Choisir une protection respiratoire contre les bioaérosols

Ce nouvel outil vise à soutenir les intervenants dans le choix d'une protection respiratoire contre les bioaérosols infectieux ou non infectieux présents dans différents milieux de travail.


Characterization of textiles used in chefs' uniforms for protection against thermal hazards encountered in the kitchen environment

Within the kitchen the potential for burn injuries arising from contact with hot surfaces, flames, hot liquid, and steam hazards is high. The chef's uniform can potentially offer some protection against such burns by providing a protective barrier between the skin and the thermal hazard, although the extent to which can provide some protection is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether fabrics used in chefs' uniforms were able to provide some protection against thermal hazards encountered in the kitchen. Fabrics from chefs' jackets and aprons were selected. Flammability of single- and multiple-layered fabrics was measured. Effect of jacket type, apron and number of layers on hot surface, hot water, and steam exposure was also measured.
FINDINGS showed that all of the jacket and apron fabrics rapidly ignited when exposed to a flame. Thermal protection against hot surfaces increased as layers increased due to more insulation. Protection against steam and hot water improved with an impermeable apron in the system. For wet thermal hazards increasing the number of permeable layers can decrease the level of protection due to stored thermal energy. As the hands and arms are most at risk of burn injury increased insulation and water-impermeable barrier in the sleeves would improve thermal protection with minimal compromise to overall thermal comfort.

Source: Zhang H, McQueen RH, Batcheller JC, Ehnes BL, Paskaluk SA. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2015.

The influence of arc-flash and fire resistant clothing on thermoregulation during exercise in the heat

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of arc-flash and fire resistant (AFR) clothing ensembles (CE) on whole-body heat dissipation during work in the heat.
METHODS: On 10 occasions, seven males performed four 15-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400W) in the heat (35°C), each separated by 15-min of recovery. Whole-body heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was calculated as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss. Responses were compared in a semi-nude state and while wearing two CE styles: (1) single-piece (coveralls), and (2) two-piece (workpant+long-sleeve shirt). For group 1, there was one non-AFR single-piece CE (CE1STD) and three single-piece CE with AFR properties (CE2AFR, CE3AFR, CE4AFR). For group 2, there was one non-AFR two-piece CE (CE5STD) and four two-piece CE with AFR properties (CE6AFR, CE7AFR, CE8AFR, CE9AFR). The workpants for CE6AFR were not AFR-rated, while a cotton undershirt was also worn for conditions CE8AFR and CE9AFR and for all single-piece CE.
RESULTS: Heat storage for all conditions (CE1STD:328±55, CE2AFR:335±87, CE3AFR:309±95, CE4AFR:403±104, CE5STD:253±78, CE6AFR:268±89, CE7AFR: 302±70, CE8AFR:360±36, CE9AFR:381±99 kJ) was greater than the semi-nude state (160±124 kJ) (all p≤0.05). No differences were measured between single-piece uniforms (p=0.273). Among the two-piece uniforms, heat storage was greater for CE8AFR and CE9AFR relative to CE5STD and CE6AFR (all p≤0.05), but not CE7AFR (both p>0.05). Differences between clothing styles were measured such that greater heat storage was observed in both CE1STD and CE2-4 AFR relative to CE5STD. Further, heat storage was greater in CE2AFR and CE4AFR relative to CE6AFR, while it was greater in CE4AFR compared to CE7AFR.
CONCLUSIONS: Body heat storage during work in the heat was not influenced by the use of AFR fabrics in the single- or two-piece uniforms albeit less heat was stored in the two-piece uniforms when no undershirt was worn. However, heat storage was comparable between clothing styles when an undershirt was worn with the two-piece uniform.

Source: Poirier MP, Meade RD, McGinn R, Friesen BJ, Hardcastle SG, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. J. Occup. Env. Hyg. 2015.

NIOSH, OSHA Release New Toolkit to Better Protect Hospital Workers from Transmissible Diseases

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) today released the Hospital Respiratory Protection Toolkit, a resource for health care employers to use to protect hospital staff from respiratory hazards.

Respirators are used to protect against exposures to airborne transmissible infectious diseases as well as chemicals and certain drugs that may be used in healthcare settings. OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Standard requires that health care employers establish and maintain a respiratory protection program in workplaces where workers may be exposed to respiratory hazards.


Similarities between work related musculoskeletal disorders and slips, trips and falls

Most occupational risks manifest themselves through movements performed at work, for example musculoskeletal disorders, slips, trips and falls. Research focusing on such risks often differentiates diseases from accidents. All these risks prove to be diffuse, widespread, emergent and devoid of an external harmful hazard, when analysed through their common vector, i.e. through the movements manifesting them. These characteristics have a strong impact on risk perception and on approaches necessary to ensure sustainable prevention. A participative search for local solutions to preventing these risks, integrating shared risk representation and several analysis levels, would seem helpful. A balance between defended and resilience-based conceptions of health and safety should be established. Research should also be extended to enhance in-depth understanding of controls impacting worker movements when performing a task, while safeguarding health and safety.

Source: Leclercq S, Cuny-Guerrier A, Gaudez C, Aublet-Cuvelier A. Ergonomics, 2015.

Z94.1-15 - Industrial protective headwear

Performance, selection, care, and use
The latest edition of CSA Z94.1 – Industrial Protective Headwear – Performance, Selection, Care and Use joins our suite of Personal Protective Equipment standards and applies to protective headwear for industrial, construction, mining, utility, and forestry workers. It defines the areas of the head that are to be protected and basic performance requirements.
According to OHS Regulations – Section 12.4, only when there is a foreseeable danger to a worker's head at a work site is industrial headwear required. Employers can help to reduce the risk of head injuries sustained in the workplace by conducting a hazard assessment. Based on the results of the hazard assessment you will then be able to decide if the worksite would require workers to use industrial protective headwear.


Trends in needlestick injury incidence following regulatory change in Ontario, Canada (2004–2012)

An observational study
Background: A number of jurisdictions have used regulation to promote the adoption of safety-engineered needles as a primary solution to reduce the risk of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. Regulatory change has not been complemented by ongoing efforts to monitor needlestick injury trends which limits opportunities to evaluate the need for additional investment in this area. The objective of this study was to describe trends in the incidence of needlestick injuries in Ontario prior to and following the establishment of regulation to promote the adoption of safety-engineered needles.
Methods: An observational study of needlestick injuries obtained from two independent administrative data sources (emergency department records for the treatment of work-related disorders and workers' compensation claims) for a population of occupationally-active adults over the period 2004–2012.
Results: Comparing the year prior to the regulation being established (2006) to three years after the regulation came into effect (2011), needlestick injury rates in the health and social services sector that were captured by workers' compensation claims declined by 31% and by 43% in the work-related emergency department records. Rates of workers' compensation claims associated with needlestick injuries declined by 31% in the hospital sector, by 67% in the long-term care sector and have increased by approximately 1% in nursing services over the period 2004–2012.
Conclusions: Two independent administrative data sources documented an overall reduction in needlestick injuries in the province of Ontario following a regulatory requirement to adopt safety-engineered needles; however, a substantial burden of occupational needlestick injuries persists in this setting.

Source: Chambers, Andrea, Mustard, Cameron A., & Etches, Jacob. (2015). BMC Health Services Research, vol. 15, 127. 

Maladie à virus Ebola

Tenues et procédures de déshabillage des soignants en établissement de santé de référence
Ce document a été conçu en collaboration avec la Société de Pathologie Infectieuse de Langue Française (SPILF), à partir du recueil et de la synthèse des procédures des établissements de santé de référence (ESR) français. Il fait des recommandations pour la tenue des soignants lors de la prise en charge d'un patient cas possible secrétant ou cas confirmé de maladie à virus Ebola (MVE). Il propose également un protocole de déshabillage. Ces recommandations pourront être amenées à évoluer en fonction de l'état des connaissances et des retours d'expérience des ESR.


Uncertainty, risk analysis and change for Ebola personal protective equipment guidelines

In early September 2014, we were the first to publicly challenge the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and those of many countries which suggested that medical masks be used by health care workers (HCWs) treating Ebola virus disease (EVD) (MacIntyre et al., 2014a). We argued in a previous editorial in the International Journal of Nursing Studies that in situations where there is uncertainty around the transmission mode, a risk analysis framework should be used to select personal protective equipment (PPE) and that the safety of HCWs should be a priority ( MacIntyre et al., 2014a). Our editorial attracted considerable attention and comment ( Jackson, 2014, MacIntyre et al., 2014b and Martin-Moreno et al., 2014). The CDC has since changed their guidelines, but the WHO has yet to do so ( CDC, 2014a). In this paper we discuss the events that influenced the modification of EVD guidelines and factors to be considered in developing frameworks for protection of HCWs.

Source: MacIntyre, C. Raina, Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad, Seale, Holly, Richards, Guy A., & Davidson, Patricia M. (2015). International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52 (5), p. 899-903.

Optimisation de SATURISK, l’outil de calcul du temps de service des cartouches de protection respiratoire contre les vapeurs organiques

L'exposition des travailleurs aux solvants, ou plus largement aux vapeurs organiques, doit être maîtrisée sinon maintenue en deçà des valeurs limites réglementaires. Lorsque l'ensemble des mesures administratives, d'ingénierie et de protection collective ne permet pas d'atteindre des niveaux d'exposition sans danger pour la santé, les travailleurs concernés doivent être équipés d'appareils de protection respiratoire (APR). En l'absence de situations de danger immédiat pour la vie et la santé (DIVS), les APR équipés de cartouches de filtration à base de charbon activé sont utilisés contre les vapeurs organiques. Se pose alors la question du temps de service de ces cartouches. Parmi les options disponibles pour y répondre, celle visant à mettre en œuvre des modèles prédictifs des temps de claquage est la plus utilisée.
Ainsi, l'objectif de ce projet consistait en la mise à jour de Saturisk, l'outil en ligne offert par l'Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST) pour calculer le temps de service des cartouches pour les vapeurs organiques. Cette mise à jour visait notamment à intégrer un éventail plus large de cartouches  et de solvants à Saturisk. En parallèle, le développement d'un système expérimental basé sur la miniaturisation des cartouches a été réalisé pour vérifier, dans des conditions contrôlées, les temps de service prédits par le modèle.


Prediction methods of skin burn for performance evaluation of thermal protective clothing

Most test methods use skin burn prediction to evaluate the thermal protective performance of clothing. In this paper, we reviewed different burn prediction methods used in clothing evaluation. The empirical criterion and the mathematical model were analyzed in detail as well as their relationship and limitations. Using an empirical criterion, the onset of skin burn is determined by the accumulated skin surface energy in certain periods. On the other hand, the mathematical model, which indicates denatured collagen, is more complex, which involves a heat transfer model and a burn model. Further studies should be conducted to examine the situations where the prediction methods are derived. New technologies may be used in the future to explore precise or suitable prediction methods for both flash fire tests and increasingly lower-intensity tests.

Source: Zhai LN, Li J. Burns, 2015.

Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 106 cm−3. During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO2 or Cu x O y  nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 106 to 40 × 106 cm−3, and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm−3. However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm−3. The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 106, which is more than 40 × 103 times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly.

Source: Koivisto AJ, Aromaa M, Koponen IK, et al. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2015; 17: 177.

Reducing heat stress under thermal insulation in protective clothing

Microclimate cooling by a 'physiological' method
Heat stress caused by protective clothing limits work time. Performance improvement of a microclimate cooling method that enhances evaporative and to a minor extent convective heat loss was tested. Ten male volunteers in protective overalls completed a work-rest schedule (130 min; treadmill: 3 x 30 min, 3 km/h, 5% incline) with or without an additional air-diffusing garment (climatic chamber: 25 °C, 50 % RH, 0.2 m/s wind). Heat loss was supported by ventilating the garment with dry air (600 l/min, «5% RH, 25 °C). Ventilation leads (M ±  SD, n = 10, ventilated vs. non-ventilated) to substantial strain reduction (max. HR: 123 ± 12 b/min vs. 149 ± 24 b/min) by thermal relief (max. core temperature: 37.8 ± 0.3 °C vs. 38.4 ± 0.4 °C, max. mean skin temperature: 34.7 ± 0.8 °C vs. 37.1 ± 0.3 °C) and offers essential extensions in performance and work time under thermal insulation.

Source: Glitz KJ, Seibel U, Rohde U, Gorges W, Witzki A, Piekarski C, Leyk D. Ergonomics, 2015.

Experimental and modeling study of thermal exposure of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)

An experimental apparatus designed to study firefighter safety equipment exposed to a thermal environment was developed. The apparatus consisted of an elevated temperature flow loop with the ability to heat the air stream up to 200°C. The thermal and flow conditions at the test section were characterized using thermocouples and bi-directional probes. The safety equipment examined in this study was a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), including a facepiece and an air cylinder. The SCBA facepiece was placed on a mannequin headform and coupled to a breathing simulator that was programmed with a prescribed breathing pattern. The entire SCBA assembly was placed in the test section of the flow loop for these thermal exposure experiments. Three air stream temperatures, 100°C, 150°C, and 200°C, were used with the average air speed at the test section set at 1.4m/s and thermal exposure durations up to 1200s. Measurements were made using type-K bare-bead thermocouples located in the mannequin's mouth and on the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. The experimental results indicated that increasing the thermal exposure severity and duration increased the breathing air temperatures supplied by the SCBA. Temperatures of breathing air from the SCBA cylinder in excess of 60°C were observed over the course of the thermal exposure conditions used in most of the experiments. A mathematical model for transient heat transfer was developed to complement the thermal exposure experimental study. The model took into consideration forced convective heat transfer, quasi-steady heat conduction through the composite layers of the SCBA cylinder wall, the breathing pattern and action of the breathing simulator, and predicted air temperatures from the thermally exposed SCBA cylinder and temperatures at the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. Model predictions agreed reasonably well with the experimental measurements.

Source: Donnelly MK, Yang JC. Burns, 2015.

Perceived risks for slipping and falling at work during wintertime and criteria for a slip-resistant winter shoe among Swedish outdoor workers

The leading cause of work related accidents in Sweden is falls. Many slips and falls occur on icy and snowy surfaces, but there is limited knowledge about how to prevent accidents during outdoor work in winter conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe risk factors of slips and falls and criteria for slip-resistant winter shoes from a user perspective. The result is based on focus group interviews with 20 men and women working in mail delivery, construction and home care in Sweden. The data was analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Risk factors described were related to physical work environment, risky work situations, individual and organizational factors. User criteria for winter work shoes focused on safety, adaptation to the environment, usability and own priorities. The mechanisms of slips and falls during outdoor work are complex. There is a need for more functional and user friendly work shoes than those available and user preferences should be considered by shoe designers. Future challenges include finding ways to make individually adapted shoes suitable for changing work environments, situations and tasks.

Source: Norlander A, Miller M, Gard G. Safety Sci. 2015; 73: 52-61.

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