A Comparison of Risk Factors for Symptoms Using Quality of Work Life Data From the 2002, 2006, and 2010 General Social Survey
Objective: To report trends for the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.
Methods: Three Quality of Work Life surveys examine the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders.
Results: Findings similar for several risk factors, but differences across the reporting years may reflect economic conditions. Respondent numbers in 2010 were reduced, some risk factors had pattern changes, and there were sex and age differences. Trend analysis showed most significant changes were for the “work fast” risk factor. New 2010 “physical effort” item showed sex differences, and items reflective of total worker health showed strong associations with “back pain” and “pain in arms.”
Conclusions: Intervention strategies should focus on physical exposures and psychosocial risk factors (work stress, safety climate, job satisfaction, supervisor support, work fast, work freedom, work time) that have been consistently related to reports of musculoskeletal disorders. Economic conditions will influence some psychosocial risk factors.
Source: ***, Robert B.; Lowe, Brian D.; Lu, Ming-Lun; Krieg, Edward F. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Médicine, August 2015, Volume 57, Issue 8, p. 910-928.
A measure of operational performance and employee well-being
Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being.
Source: Krista Hoffmeister, Alyssa Gibbons, Natalie Schwatka, John Rosecrance. Applied Ergonomics, Volume 50, September 2015, p. 160-169.
A scoping review of practices, approaches, and techniques
The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the current research evidence on approaches to preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Databases in business, engineering, and health and safety were searched and 718 potentially relevant publications were identified and examined for their relevance. Twenty-one papers met the selection criteria and were subjected to thematic analysis. There was very little literature describing the integration of MSD risk assessment and prevention into management systems. This lack of information may isolate MSD prevention, leading to difficulties in preventing these disorders at an organizational level. The findings of this review argue for further research to integrate MSD prevention into management systems and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.
Source: Yazdani, Amin, Neumann, W. Patrick, Imbeau, Daniel, Bigelow, Philip, Pagell, Mark, & Wells, Richard. (2015). Applied Ergonomics, 51, p. 255-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2015.05.006
La journée technique organisée par l'INRS, en partenariat avec l'Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux (Ifsttar), avait pour objectif de montrer les atouts et les limites des logiciels de conception des postes de travail utilisant des mannequins numériques. Des retours d'expérience et des résultats d'études ont permis de confronter les fonctionnalités proposées par les éditeurs aux besoins des industriels.
Cette publication vise à documenter les lésions attribuables aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) en milieu de travail sous les aspects administratif, médical et socio-économique, dans un souci de qualité et d'uniformité des informations transmises sur le sujet. Les données qu'elle contient sont tirées des banques informationnelles de la CSST.
This report estimates work productivity loss due to musculoskeletal pain in 23-year-old workers in Western Australia based on findings from the longitudinal Raine Study.
The report ascertains the prevalence of diagnosed back and neck pain among young workers, provides estimates of work productivity loss among young workers and examines the impact of musculoskeletal pain specifically on work productivity. Productivity measures used in this report are absenteeism due to health reasons, absenteeism due to any other reason, and presenteeism. The report also assesses the prevalence of psychological conditions, such as depression and anxiety, among young people.
This research report has been written to inform the development of work health and safety policies. The views and conclusions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of Safe Work Australia Members.
Le présent document définit les exigences à intégrer lors de la conception des cabines de tri manuel des déchets recyclables secs ménagers et assimilés issus des collectes sélectives. Ces exigences sont relatives aux structures, aux matériels, aux espaces et aux postes de travail nécessaires pour réaliser l'activité de séparation manuelle de ces déchets effectuée sur des tables de tri en cabine.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dynamic office chair to activate the core muscles while participants performed exercises sitting on the chair compared to a stability ball.
Background: Prolonged sitting has become an accepted part of the modern office. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that sedentary postures are linked to many adverse effects on health. The concept of dynamic or active sitting is intended to promote movement while sitting to reduce the time spent in prolonged, static postures.
Methods: Sixteen participants performed four pelvic rotation exercises (front-back, side-side, circular, and leg lift) on both a dynamic office chair and a stability ball. Muscle activity from 12 torso muscles were evaluated with surface electromyography.
Results: For all exercises, trunk muscle activity on the chair was comparable to that on a stability ball. The right external oblique was the only muscle to produce greater peak activity (p = .019) when using the ball compared to the chair (21.4 ± 14.0 percent maximal voluntary excitations (%MVE) and 14.7 ± 10.8 %MVE for the ball and chair, respectively). The left thoracic erector spinae produced greater average activity (p = .044) on the chair than on the ball.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that this dynamic sitting approach could be an effective tool for core muscle activation while promoting movement and exercise while sitting at work.
Application: Muscle activations on the dynamic chair are comparable to those on a stability ball, and dynamic office chairs can promote movement and exercise while sitting at work.
Source: Holmes, Michael W.R., De Carvalho, Diana E., Karakolis, Thomas, & Callaghan, Jack P. Human Factors, 2015.
Objective: The aims of this study were to determine long-term fatigue effects in the lower limbs associated with standing work and to estimate possible age and gender influences.
Background: The progressive accumulation of muscle fatigue effects is assumed to lead to musculoskeletal disorders, as fatigue generated by sustained low-level exertions exhibits long-lasting effects. However, these effects have received little attention in the lower limbs.
Method: Fourteen men and 12 women from two different age groups simulated standing work for 5 hr including 5-min seated rest breaks and a 30-min lunch. The younger group was also tested in a control day. Muscle fatigue was quantified by electrically induced muscle twitches (muscle twitch force [MTF]), postural stability, and subjective evaluation of discomfort.
Results: MTF showed a significant fatigue effect after standing work that persisted beyond 30 min after the end of the workday. MTF was not affected on the control day. The center of pressure displacement speed increased significantly over time after standing work but was also affected on the control day. Subjective evaluations of discomfort indicated a significant increase in perception of fatigue immediately after the end of standing work; however, this perception did not persist 30 min after. Age and gender did not influence fatigue.
Conclusion: Objective measures show the long-term effects of muscle fatigue after 5 hr of standing work; however, this fatigue is no longer perceived after 30 min of rest postwork.
Application: The present results suggest that occupational activities requiring prolonged standing are likely to contribute to lower-extremity and/or back disorders.
Source: Garcia, Maria-Gabriela, & Läubli, Thomas. Human Factors, 2015.
Prevalence and Risk Factors
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. Method: A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. Results: A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x2(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Conclusion: Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.
Source: Alnaser MZ. J. Occup. Rehabil. June 2015.
Dans cette brochure, les propriétaires d’exploitations agricoles et les travailleurs trouveront une description générale des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) et de leurs stades de développement. On y propose également des moyens de prévention à appliquer pour prévenir les TMS et une méthode d’évaluation des risques. Finalement, on y trace un portrait des TMS dans le secteur de l’agriculture et on y décrit des situations de travail propres au secteur de même que les risques de TMS que ces dernières comportent.
Results from the Danish work environment cohort study
BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting has been negatively associated with a range of non-communicably diseases. However, the role of occupational sitting is less clear, and little is known on the changes of occupational sitting in a working population over time. The present study aimed to determine 1) temporal changes in occupational sitting time between 1990 and 2010 in the Danish workforce; 2) the association and possible dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This study analysed data from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), which is a cohort study of the Danish working population conducted in five yearly intervals between 1990 and 2010. Occupational sitting time is self-reported in the DWECS. To determine the association with all-cause mortality, the DWECS was linked to the Danish Register of Causes of Death via the Central Person Register. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2010 the proportion of the Danish workforce who sat for at least three quarters of their work time gradually increased from 33.1 to 39.1 %. All-cause mortality analyses were performed with 149,773 person-years of observation and an average follow-up of 12.61 years, during which 533 deaths were registered. None of the presented analyses found a statistically significant association between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.97 (95 % CI: 0.79; 1.18) when >/=24 hr/wk occupational sitting time was compared to <24 hr/wk for the 1990-2005 waves. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational sitting time increased by 18 % in the Danish workforce, which seemed to be limited to people with high socio-economic status. If this increase is accompanied by increases in total sitting time, this development has serious public health implications, given the detrimental associations between total sitting time and mortality. The current study was inconclusive on the specific role that occupational sitting might play in the increased all-cause mortality risk associated with the total volume of sitting.
Source: van der Ploeg HP, Møller SV, Hannerz H, et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2015; 12 (1): 71.
Results from a Danish cohort study
Objective: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10–29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women.
Methods: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996–2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome.
Results: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55–2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26–1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1.73–2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15–2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11–1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91–0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42–1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way.
Conclusion: Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces.
Source: Hansen ML, Thulstrup AM, Juhl M, Kristensen JK, Ramlau-Hansen CH. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015.
Dans la perspective de stimuler la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) dans le domaine de la bureautique au Québec, et de préparer un guide de bonnes pratiques, une première étape nous est apparue incontournable : documenter les pratiques de praticiens et celles mises en œuvre dans les milieux de travail au Québec. Il s'agissait de décrire ce qui se fait au Québec, de déterminer les approches les plus prometteuses, de décrire les difficultés rencontrées et, inversement, les conditions de succès.
A longitudinal study
Objectives: Longitudinal studies have linked stress at work with a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain. We aimed to explore the extent to which musculoskeletal pain is a cause as opposed to a consequence of perceived occupational stress.
Methods: As part of the international cultural and psychosocial influences on disability study, we collected information from 305 Italian nurses, at baseline and again after 12 months, about pain during the past month in the low-back and neck/shoulder, and about effort–reward imbalance (ERI) (assessed by Siegrist's ERI questionnaire). Poisson regression was used to assess the RR of ERI >1 at follow-up according to the report of pain and of ERI >1 at baseline.
Results: Among nurses with ERI ≤1 at baseline, ERI >1 at follow-up was associated with baseline report of pain in the low-back (RR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.4–5.0) and neck/shoulder (RR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.3–5.1). However, there was no corresponding association with persistence of ERI in nurses who already had ERI >1 at baseline. Associations of ERI at baseline with pain at follow-up were weak.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the well-documented association between job stress and musculoskeletal pain is not explained entirely by an effect of stress on reporting of pain. It appears also that workers who report musculoskeletal pain are more likely to develop subsequent perceptions of stress. This may be because pain renders people less tolerant of the psychological demands of work. Another possibility is that reports of pain and stress are both manifestations of a general tendency to be aware of and complain about symptoms and difficulties.
Source: Bonzini, Matteo, Bertu, Lorenza, Veronesi, Giovanni, Conti, Marco, Coggon, David, & Ferrario, Marco M. (2015). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88(5), 607-612.
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