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How do line managers experience and handle the return to work of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress?
A one-year follow-up study PURPOSE: To examine how line managers experience and manage the return to work process of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress and to identify supportive and inhibiting factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 15 line managers who have had employees on sick leave due to work-related stress. The grounded theory approach was employed. RESULTS: Even though managers may accept the overall concept of work-related stress, they focus on personality and individual circumstances when an employee is sick-listed due to work-related stress...
Length of sickness absence and sustained return-to-work in mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases
A cohort study of public sector employees This study adds to the scientific evidence on the length of sickness absence until sustained return to work (SRTW) in depression, anxiety disorders, intervertebral disc disorders, and back pain among Finnish public sector employees. Timescales are provided for returning to work in different occupational groups also taking into consideration the persistence of the health problem and comorbid conditions. Source: Kausto, J., Pentti, J., Oksanen, T., Virta, L. J., Virtanen, M., Kivimäki, M., & Vahtera, J. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment...
Work ability in rheumatoid arthritis patients
A register study on the prospective risk of exclusion and probability of returning to work Objectives: The aim was to study work ability in patients with RA compared with the general population by investigating the rates and risks of long-term sickness absence, unemployment and disability pension, and the chance of returning to work and the changes in these risks over time (1994-2011). Methods: This was a cohort study with up to 17 years of follow-up (mean 6.95 years/person) including 6677 RA patients of working age (identified in the nationwide DANBIO registry) and 56 955 matched controls from...
Return to work after vocational rehabilitation for sick-listed workers with long-term back, neck and shoulder problems
A follow-up study of factors involved BACKGROUND: Absence from work due to musculoskeletal disorders is a significant problem from a number of perspectives, and there is a great need to identify factors that facilitate return to work (RTW). OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to RTW after vocational rehabilitation for sick-listed workers with long-term back, neck and/or shoulder problems, and to compare the results with those from a previous literature review based on studies from 1980 to 2000. METHODS: A literature review based on studies published 2001–2014 in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE...
Ill Health–Related Job Loss
A One-Year Follow-Up of 54 026 Employees Introduction: The diagnoses of workers being unfit to work may be a relevant health indicator. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the one-year incidence of an unfit to work diagnosis. Method: This one-year prospective study included all workers undergoing annual work medical examination from occupational health services in Troyes, France. Results: Twenty-one occupational physicians followed 54,026 employees. The all-cause incidence of being unfit to return to work was 0.772%. The two main causes of being unfit to work were musculoskeletal disorders...
Physical capacity and risk for long-term sickness absence
A prospective cohort study among 8664 female health care workers OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective associations between self-reported physical capacity and risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers. METHODS: Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity and were followed in a national register of sickness absence lasting for two or more consecutive weeks during 1-year follow-up. Using Cox regression hazard ratio analyses adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, physical workload, job seniority, psychosocial work conditions, and previous...
Stability of return to work after a coordinated and tailored intervention for sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with mental health problems
Results of a two-year follow-up study Purpose: Mental health problems (MHPs) are increasingly common as reasons for long-term sickness absence. However, the knowledge of how to promote a stable return to work (RTW) after sickness absence due to MHPs is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a multidisciplinary, coordinated and tailored RTW-intervention in terms of stability of RTW, cumulative sickness absence and labour market status after 2 years among sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with MHPs. Methods: In a quasi-randomised, controlled trial, we followed recipients...
Assessing work ability
A cross-sectional study of interrater agreement between disability claimants, treating physicians, and medical experts Objectives It is unclear to what extent assessments of work ability differ between disability claimants, their treating physicians, and multidisciplinary medical expert teams. Methods We compared assessments of work ability for consecutive disability claimants referred to a multidisciplinary assessment center in Switzerland over a 4-year period. Assessments were made for the last job (LJ) prior to claiming a disability benefit and an alternative job (AJ) thought to suit the claimant's...
Prognostic Factors for Return to Work, Sickness Benefits, and Transitions Between These States
A 4-year Follow-up After Work-Related Rehabilitation Purpose The aim of this study was to examine if age, gender, medical diagnosis, occupation, and previous sick leave predicted different probabilities for being at work and for registered sickness benefits, and differences in the transitions between any of these states, for individuals that had participated in an interdisciplinary work-related rehabilitation program. Methods 584 individuals on long-term sickness benefits (mean 9.3 months, SD = 3.4) were followed with official register data over a 4-year period after a rehabilitation program. 66...
Musculoskeletal Pain and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Trajectories in Work Ability Among Finnish Firefighters at 13-Year Follow-Up
Objective: To identify work ability trajectories among Finnish firefighters during a 13-year follow-up. We examined whether baseline musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms (DPS) predicted membership of the trajectories. Methods: We studied 411 male firefighters who responded to a questionnaire at both baseline and at least one of two follow-ups. The outcome variable was perceived work ability (0 to 10). The predictors were musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Covariates included age, diseases, lifestyle habits, and work-related factors. Results: One fourth of the firefighters belonged...
Work-related gender differences in physician-certified sick leave
A prospective study of the general working population in Norway Objectives: This study aimed to examine gender differences in physician-certified sick leave and the extent to which these differences can be explained by work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors. Methods: Randomly drawn from the general population in Norway, the cohort comprised working men and women aged 18–69 years (N=12 255, response rate at baseline = 60.9%). Eligible respondents were interviewed in 2009 and registered with an active employee relationship of ≥100 actual working days in 2009 and 2010 (N=3688...
Is temporary employment a risk factor for work disability due to depressive disorders and delayed return to work?
The Finnish Public Sector Study Objectives: Research on temporary employment as a risk factor for work disability due to depression is mixed, and few studies have measured work disability outcome in detail. We separately examined the associations of temporary employment with (i) the onset of work disability due to depression, (ii) the length of disability episodes, and (iii) the recurrence of work disability, taking into account the possible effect modification of sociodemographic factors. Methods: We linked the prospective cohort study data of 107 828 Finnish public sector employees to national...
Remain in Work—What Work-Related Factors Are Associated With Sustainable Work Attendance
A General Population-Based Study of Women and Men Objective: To analyze if organizational climate and work commitment, demand and control, job strain, social support, and physical demands at work are associated with remain in work (RIW), that is, work attendance without sick leave over 15 days per year. Methods: This Swedish cross-sectional study was based on 4013 workers (aged 19 to 64 years), randomly selected from a general population. Data were collected (2008) through postal questionnaire and registers. Results: Fair organizational climate, the combination of fair organizational climate and...
The return-to-work process of individuals sick-listed because of whiplash-associated disorder
A three-year follow-up study in a Danish cohort of long-term sickness absentees BACKGROUND: The chronic course of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) has implications for both the individual and society. It has been shown that up to 50% of patients have not yet returned to work six months after a whiplash injury. We wanted to study the return-to-work (RTW) process in individuals sick-listed for more than eight weeks in six Danish municipalities. RTW in individuals sick-listed due to WAD was compared to that in those sick-listed for other musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). METHODS: Information about...
Heavy work and disability pension
A long term follow-up of Swedish construction workers Objectives : The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of disability pensions over time among workers with physically demanding jobs. Methods : The occurrence of disability pension was prospectively studied between 1980–2008 among 325 549 Swedish construction workers. The risks for disability pension and years lost of working life were compared among 22 occupational groups, adjusting for age, body mass index, height, and smoking habits. Results : The risk varied considerably among blue-collar workers. For example, rock...
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