Does occupational lifting affect the risk of hypertension?

Cross-sectional and prospective associations in the Copenhagen City Heart Study
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between heavy occupational lifting and hypertension.
Methods: Data from the third, fourth and fifth examinations of the Copenhagen City Heart Study were included. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to adjust for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, education, self-rated cardiorespiratory fitness, vital exhaustion and baseline blood pressure, and were used to estimate (i) the cross-sectional association between heavy occupational lifting and hypertension, defined as using anti-hypertensives or having a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, and (ii) the prospective association between heavy occupational lifting and risk of becoming a systolic blood pressure case, defined as an above median change (from baseline to follow-up) and/or a shift from no use of anti-hypertensives at baseline to use of anti-hypertensives at a ten-year follow-up.
Results: Both cross-sectional [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94–1.20] and prospective (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92–1.31) analysis indicated no relations. Explorative prospective analyses suggested linear associations between heavy occupational lifting and systolic blood pressure among participants using antihypertensives. Exposure to heavy occupational lifting tended to increase the incidence of hypertension (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.97–1.73) among participants ≥50 years.
Conclusions: No associations were seen among the general population. Positive associations were seen among users of anti-hypertensives and participants ≥50 years, indicating these groups as vulnerable to increases in blood pressure when exposed to occupational lifting.

Source: Korshøj, M., Hannerz, H., Marott, J. L., Schnohr, P., Prescott, E., Clays, E. et Holtermann, A. (2019). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3850

Modeling the Effect of the 2018 Revised ACGIH® Hand Activity Threshold Limit Value® (TLV) at Reducing Risk for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Recent studies have shown the 2001 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) Threshold Limit Value (TLV®) for Hand Activity was not sufficiently protective for workers at risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). These studies led to a revision of the TLV and Action Limit. This study compares the effect of applying the 2018 TLV vs. the 2001 TLV to predict incident CTS within a large occupational pooled cohort study (n = 4,321 workers). Time from study enrollment to first occurrence of CTS was modeled using Cox proportional hazard regression. Adjusted and unadjusted hazard ratios for incident CTS were calculated using three exposure categories: below the Action Limit, between the Action Limit and TLV, and above the TLV. Workers exposed above the 2001 Action Limit demonstrated significant excess risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, while the 2018 TLV demonstrated significant excess risk only above the TLV. Of 186 total cases of CTS, 52 cases occurred among workers exposed above the 2001 TLV vs. 100 among those exposed above the 2018 value. Eliminating exposures above the 2001 TLV might have prevented 11.2% of all cases of CTS seen in our pooled cohort, vs. 25.1% of cases potentially prevented by keeping exposures below the 2018 value. The 2018 revision of the TLV better protects workers from CTS, a recognized occupational health indicator important to public health. A significant number of workers are currently exposed to forceful repetitive hand activity above these guidelines. Public health professionals should promulgate these new guidelines and encourage employers to reduce hand intensive exposures to prevent CTS and other musculoskeletal disorders.

Source: Yung, M., Dale, A. M., Kapellusch, J., Bao, S., Harris-Adamson, C., Meyers, A. R., ... et Evanoff, B. A. (2019). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2019.1640366

Les conséquences de l’utilisation d‘exosquelettes en termes de sécurité et de santé au travail

Ce document de réflexion examine le rôle que pourraient jouer les exosquelettes dans l'environnement de travail du futur et les possibles incidences de leur utilisation sur la sécurité et la santé des travailleurs. Il examine le rôle que pourraient jouer les exosquelettes dans la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques, et se penche sur les risques potentiels de leur application dans différents domaines.
Le document reconnaît l'incertitude qui entoure leurs effets à long terme sur la santé et les difficultés rencontrées pour établir une certification uniforme, et met en évidence la nécessité de réaliser des études plus complètes. L'approche consistant à préférer une hiérarchisation des priorités en matière de prévention lors de la conception des futurs lieux de travail, plutôt que de s'en remettre aux exosquelettes pour créer des environnements de travail ergonomiques, est également abordée.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/impact-using-exoskeletons-occupational-safety-and-health/view

Workplace Interventions can Reduce Sickness Absence for Persons With Work-Related Neck and Upper Extremity Disorders

A One-Year Prospective Cohort Study
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether workplace interventions are effective in reducing sickness absence in persons with work-related neck and upper extremity disorders and whether disorder improvement after intervention reduces sickness absence.
Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study of workers with work-related neck pain or upper extremity disorders. Data were obtained from the Swedish “Work-related disorders” and “Work environment” surveys. Register data on sickness-absence 1 year after the surveys were made and obtained from the Swedish health insurance database.
Results: A significant lower number of sickness-absence days were found for workers reporting improvement after intervention.
Conclusion: The findings in this study suggest that workplace intervention can reduce sickness absence for workers with neck or upper extremity disorders only if the intervention improves the disorder. The interventions were most effective in reducing medium long sickness absence periods.

Source: Oliv, S., Gustafsson, E., Baloch, A. N., Hagberg, M. et Sandén, H. (2019). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61(7), 559-564.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001608

Sedentary work and risk of venous thromboembolism

Objective: Prolonged seated immobility during long-distance flights is related to an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but little, if anything, is known about the risk related to sedentary work. The objective of this paper was to examine the risk of VTE according to sitting posture at work.
Methods: This prospective study includes a total of 78 936 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, all without previous thromboembolic events and aged <65 years. An assessment of the number of hours spent in sitting position at work was assigned each participant at Baseline using a job exposure matrix. VTE was identified through national patient registries. Survival analyses were performed to determine the risk of VTE according to sedentary position at work with adjustment for a range of known determinants including lifestyle and coagulation factors.
Results: During the follow-up period of 582 411 person years (mean follow-up, 7.4 years) 911 participants experienced their first VTE event. Multivariable adjusted analyses showed no difference in risk of VTE between
occupational sitting ≥6.5 hours/day and occupational sitting ≤3.5 hours/day (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.92–1.34).
Conclusion: This study does not support the hypothesis that sedentary work is a risk factor for VTE in the general population. Whether certain occupations with particularly high exposure to immobilized sitting positions are associated with thromboembolic events is not addressed.

Source: Johannesen, C. D. L., Flachs, E. M., Ebbehøj, N. E., Marott, J. L., Jensen, G. B., Nordestgaard, B. G., ... et Bonde, J. P. E. (2019). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3841

Lanceurs de discussion sur le lieu de travail concernant les troubles musculo-squelettiques

Les lanceurs de discussion peuvent faciliter les débats en groupes sur le lieu de travail ou pendant la formation professionnelle. Les scénarios qui y figurent sont conçus pour les travailleurs réalisant des tâches susceptibles de leur causer des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS), ainsi que pour leurs supérieurs hiérarchiques et superviseurs.
Cette ressource répond également à la nécessité d’établir une communication rapide et efficace entre le travailleur et son supérieur concernant un problème de santé lié à des troubles musculo-squelettiques.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/conversation-starters-workplace-discussions-about/view

Value Stream Maps - Improving Procurement of Ergonomic Office Equipment

This article presents research that shows how value stream maps (VSMs) were used to document the procurement process for office equipment to establish better methods of helping users obtain equipment to reduce the risk of overuse injuries in their office jobs.
• The research consisted of two parts: 1) a survey to employees regarding office equipment; and 2) three focus groups with employees who were active in the procurement process. VSMs of the current process were created from the survey data and improved with focus group input.
• The benefits of using a VSM include obtaining user input, creating better documentation and offering recommendations to streamline the process.
• VSMs are recommended as a structured way for OSH professionals to obtain information about user needs and ways to improve processes to reduce workplace injuries.

Source: Hayden, M. A. et Schwerha, D. J. (2019). Professional Safety, 64(5), 53-58.
https://www.onepetro.org/journal-paper/ASSE-19-05-53

Sex Differences in Glenohumeral Muscle Activation and Coactivation During a Box Lifting Task

Manual material handling is associated with shoulder musculoskeletal disorders, especially for women. Sex differences in glenohumeral muscle activity may contribute to women's higher injury risk by affecting shoulder load and stability. We assessed the effects of sex (25 women vs 26 men) and lifting load (6 kg vs 12 kg) on muscle activation during box lifting from hip to eye level. Surface and intramuscular electromyography were recorded from 10 glenohumeral muscles. Most muscles were more activated for the heavier box and for women. These effects were larger for “prime movers” than for stabilisers and antagonists. Despite their apparently heterogeneous effects on muscle activity, sex and mass did not affect Muscle Focus, a metric of coactivation. This may be partly related to the limited sensitivity of the Muscle Focus. Nevertheless, sex differences in strength, more than in coactivation patterns, may contribute to the sex imbalance in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders.

Source: Bouffard, J., Martinez, R., Plamondon, A., Côté, J. N. et Begon, M. (2019). Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2019.1640396

Comparative analysis of manual handling practices in kerbside collection of recyclable waste

Government targets for reducing waste going to landfill h ave led to an increase in the processing of domestic waste to reclaim recyclable materials. Manual sorting tasks can occur at the kerbside during waste collection and, if poorly designed, can introduce manual handling risks.
This report describes research to better understand the kerbside collection and sorting methods currently employed by the waste industry and to determine how manual handling risks can best be reduced or controlled. Six detailed case studies are presented showing a range of vehicles and processes in operation.
Manual handling risks were influenced by both vehicle and waste collection container design and some encouraged poor handling approaches. The Researchers make recommendations that the waste management industry capture the key features of best equipment design in a ‘design principles' document that would form an industry benchmark for designers and customers and that the industry continue to seek to design out manual handling risks before new waste collection vehicles enter widespread use.

Source: https://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1141.htm

Risk factors of hospitalization for carpal tunnel syndrome among the general working population

Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) causes a considerable amount of sick leave and healthcare costs. The etiology of CTS is multifactorial, involving both personal and occupational risk factors. To date, few prospective cohort studies on occupational risk factors of CTS have examined the general working population.
Methods: The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966 who attended the 31-year follow-up in 1997 and were working ≥3 days a week in a paid job (N=6326). Information
on socio-economic status, weight and height, smoking, exposure to occupational physical factors, and long-term illnesses was collected at baseline in 1997. Data on hospitalizations due to CTS came from the Care Register for Health Care, 1997–2016.
Results: Between 1997 and 2016, 3.4% of the participants had been hospitalized (attended secondary care) for CTS. After adjusting for confounders, women [hazard ratio (HR) 3.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.70–5.25], overweight/obese participants (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.29–2.22), smokers (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12–1.96), farmers and manual workers (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.85–4.92 compared with upper clerical workers), lower clerical workers (HR 1.74, 95% CI=1.08–2.80), workers exposed to hand vibration (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.48–3.54) and participants with physically demanding jobs (HR 1.71, CI 1.06–2.76) were at increased risk of hospitalization for CTS. Physically demanding work increased the risk of hospitalization for CTS for overweight/obese participants at baseline, but not for participants of normal weight.
Conclusions: Excess body mass and occupational physical factors increase the risk of hospitalization for CTS. Excess body mass potentiates the adverse effects of strenuous work on CTS.

Source: Hulkkonen, S., Shiri, R., Auvinen, J., Miettunen, J., Karppinen, J. et Ryhänen, J. (2019). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3835

Comparative analysis of manual handling practices in kerbside collection of recyclable waste

Government targets for reducing waste going to landfill h ave led to an increase in the processing of domestic waste to reclaim recyclable materials. Manual sorting tasks can occur at the kerbside during waste collection and, if poorly designed, can introduce manual handling risks.
This report describes research to better understand the kerbside collection and sorting methods currently employed by the waste industry and to determine how manual handling risks can best be reduced or controlled. Six detailed case studies are presented showing a range of vehicles and processes in operation.
Manual handing risks were influenced by both vehicle and waste collection container design and some encouraged poor handling approaches. The Researchers make recommendations that the waste management industry capture the key features of best equipment design in a ‘design principles' document that would form an industry benchmark for designers and customers and that the industry continue to seek to design out manual handling risks before new waste collection vehicles enter widespread use.

Source: https://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1141.htm

Troubles musculosquelettiques et risques psychosociaux dans une population de conducteurs ambulanciers hospitaliers

Objectif: L'objectif de notre étude a été de déterminer la prévalence des TMS et des RPS au sein d'une population de conducteurs ambulanciers (CA) d'un centre hospitalier public et d'évaluer les liens entre eux.
Méthodologie: Nous avons étudié une population de 65 agents de la Fonction publique, à l'aide d'un hétéro-questionnaire tiré du guide des bonnes pratiques de l'INRS. Les caractéristiques générales des sujets, les plaintes liées aux TMS, le vécu au travail et les facteurs potentiels de RPS ont été étudiés.
Résultats: Au total 61 des 65 agents ont participé à l'étude. Plus des trois-quarts des agents présentent des symptômes de TMS, plus des deux tiers rapportent l'existence d'au moins un épisode douloureux par semaine et plus de 90 % au moins une fois par mois. Plus de la moitié des CA présente au moins une localisation douloureuse d'intensité « forte ». Les troubles les plus fréquemment rencontrés sont les lombalgies basses alléguées par près de trois-quarts des agents ; viennent ensuite les cervicalgies qui concernent un tiers des agents, puis les douleurs des épaules (20 %). Près de 80 % des CA disent devoir travailler vite « parfois ou souvent », et près des trois-quarts signalent être « souvent » soumis à des contraintes de délai. Environ 90 % estiment ne pouvoir moduler que « rarement » leur quantité de travail, et les deux tiers « jamais ». Moins de la moitié des agents peuvent compter ou même discuter facilement avec leur hiérarchie, alors qu'ils sont plus des trois-quarts à pouvoir le faire avec leurs collègues.
Conclusion: L'association entre sollicitations physiques et psychologiques suggère que l'apparition de troubles musculosquelettiques chez les chauffeurs-ambulanciers hospitaliers est fortement impactée par la présence de risques psychosociaux.

Source: Solitaire, C. et Martin, F. (2019). Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement, 80(3), 191-198.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.admp.2019.01.006

Quebec Serve and Protect Low Back Pain Study: What About Mental Quality of Life?

Background
As of now, the impact of low back pain (LBP) and its chronic state, chronic low back pain (CLBP), on mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has never been investigated among police officers. The present investigation aims at studying this relationship using a biopsychosocial model.
Methods
Between May and October 2014, a Web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Quebec police officers (Quebec, Canada). Mental HRQOL was measured using the role emotional (RE) and the mental health (MH) domains of the SF-12v2 Health Survey. The impact of CLBP on mental HRQOL (as opposed to acute/subacute LBP or no LBP) was studied with a multivariate linear regression model.
Results
Of the 3,589 police officers who participated in the study, 1,013 (28.4%) reported CLBP. The mean age of respondents was 38.5 ± 8.7 years, and 32.0% were females. The RE (44.1/100) and MH (49.0/100) mean scores of the CLBP group were comparable with the scores found in populations suffering from cancer or heart diseases. Compared to officers without LBP, the presence of CLBP was significantly associated with lower RE (β: −0.068; p = 0.003) and MH (β: −0.062; p = 0.002) scores. These relationships were not found in the acute/subacute LBP group.
Conclusion
Our results underscore how frequent CLBP is among police officers and how burdensome it is. Considering the importance of good physical and mental health for this occupational population, police organizations should be aware of this issue and contribute to the efforts toward CLBP prevention and management in the workplace.

Source : Douma, N.B., Côté, C. et Lacasse, A. (2019). Safety and Health at Work, 10, (1), 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2018.08.006

Caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles, reconnaissance en maladie professionnelle et devenir fonctionnel et professionnel de patients opérés d’un syndrome du canal carpien en Île-de-France (2009-2012)

Points clés

  •  Cette étude menée par Santé publique France en partenariat avec le Réseau Prévention Main Île-de-France (IdF), chez des patients opérés d'un syndrome du canal carpien (SCC), décrit les caractéristiques socio-professionnelles (CSP, déclaration en maladie professionnelle…) des patients et leurs liens avec la durée d'arrêt de travail.
  •  Parmi les patients en activité au cours des 10 ans précédant l'intervention, 59 % considéraient leur travail comme cause probable principale du SCC. Mais seuls 25 % des patients salariés avaient effectué une demande de reconnaissance en maladie professionnelle (MP).
  •  La durée médiane d'arrêt de travail chez les salariés en emploi était de 30 jours, variant de 21 jours pour les non-manuels à 40 jours pour les manuels lourds.
  •  La durée d'arrêt de travail était plus longue chez les patients ayant réalisé une déclaration en MP que chez les autres patients salariés (durée médiane de 44 jours contre 30 jours).
  •  Elle était plus longue également chez les patients soumis à un job strain, manipulant ou portant souvent au travail des charges de plus de 4 kg ou utilisant des outils vibrants en dehors du travail.
  •  Pour favoriser le retour au travail des patients opérés d'un SCC en IdF, la prévention devrait viser à réduire les expositions professionnelles telles que le port de charges ou les situations de job strain.
  •  L'augmentation de la durée d'arrêt de travail liée à la déclaration en MP justifie une attention particulière pour le retour au travail, avec une plus grande synergie entre les services de santé au travail, les soignants, l'assurance maladie et les employeurs.

Source : http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/Publications-et-outils/Rapports-et-syntheses/Travail-et-sante/2019/Caracteristiques-socioprofessionnelles-reconnaissance-en-maladie-professionnelle-et-devenir-fonctionnel-et-professionnel-de-patients-operes-d-un-syndrome-du-canal-carpien-en-Ile-de-France-2009-2012

 

Acceptation des exosquelettes par les opérateurs : étude exploratoire

L'introduction des exosquelettes, comme toute nouvelle technologie, constitue un changement au niveau de l'organisation et de l'activité des opérateurs. C'est dans ce cadre qu'est abordée la question spécifique de l'acceptabilité et de l'acceptation de ces dispositifs par les opérateurs. Pour cela, un questionnaire a été élaboré et administré à des utilisateurs, anciens utilisateurs et nonutilisateurs d'exosquelettes.
En termes de santé et sécurité, les résultats préliminaires présentés permettent de recueillir des informations sur la qualité de l'interaction opérateur-exosquelette, d'identifier des points bloquants et/ou facilitateurs de l'usage de ces dispositifs et d'envisager certains facteurs de risques psychosociaux, physiques et accidentels chez les utilisateurs.

Source: http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?ref=RST.TF%20264

Acquisition et intégration d'un exosquelette en entreprise

Ce guide, destiné aux préventeurs, permet à l'entreprise d'appréhender les nombreuses questions posées par l'intégration d'un exosquelette. Il propose une démarche allant de la définition du besoin d'assistance physique jusqu'à son intégration en situation réelle de travail.
Structurée en trois phases, cette méthode vise à accompagner l'entreprise dans sa réflexion d'acquisition d'un exosquelette, à créer les conditions permettant son intégration dans la situation de travail et à évaluer les usages de l'exosquelette au cours du temps.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206315

Troubles musculo-squelettiques et facteurs psychosociaux au travail

Ce rapport présente l'état des connaissances scientifiques sur la façon dont les facteurs psychosociaux influencent les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS). Il analyse l'impact des TMS sur l'aptitude au travail et la qualité du travail. Près de 40 millions de travailleurs en Europe souffrent de TMS des membres et du dos, ce qui en fait la maladie professionnelle la plus répandue dans l'UE. L'objectif de ce rapport est d'influencer les efforts d'intervention et de fournir des recommandations scientifiquement fondées pour améliorer la santé des travailleurs européens

Source : https://www.etui.org/fr/Publications2/Rapports/Troubles-musculo-squelettiques-et-facteurs-psychosociaux-au-travail

 

Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders, a tri-sector exploration

High rates of WRMSD-related sick leave put pressure on employers and businesses, hitting their bottom lines and potentially leading to understaffing, reduced productivity and lower staff morale. Directly affected workers not only suffer pain but also consequences that can be felt across their working, home and social lives.
The construction, healthcare and transportation and storage industries were selected as the focus of this research because they have significantly higher rates of WRMSDs compared with the average rate for all industry. Qualitative research was commissioned to:
- Explore what employers and workers knew about WRMSDs and regulation.
- Explore employers' attitudes and perceptions of WRMSDs, their approaches to prevention and management and what was limiting engagement with health and safety issues.
- Explore the journeys of workers and how they have managed health challenges in relation to WRMSDs.
- Uncover the needs of ‘both sides' to highlight barriers and opportunities regarding future intervention, communication and campaign strategies.
- Understand current workplace practice and inspire improvements in WRMSD prevention and management.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/insight/msd-report.pdf

Mechanical and psychosocial work exposures: the construction and evaluation of a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM)

Objectives: The aim of this study was to (i) construct and evaluate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) for mechanical and psychosocial work exposures and (ii) test its predictive validity for low-back pain.
Methods: We utilized data from the Norwegian nationwide Survey of Living Conditions on work environment in 2006 and 2009. We classified occupations on a 4-digit level based on the Norwegian version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88). The mechanical and psychosocial exposure information was collected by personal telephone interviews and included exposures that were known risk factors for low-back pain. We evaluated the agreement between the individual- and JEM-based exposure estimates, with kappa, sensitivity and specificity measures. We assessed the JEM's predictive validity by testing the associations between low-back pain and the individual- and JEM-based exposure.
Results: The results showed an overall fair-to-moderate agreement between the constructed JEM and individual work exposures. The JEM performed considerably better for mechanical work exposures compared with psychosocial work exposures. The predictive validity of the mechanical and psychosocial JEM showed a consistently lower but predominantly reproducible association with low-back pain for both genders.
Conclusions: The mechanical estimates and psychosocial stressors, such as psychological demands, monotonous work and decision latitude in the constructed JEM, may be useful in large epidemiological register studies. The predictive validity of the matrix was evaluated as being overall acceptable and can be an effective and versatile approach to estimate the relationship work exposures and low-back pain.

Source: Hanvold, T. N., Sterud, T., Kristensen, P. et Mehlum, I. S. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3774

Exosquelettes au travail : impact sur la santé et la sécurité des opérateurs état des connaissances

Ce guide, destiné aux préventeurs, fait un point sur les connaissances actuelles des exosquelettes afin de mettre en évidence les intérêts et les limites de leur usage en matière de prévention des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS).
L'objectif est d'aider à mieux appréhender l'impact des exosquelettes pour accompagner efficacement l'entreprise dans sa démarche d'acquisition et d'intégration d'un exosquelette.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206311

Musculoskeletal disorders of agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Southeast Spain)

In southeast Spain (Almería), we find the highest concentration of greenhouse crops in Europe, an agricultural sector that directly employs 55,000 people. The objective of this research was to evaluate the musculoskeletal working conditions of greenhouse workers through the standardized Nordic questionnaire. This questionnaire presents 28 multiple choice questions referring to different parts of the body. A total of 1002 questionnaires were completed, and information was collected on nine socio-demographic variables for each worker: sex, age, height, weight, surface area, cultivation, staking, greenhouse and nationality. Although the results show a high overall rate of symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), these findings do not mean that the workers are unable to perform agricultural tasks.

Source: López-Aragón, L., López-Liria, R., Callejón-Ferre, Á. J. et Pérez-Alonso, J. (2018). Safety Science, 109, 219-235.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.05.023

Acute Effects of Interrupting Sitting on Discomfort and Alertness of Office Workers

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 4 hours of sitting interrupted with hourly bouts of standing and/or pedaling versus uninterrupted sitting on alertness and discomfort among sedentary office workers.
Methods: Fifteen middle-aged sedentary workers were randomized to three 4-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sitting; (2) sitting interrupted with 10 minutes of standing/hour; and (3) sitting interrupted with 10 minutes of pedaling/hour. Self-reported measures of alertness and discomfort were collected.
Results: Uninterrupted sitting significantly increased discomfort (P < 0.001). Discomfort was lower in both the standing (P < 0.001) and pedaling (P < 0.001) conditions than the uninterrupted sitting condition. Short-lived improvements in alertness were observed immediately following several standing (50%) and pedaling (100%) interruptions.
Conclusion: Prolonged sitting increases discomfort while brief standing and pedaling interruptions attenuate impairments in discomfort among sedentary workers.

Source: Benzo, R. M., Kruse, N. T., Hughes, W. E., Casey, D. P. et Carr, L. J. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(9), 804-809.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001329

Participatory organizational intervention for improved use of assistive devices in patient transfer

A single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial
Objectives: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effect of a participatory organizational intervention for improved use of assistive devices (AD) in patient transfer.
Methods: We randomly allocated 27 departments from five hospitals in Denmark to a participatory intervention (14 clusters, 316 healthcare workers) or a control group (13 clusters, 309 healthcare workers). The intervention consisted of 2×2 hour workshops with managers, the hospital's health and safety staff, and 2–5 healthcare workers from each department. Based on an assessment of barriers and solutions conducted prior to randomization, participants developed an action plan for implementing department-specific solutions for improving the use of AD. Use of necessary AD (using digital counters as primary outcome), and general use of AD (using accelerometers as secondary outcome), pain intensity in the low-back, work-related back injuries during patient transfer, and communication and guidance in the use of AD were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months.
Results: Use of necessary AD (primary outcome), low-back pain, and back injuries did not change in the intervention compared with control group at 12-month follow-up. However, general use of AD measured with accelerometers as well as communication and guidance improved significantly in the intervention versus control group.
Conclusion: The intervention did not result in more frequent use of the necessary AD but led to more general use of AD, as well as increased communication and guidance.

Source: Jakobsen, M. D., Aust, B., Kines, P., Madeleine, P. et Andersen, L. L. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3769

Ergonomic interventions for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck among office workers

Work-related upper limb and neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common occupational disorders worldwide. Studies have shown that the percentage of office workers that suffer from MSDs ranges from 20 to 60 per cent. The direct and indirect costs of work-related upper limb MSDs have been reported to be high in Europe, Australia, and the United States. Although ergonomic interventions are likely to reduce the risk of office workers developing work-related upper limb and neck MSDs, the evidence is unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was last published in 2012.

Source: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008570.pub3/full

Évaluation des processus : comprendre comment le contexte des entreprises influence le déroulement des premières étapes d’interventions ergonomiques

Bien qu'il soit généralement convenu que les ergonomes adaptent leur intervention au contexte de chaque entreprise, la façon précise dont ils y parviennent et sur quels critères cette adaptation se base sont peu renseignés au plan scientifique. Une évaluation des processus a été réalisée en adoptant un devis d'étude de cas multiple, en vue d'identifier les indicateurs de contexte ayant influencé quatre interventions du courant de l'ergonomie de l'activité, réalisées par des ergonomes en formation. L'évaluation a porté sur les étapes de l'intervention précédant l'implantation des changements, soit de l'analyse de la demande jusqu'au moment où le plan d'action est convenu avec les acteurs-clés. La collecte des données a été effectuée grâce à un journal de bord, des documents produits dans le cadre de l'intervention, ainsi que des entretiens avec les intervenants et les acteurs-clés impliqués dans l'intervention. Nos résultats présentés sous forme de modèles logiques font ressortir 12 indicateurs de contexte ayant représenté des leviers ou des obstacles au déroulement de l'intervention ou au plan d'action. Des combinaisons d'indicateurs ont eu un effet synergique positif ou négatif sur les cas. Le modèle d'évaluation proposé dans cette étude interdisciplinaire pourrait être repris lors d'études subséquentes pour bonifier la compréhension de l'influence du contexte dans d'autres situations d'interventions ergonomiques.

Source: Albert, V., Vézina, N., Bilodeau, H. et Coutarel, F. (2018). Activités, (15-2).
https://journals.openedition.org/activites/3411

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