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Common Psychosocial Factors Predicting Return to Work After Common Mental Disorders, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Cancers
A Review of Reviews Supporting a Cross-Disease Approach Purpose: This systematic review aimed at identifying the common psychosocial factors that facilitate or hinder the return to work (RTW) after a sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMDs), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), or cancers (CAs). Methods: We conducted a review of reviews searching 13 databases from 1994 to 2016 for peer-reviewed, quantitative, cohort studies investigating factors influencing RTW after a CMD, CVD, or CA. Then, for each disease we identified additional cohort studies published after the date of the latest review...
Factors associated with return to work in patients with long-term disabilities due to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders
The current study explores factors predicting return to work in a sample of patients with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders who have attended a prevocational readiness and social skills training programme many years after trauma. Participants were community-dwelling adults with long-term disabilities (N = 67). Results of univariate analyses followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both pre-injury (prior) and post-injury (current) factors influenced the likelihood of employment in our sample: prior employment, current employment readiness, current...
How do line managers experience and handle the return to work of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress?
A one-year follow-up study PURPOSE: To examine how line managers experience and manage the return to work process of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress and to identify supportive and inhibiting factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 15 line managers who have had employees on sick leave due to work-related stress. The grounded theory approach was employed. RESULTS: Even though managers may accept the overall concept of work-related stress, they focus on personality and individual circumstances when an employee is sick-listed due to work-related stress...
Return to work after mild-to-moderate stroke: work satisfaction and predictive factors
A large proportion of stroke patients are unable to return to work (RTW), although figures vary greatly. A total of 121 mild-to-moderate stroke patients, who had a paid job at the time of their stroke were included (a) to quantify RTW and work satisfaction one-year post-stroke (using the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation) and (b) to determine factors predicting RTW post-stroke, based on stroke-related, personal and neuropsychological variables. Half of the patients were not in work (28%) or were working less (22%) than pre-stroke. Ninety percent of those in fulltime employment...
Managerial abuse and the process of absence among mental health staff
Managers' abuse of subordinates is a common form of unethical behaviour in workplaces. When exposed to such abuse, employees may go absent from work. We propose two possible explanations for employee absence in response to managerial abuse: a sociological explanation based on perceptions of organizational justice and a psychological explanation based on psychological strain. Both are tested using data from a sample of 1472 mental health workers. The occurrence, duration and frequency of absence are investigated using a hurdle model. Managerial abuse is found to be associated with the occurrence...
Online assessment of patients’ work disability representations to promote evidence based practice in rehabilitation setting
The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted for Work Disability (IPQR-WD) is an adaptation of Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised: the most used and most comprehensive tool for measuring illness perceptions. Evaluating representations is crucial, since it is a main determinant of return to work in cases of persistent pain due to musculoskeletal disorders. This study aim at facilitating systematic assessment of work disability representations by assessing the usability of the Web platform and the usefulness of automatic interpretation of the results. Source: Coutu, M. F., Albert, V...
Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence
Are associations modified by occupational grade? BACKGROUND: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii) whether the association of WSC with sickness absence was modified by occupational grade. METHODS: We measured WSC by self-report in a cohort of 3075 employees and linked responses to a national register of sickness absence. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs)...
Entry into vocational rehabilitation program following work-related hand injury: potential candidates
OBJECTIVES: This case-control study aimed to investigate the predictors of return to work (RTW) following work-related major forearm, wrist or hand injury at the preparation stage of return to work. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 80 clients were recruited and divided into 2 groups depending on their readiness of RTW. The groups were compared with each other with regard to their demographics, compensation status, hand injury severity, health perception, and time off work (TOW) using correlation coefficient. Predictors of RTW were measured by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: There were no...
The Effect of Social Support Features and Gamification on a Web-Based Intervention for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
Randomized Controlled Trial Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic systematic disease that affects people during the most productive period of their lives. Web-based health interventions have been effective in many studies; however, there is little evidence and few studies showing the effectiveness of online social support and especially gamification on patients' behavioral and health outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was to look into the effects of a Web-based intervention that included online social support features and gamification on physical activity, health care utilization...
Return-to-work in patients with acquired brain injury and psychiatric disorders as a comorbidity
A systematic review OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between psychiatric disorders as a comorbidity and return-to-work (RTW) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). METHODS: A systematic review was performed. The search strategy (2002-2012) contained terms related to ABI, psychiatric comorbidity and keywords adapted to the outcome measure RTW. Selection and review were performed by two authors independently. In the case of uncertainty, a third author was consulted to reach consensus on inclusion or exclusion. The methodological quality of included studies was determined and evidence...
The importance, measurement and practical implications of worker's expectations for return to work
PURPOSE: Workers' own expectations for return to work consistently predict work status. To advance the understanding of the relationship between RTW expectations and outcomes, we reviewed existing measures to determine those which we felt were the most likely to capture the construct. METHOD: A comprehensive search of the work-disability rehabilitation literature was undertaken. The review of the measures was conducted in three steps: first, a review of terminology; second, an examination of whether a time reference was included; third, an evaluation of ease of comprehension, and applicability...
Recovery from mental conditions
Is it different between TBI/non-TBI OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the rates of psychological symptoms among those with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and with non-TBI at 3 months and 12 months after occupational injury and to examine the change in psychological status over time. METHOD: Our study candidates were injured workers in Taiwan who were hospitalised for 3 days or longer and received hospitalisation benefits from the Labour Insurance. A self-reported questionnaire including Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-50) and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist (PTSC) was sent to workers at...
Unintended consequences
The social context of cancer survivors and work Purpose: This article describes the ways in which socioeconomic characteristics and workplace contexts shape the unintended consequences that cancer survivors can experience as they return to work. The study was conducted in an employment setting where there is a major focus on productivity and economic growth in the business sector. Methods: Five focus groups (N = 33 participants) were conducted in 2012 in Singapore. Questions were directed at obtaining information related to the meaning of a job and reactions to return to work as a...
Barriers to Change in Depressive Symptoms Following Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation for Whiplash
The Role of Perceived Injustice Objective: Depressive symptoms complicate patients' recovery following musculoskeletal injury. There is strong evidence to support the utility of multidisciplinary approaches for treating comorbid pain and depressive symptoms. Despite this, a significant proportion of patients may not experience meaningful reductions in depressive symptoms following intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to change in depressive symptom during multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with whiplash injuries. Methods: 53 patients with clinically meaningful...
Development of a new tool to evaluate work support needs and guide vocational rehabilitation
The Work-ability Support Scale (WSS) Purpose: This article outlines our overall approach, qualitative work, and pilot testing to develop a tool to facilitate identification of level of support needs and assist in planning for vocational rehabilitation interventions. Methods: A set of foundation principles drawn from literature and previous critiques of work-ability assessment tools were used to guide a set of studies to develop a new tool. A review of the literature regarding factors that influence work-ability, qualitative interviews and focus groups with a range of stakeholders in the return...
Barriers to change in depressive symptoms following multidisciplinary rehabilitation for whiplash
The role of perceived injustice OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms complicate patients' recovery following musculoskeletal injury. There is strong evidence to support the utility of multidisciplinary approaches for treating comorbid pain and depressive symptoms. Despite this, a significant proportion of patients may not experience meaningful reductions in depressive symptoms following intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to change in depressive symptom during multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with whiplash injuries. METHODS: 53 patients with clinically meaningful...
Is temporary employment a risk factor for work disability due to depressive disorders and delayed return to work?
The Finnish Public Sector Study Objectives: Research on temporary employment as a risk factor for work disability due to depression is mixed, and few studies have measured work disability outcome in detail. We separately examined the associations of temporary employment with (i) the onset of work disability due to depression, (ii) the length of disability episodes, and (iii) the recurrence of work disability, taking into account the possible effect modification of sociodemographic factors. Methods: We linked the prospective cohort study data of 107 828 Finnish public sector employees to national...
Factors associated with generalized anxiety in workers undergoing work rehabilitation for persistent musculoskeletal pain
Purpose: To document in workers having a work disability due to a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), the presence and variation over time of their intolerance of uncertainty and its maintenance factors as defined in Dugas et al.’s generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) model, i.e. worries, negative problem orientation, beliefs about the usefulness of worrying, cognitive avoidance and their consequences on depressive symptoms. Methods : An observational, prospective repeated-measures design was retained. Thirty-nine workers with an MSD having caused a work absence of over three months and who were...
The Clinical Utility of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) in Characterizing Chronic Disabling Occupational Musculoskeletal Disorders
Purpose The Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) was designed to help capture unique characteristics of chronic pain patients. The present study examined the proportion of subgroups classified by the MPI in a chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorder (CDOMD) patient cohort, and described characteristics of MPI profile groups in terms of other psychosocial variables. Methods A cohort of 1,270 CDOMD patients undergoing an interdisciplinary functional restoration program was studied. Before the start of the program, all patients received a standard psychosocial assessment battery. A...
Validity and Reliability of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) in Workers with Upper Extremity Injuries
Introduction Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB) have been associated with increased pain, dysfunction and difficulty returning to work in Upper Extremity (UE) injures. The FABQ is used to assess FAB, but its measurement properties have not been established in UE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the FABQ to screen UE compensated injured workers for FAB. Methods Consenting workers attending a specialty clinic completed a modified FABQ, QuickDASH (Disability), SPADI Pain Score and von Korff Chronic Pain Grade (Pain), SF-36v2 (General Health), and Work Instability...
Injured Workers' Construction of Expectations of Return to Work with Sub-Acute Back Pain: The Role of Perceived Uncertainty
Introduction : Little is known about the formation of expectations of return to work (RTW) from the perspective of injured workers with back injuries. This modified grounded theory study uses a biopsychosocial approach that considers the workers' complex social circumstances, to unpack the multidimensional construct of expectations of RTW from the injured worker's perspective. Method : Initial semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 individuals with sub-acute back pain, who were off work between 3 and 6 months. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 7 participants for the purposes...
The development of the model of occupational self efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury
Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the methodology used in order to develop the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury. Participants: Nine males and one female participated in the study. Methods: Face to face, semi structured individual interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using a qualitative approach to explicate patterns and themes. The study was conducted in two phases, namely, Phase one described the lived experience of individuals with brain injury who had returned to work...
Pain coping in injured workers with chronic pain
What's unique about workers? Purpose: Pain caused by a work injury is a complex phenomenon comprising multiple factors, e.g. age, gender, prior health status, occupation, job demands, and severity of injury. Little research has focused on injured workers with chronic pain. This study investigates injured workers' pain coping. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to measure coping strategies of injured workers in a work rehabilitation program. Differences in coping strategies by demographics, injury-related variables, pain, disability, and depression were measured...
Predictors of employment among cancer survivors after medical rehabilitation
A prospective study Objectives This study aimed to (i) investigate cancer survivor's employment status one year after the completion of a medical rehabilitation program and (ii) identify demographic, cancer, and psychosocial, treatment-, and work-related predictors of return to work (RTW) and time until RTW. Methods A total of 1520 eligible patients were consecutively recruited on average 11 months post diagnosis and assessed at the beginning (t0) (N=1148) and end of rehabilitation (t1) (N=1060) and 12 months after rehabilitation (t2) (N=750). Participants completed validated measures assessing...
Breast cancer survivors' views of factors that influence the return-to-work process
A qualitative study OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence suggests that most employed breast cancer survivors are able to return to work but often experience difficulties in the process. The objective of this study was to identify: (i) factors experienced as barriers to and facilitators of the return-to-work (RTW) process, (ii) which factors were important during initial and post RTW, and (iii) possible solutions to RTW problems. METHODS: Twelve breast cancer survivors participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were thematically analyzed using MAXQDA, software for qualitative data analysis...
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