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators on Construction Sites

Little attention has been paid to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels on construction jobsites. This information is needed because cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is well known now. In addition, the performance of particulate respirators generally used by construction workers has never been evaluated in field conditions against ultrafine and nano-sized particles. We hypothesized that workers on construction jobsites are exposed to high levels of nanoparticles and current NIOSH-recommended N95 respirators may not provide them adequate protection against aerosolized nanoparticles. Our exposure assessments of ultrafine and nanoparticles on several construction sites using SMPS nanoparticle counters showed that particle mass concentrations ranged between 1.41 and 99.96 μg/m3. The real-time filtration efficiency of N95 respirators against nanoparticles greater than 20.5 nm in aerodynamic diameter was often less than 95%. When surface electrostatic charge was removed in N95 respirators by isopropanol treatment, the filtration efficiency of larger nanoparticles dropped compared to smaller nanoparticles of <27.5 nm sizes.

Source: https://www.cpwr.com/sites/default/files/publications/Adhikari-nanoparticle-study-N95-filtering.pdf

Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities

Objectives: As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation.
Methods: Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were compared to assess the impact of adjustment on exposure estimation.
Results: Respirator use was noted for 37% of 12 402 full-shift personal TPM samples. Measured TPM concentration ranged from less than detectable to 8220 mg/m3, with arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation being 10.6, 0.87 and 130 mg/m3, respectively. Respirators were used more often in smelting facilities (52% of TPM measurements) than in fabricating (17%) or refinery facilities (28%) (P<0.01). Sixty-two percent of jobs in smelting facilities were subject to respirator-use adjustment, whereas it was 20% and 70% in fabricating and refinery facilities, respectively. Applying protection factors to TPM measurements significantly reduced estimated job mean TPM exposures and changed exposure categories in these facilities, with larger impact in smelting than fabricating facilities.
Conclusions: Respirator use varied by time, facility and job. Adjusting respirator use resulted in differential impact in smelting and fabricating facilities, which will need to be incorporated into ongoing epidemiologic studies accordingly.

Source: Liu S, Noth E, Eisen E, Cullen MR, Hammond K. (2018). Scand J Work Environ Health
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3735

Fatal work-related falls in the United States, 2003-2014

Background: Falls are the second leading cause of work-related fatalities among US workers. We describe fatal work-related falls from 2003 to 2014, including demographic, work, and injury event characteristics, and changes in rates over time.
Methods: We identified fatal falls from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and estimated rates using the BLS Current Population Survey.
Results: From 2003 to 2014, there were 8880 fatal work-related falls, at an annual rate of 5.5 per million FTE. Rates increased with age. Occupations with the highest rates included construction/extraction (42.2 per million FTE) and installation/maintenance/repair (12.5 per million FTE). Falls to a lower level represented the majority (n = 7521, 85%) compared to falls on the same level (n = 1128, 13%).
Conclusions: Falls are a persistent source of work-related fatalities. Fall prevention should continue to focus on regulation adherence, Prevention through Design, improving fall protection, training, fostering partnerships, and increasing communication.

Source: Socias-Morales, C. M., Chaumont Menéndez, C. K. et Marsh, S. M. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine, 61(3), 204-215.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22810

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