Apports et limites des mannequins "virtuels" pour la conception des postes de travail

La journée technique organisée par l'INRS, en partenariat avec l'Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux (Ifsttar), avait pour objectif de montrer les atouts et les limites des logiciels de conception des postes de travail utilisant des mannequins numériques. Des retours d'expérience et des résultats d'études ont permis de confronter les fonctionnalités proposées par les éditeurs aux besoins des industriels.

Source: http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_CC%209/$File/Visu.html

Statistiques sur les lésions attribuables aux TMS en milieu de travail 2011-2014

Cette publication vise à documenter les lésions attribuables aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) en milieu de travail sous les aspects administratif, médical et socio-économique, dans un souci de qualité et d'uniformité des informations transmises sur le sujet. Les données qu'elle contient sont tirées des banques informationnelles de la CSST.

Source: http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/300/Pages/DC_300_322.aspx

Envoyé: 2015-07-28 7:33 par Maryse Gagnon | avec aucun commentaire
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Work productivity loss in young workers

This report estimates work productivity loss due to musculoskeletal pain in 23-year-old workers in Western Australia based on findings from the longitudinal Raine Study.
The report ascertains the prevalence of diagnosed back and neck pain among young workers, provides estimates of work productivity loss among young workers and examines the impact of musculoskeletal pain specifically on work productivity. Productivity measures used in this report are absenteeism due to health reasons, absenteeism due to any other reason, and presenteeism. The report also assesses the prevalence of psychological conditions, such as depression and anxiety, among young people.
This research report has been written to inform the development of work health and safety policies. The views and conclusions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of Safe Work Australia Members.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/young-workers

Principes ergonomiques pour la conception des cabines de tri des déchets recyclables secs ménagers et assimilés issus des collectes sélectives

Le présent document définit les exigences à intégrer lors de la conception des cabines de tri manuel des déchets recyclables secs ménagers et assimilés issus des collectes sélectives. Ces exigences sont relatives aux structures, aux matériels, aux espaces et aux postes de travail nécessaires pour réaliser l'activité de séparation manuelle de ces déchets effectuée sur des tables de tri en cabine.

Source: http://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-x35-702/securite-des-machines-principes-ergonomiques-pour-la-conception-des-cabines-de-tri-des-dechets-recyclables-secs-menagers-et-as/article/822283/fa177818

Evaluating Abdominal and Lower-Back Muscle Activity While Performing Core Exercises on a Stability Ball and a Dynamic Office Chair

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dynamic office chair to activate the core muscles while participants performed exercises sitting on the chair compared to a stability ball.
Background: Prolonged sitting has become an accepted part of the modern office. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that sedentary postures are linked to many adverse effects on health. The concept of dynamic or active sitting is intended to promote movement while sitting to reduce the time spent in prolonged, static postures.
Methods: Sixteen participants performed four pelvic rotation exercises (front-back, side-side, circular, and leg lift) on both a dynamic office chair and a stability ball. Muscle activity from 12 torso muscles were evaluated with surface electromyography.
Results: For all exercises, trunk muscle activity on the chair was comparable to that on a stability ball. The right external oblique was the only muscle to produce greater peak activity (p = .019) when using the ball compared to the chair (21.4 ± 14.0 percent maximal voluntary excitations (%MVE) and 14.7 ± 10.8 %MVE for the ball and chair, respectively). The left thoracic erector spinae produced greater average activity (p = .044) on the chair than on the ball.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that this dynamic sitting approach could be an effective tool for core muscle activation while promoting movement and exercise while sitting at work.
Application: Muscle activations on the dynamic chair are comparable to those on a stability ball, and dynamic office chairs can promote movement and exercise while sitting at work.

Source: Holmes, Michael W.R., De Carvalho, Diana E., Karakolis, Thomas, & Callaghan, Jack P. Human Factors, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720815593184

Long-Term Muscle Fatigue After Standing Work

Objective: The aims of this study were to determine long-term fatigue effects in the lower limbs associated with standing work and to estimate possible age and gender influences.
Background: The progressive accumulation of muscle fatigue effects is assumed to lead to musculoskeletal disorders, as fatigue generated by sustained low-level exertions exhibits long-lasting effects. However, these effects have received little attention in the lower limbs.
Method: Fourteen men and 12 women from two different age groups simulated standing work for 5 hr including 5-min seated rest breaks and a 30-min lunch. The younger group was also tested in a control day. Muscle fatigue was quantified by electrically induced muscle twitches (muscle twitch force [MTF]), postural stability, and subjective evaluation of discomfort.
Results: MTF showed a significant fatigue effect after standing work that persisted beyond 30 min after the end of the workday. MTF was not affected on the control day. The center of pressure displacement speed increased significantly over time after standing work but was also affected on the control day. Subjective evaluations of discomfort indicated a significant increase in perception of fatigue immediately after the end of standing work; however, this perception did not persist 30 min after. Age and gender did not influence fatigue.
Conclusion: Objective measures show the long-term effects of muscle fatigue after 5 hr of standing work; however, this fatigue is no longer perceived after 30 min of rest postwork.
Application: The present results suggest that occupational activities requiring prolonged standing are likely to contribute to lower-extremity and/or back disorders.

Source: Garcia, Maria-Gabriela, & Läubli, Thomas. Human Factors, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720815590293

Occupational Therapy Practitioners with Occupational Musculoskeletal Injuries

Prevalence and Risk Factors
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. Method: A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. Results: A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x2(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Conclusion: Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.

Source: Alnaser MZ. J. Occup. Rehabil. June 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10926-015-9584-3

La prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques dans le secteur de l'agriculture

Dans cette brochure, les propriétaires d’exploitations agricoles et les travailleurs trouveront une description générale des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) et de leurs stades de développement. On y propose également des moyens de prévention à appliquer pour prévenir les TMS et une méthode d’évaluation des risques. Finalement, on y trace un portrait des TMS dans le secteur de l’agriculture et on y décrit des situations de travail propres au secteur de même que les risques de TMS que ces dernières comportent.

Source: http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/300/Pages/DC_300_1002.aspx

Temporal changes in occupational sitting time in the Danish workforce and associations with all-cause mortality

Results from the Danish work environment cohort study
BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting has been negatively associated with a range of non-communicably diseases. However, the role of occupational sitting is less clear, and little is known on the changes of occupational sitting in a working population over time. The present study aimed to determine 1) temporal changes in occupational sitting time between 1990 and 2010 in the Danish workforce; 2) the association and possible dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This study analysed data from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), which is a cohort study of the Danish working population conducted in five yearly intervals between 1990 and 2010. Occupational sitting time is self-reported in the DWECS. To determine the association with all-cause mortality, the DWECS was linked to the Danish Register of Causes of Death via the Central Person Register. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2010 the proportion of the Danish workforce who sat for at least three quarters of their work time gradually increased from 33.1 to 39.1 %. All-cause mortality analyses were performed with 149,773 person-years of observation and an average follow-up of 12.61 years, during which 533 deaths were registered. None of the presented analyses found a statistically significant association between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.97 (95 % CI: 0.79; 1.18) when >/=24 hr/wk occupational sitting time was compared to <24 hr/wk for the 1990-2005 waves. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational sitting time increased by 18 % in the Danish workforce, which seemed to be limited to people with high socio-economic status. If this increase is accompanied by increases in total sitting time, this development has serious public health implications, given the detrimental associations between total sitting time and mortality. The current study was inconclusive on the specific role that occupational sitting might play in the increased all-cause mortality risk associated with the total volume of sitting.

Source: van der Ploeg HP, Møller SV, Hannerz H, et al. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2015; 12 (1): 71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0233-1

Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

Results from a Danish cohort study
Objective: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10–29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women.
Methods: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996–2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome.
Results: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55–2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26–1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1.73–2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15–2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11–1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91–0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42–1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way.
Conclusion: Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces.

Source: Hansen ML, Thulstrup AM, Juhl M, Kristensen JK, Ramlau-Hansen CH. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3507

Portrait des pratiques de prévention primaire et secondaire en bureautique au Québec chez les intervenants et dans les milieux de travail

Dans la perspective de stimuler la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) dans le domaine de la bureautique au Québec, et de préparer un guide de bonnes pratiques, une première étape nous est apparue incontournable : documenter les pratiques de praticiens et celles mises en œuvre dans les milieux de travail au Québec. Il s'agissait de décrire ce qui se fait au Québec, de déterminer les approches les plus prometteuses, de décrire les difficultés rencontrées et, inversement, les conditions de succès.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-pratiques-prevention-bureautique-intervenants-r-874.html

Is musculoskeletal pain a consequence or a cause of occupational stress?

A longitudinal study
Objectives: Longitudinal studies have linked stress at work with a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain. We aimed to explore the extent to which musculoskeletal pain is a cause as opposed to a consequence of perceived occupational stress.
Methods: As part of the international cultural and psychosocial influences on disability study, we collected information from 305 Italian nurses, at baseline and again after 12 months, about pain during the past month in the low-back and neck/shoulder, and about effort–reward imbalance (ERI) (assessed by Siegrist's ERI questionnaire). Poisson regression was used to assess the RR of ERI >1 at follow-up according to the report of pain and of ERI >1 at baseline.
Results: Among nurses with ERI ≤1 at baseline, ERI >1 at follow-up was associated with baseline report of pain in the low-back (RR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.4–5.0) and neck/shoulder (RR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.3–5.1). However, there was no corresponding association with persistence of ERI in nurses who already had ERI >1 at baseline. Associations of ERI at baseline with pain at follow-up were weak.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the well-documented association between job stress and musculoskeletal pain is not explained entirely by an effect of stress on reporting of pain. It appears also that workers who report musculoskeletal pain are more likely to develop subsequent perceptions of stress. This may be because pain renders people less tolerant of the psychological demands of work. Another possibility is that reports of pain and stress are both manifestations of a general tendency to be aware of and complain about symptoms and difficulties.

Source: Bonzini, Matteo, Bertu, Lorenza, Veronesi, Giovanni, Conti, Marco, Coggon, David, & Ferrario, Marco M. (2015). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88(5), 607-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-014-0982-1

Height-adjustable workstations to reduce sedentary behaviour in office-based workers

Systematic review
Background: Time spent sitting in the workplace is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. Installation of height-adjustable workstations has been proposed as a feasible approach for reducing occupational sitting time in office workers.
Aims: To provide an accurate overview of the controlled trials that have evaluated the effects of height-adjustable workstation interventions on workplace sitting time in office-based workers.
Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted up until March 2014 in the following databases: Medline, PsychINFO, CENTRAL, EMBASE and PEDro. To identify unpublished studies and grey literature, the reference lists of relevant official or scientific web pages were also checked. Studies assessing the effectiveness of height-adjustable workstations using a randomized or non-randomized controlled design were included.
Results: The initial search yielded a total of 8497 citations. After a thorough selection process, five studies were included with 172 participants. A formal quality assessment indicated that risk of bias was high in all studies and heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes prevented meta-analysis. Nevertheless, all studies reported that height-adjustable workstation interventions reduced occupational sitting time in office workers. There was insufficient evidence to determine effects on other relevant health outcomes (e.g. body composition, musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health).
Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to make firm conclusions regarding the effects of installing height-adjustable workstations on sedentary behaviour and associated health outcomes in office workers. Larger and longer term controlled studies are needed, which include more representative populations.

Source: Tew, G.A., Posso, M.C., Arundel, C.E., & McDaid, C.M. (2015). Occupational Medicine.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqv044

A multi-faceted workplace intervention for low back pain in nurses' aides

A pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial
The present study established the effectiveness of a workplace multi-faceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioural training for low back pain. Between November 2012 and May 2014, we conducted a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial with 594 workers from eldercare workplaces (nursing homes and home care) randomized to four successive time periods, three months apart. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 19 sessions in total (physical training (12 sessions), cognitive behavioural training (2 sessions) and participatory ergonomics (5 sessions)). Low back pain was the outcome and was measured as days, intensity (worst pain on a 0-10 numeric rank scale) and bothersomeness (days) by monthly text messages. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effect. Analyses were performed according to intention to treat, including all eligible randomized participants and were adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. The linear mixed models yielded significant effects on low back pain days of -0.8 (95% confidence interval -1.19 to -0.38), low back pain intensity of -0.4 (95% confidence interval -0.60 to -0.26) and bothersomeness days of -0.5 (95% confidence interval -0.85 to -0.13) after the intervention compared to the control group. This study shows that a multi-faceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioural training can reduce low back pain among workers in eldercare. Thus, multi-faceted interventions may be relevant for improving low back pain in a working population.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial No Derivatives 3.0 License, which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially  

Source: Rasmussen CDN, Holtermann A, Bay H, et al. Pain, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000234 

Similarities between work related musculoskeletal disorders and slips, trips and falls

Most occupational risks manifest themselves through movements performed at work, for example musculoskeletal disorders, slips, trips and falls. Research focusing on such risks often differentiates diseases from accidents. All these risks prove to be diffuse, widespread, emergent and devoid of an external harmful hazard, when analysed through their common vector, i.e. through the movements manifesting them. These characteristics have a strong impact on risk perception and on approaches necessary to ensure sustainable prevention. A participative search for local solutions to preventing these risks, integrating shared risk representation and several analysis levels, would seem helpful. A balance between defended and resilience-based conceptions of health and safety should be established. Research should also be extended to enhance in-depth understanding of controls impacting worker movements when performing a task, while safeguarding health and safety.

Source: Leclercq S, Cuny-Guerrier A, Gaudez C, Aublet-Cuvelier A. Ergonomics, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2015.1031191

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