Musculoskeletal disorders of agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Southeast Spain)

In southeast Spain (Almería), we find the highest concentration of greenhouse crops in Europe, an agricultural sector that directly employs 55,000 people. The objective of this research was to evaluate the musculoskeletal working conditions of greenhouse workers through the standardized Nordic questionnaire. This questionnaire presents 28 multiple choice questions referring to different parts of the body. A total of 1002 questionnaires were completed, and information was collected on nine socio-demographic variables for each worker: sex, age, height, weight, surface area, cultivation, staking, greenhouse and nationality. Although the results show a high overall rate of symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), these findings do not mean that the workers are unable to perform agricultural tasks.

Source: López-Aragón, L., López-Liria, R., Callejón-Ferre, Á. J. et Pérez-Alonso, J. (2018). Safety Science, 109, 219-235.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.05.023

Acute Effects of Interrupting Sitting on Discomfort and Alertness of Office Workers

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 4 hours of sitting interrupted with hourly bouts of standing and/or pedaling versus uninterrupted sitting on alertness and discomfort among sedentary office workers.
Methods: Fifteen middle-aged sedentary workers were randomized to three 4-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sitting; (2) sitting interrupted with 10 minutes of standing/hour; and (3) sitting interrupted with 10 minutes of pedaling/hour. Self-reported measures of alertness and discomfort were collected.
Results: Uninterrupted sitting significantly increased discomfort (P < 0.001). Discomfort was lower in both the standing (P < 0.001) and pedaling (P < 0.001) conditions than the uninterrupted sitting condition. Short-lived improvements in alertness were observed immediately following several standing (50%) and pedaling (100%) interruptions.
Conclusion: Prolonged sitting increases discomfort while brief standing and pedaling interruptions attenuate impairments in discomfort among sedentary workers.

Source: Benzo, R. M., Kruse, N. T., Hughes, W. E., Casey, D. P. et Carr, L. J. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(9), 804-809.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001329

Participatory organizational intervention for improved use of assistive devices in patient transfer

A single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial
Objectives: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effect of a participatory organizational intervention for improved use of assistive devices (AD) in patient transfer.
Methods: We randomly allocated 27 departments from five hospitals in Denmark to a participatory intervention (14 clusters, 316 healthcare workers) or a control group (13 clusters, 309 healthcare workers). The intervention consisted of 2×2 hour workshops with managers, the hospital's health and safety staff, and 2–5 healthcare workers from each department. Based on an assessment of barriers and solutions conducted prior to randomization, participants developed an action plan for implementing department-specific solutions for improving the use of AD. Use of necessary AD (using digital counters as primary outcome), and general use of AD (using accelerometers as secondary outcome), pain intensity in the low-back, work-related back injuries during patient transfer, and communication and guidance in the use of AD were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months.
Results: Use of necessary AD (primary outcome), low-back pain, and back injuries did not change in the intervention compared with control group at 12-month follow-up. However, general use of AD measured with accelerometers as well as communication and guidance improved significantly in the intervention versus control group.
Conclusion: The intervention did not result in more frequent use of the necessary AD but led to more general use of AD, as well as increased communication and guidance.

Source: Jakobsen, M. D., Aust, B., Kines, P., Madeleine, P. et Andersen, L. L. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3769

Ergonomic interventions for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck among office workers

Work-related upper limb and neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common occupational disorders worldwide. Studies have shown that the percentage of office workers that suffer from MSDs ranges from 20 to 60 per cent. The direct and indirect costs of work-related upper limb MSDs have been reported to be high in Europe, Australia, and the United States. Although ergonomic interventions are likely to reduce the risk of office workers developing work-related upper limb and neck MSDs, the evidence is unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was last published in 2012.

Source: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008570.pub3/full

Évaluation des processus : comprendre comment le contexte des entreprises influence le déroulement des premières étapes d’interventions ergonomiques

Bien qu'il soit généralement convenu que les ergonomes adaptent leur intervention au contexte de chaque entreprise, la façon précise dont ils y parviennent et sur quels critères cette adaptation se base sont peu renseignés au plan scientifique. Une évaluation des processus a été réalisée en adoptant un devis d'étude de cas multiple, en vue d'identifier les indicateurs de contexte ayant influencé quatre interventions du courant de l'ergonomie de l'activité, réalisées par des ergonomes en formation. L'évaluation a porté sur les étapes de l'intervention précédant l'implantation des changements, soit de l'analyse de la demande jusqu'au moment où le plan d'action est convenu avec les acteurs-clés. La collecte des données a été effectuée grâce à un journal de bord, des documents produits dans le cadre de l'intervention, ainsi que des entretiens avec les intervenants et les acteurs-clés impliqués dans l'intervention. Nos résultats présentés sous forme de modèles logiques font ressortir 12 indicateurs de contexte ayant représenté des leviers ou des obstacles au déroulement de l'intervention ou au plan d'action. Des combinaisons d'indicateurs ont eu un effet synergique positif ou négatif sur les cas. Le modèle d'évaluation proposé dans cette étude interdisciplinaire pourrait être repris lors d'études subséquentes pour bonifier la compréhension de l'influence du contexte dans d'autres situations d'interventions ergonomiques.

Source: Albert, V., Vézina, N., Bilodeau, H. et Coutarel, F. (2018). Activités, (15-2).
https://journals.openedition.org/activites/3411

Intégration de la préparation physique dans l’approche ergonomique

Quel dispositif pour quel(s) objectif(s)?
L'article présente un cas d'intervention ergonomique proposant la préparation physiologique des ouvriers comme levier de prévention des Troubles Musculo-Squelettiques dans le secteur agroalimentaire. Dans une entreprise dont les activités présentent de fortes contraintes organisationnelles et physiologiques, la place des marges de manœuvre dans un tel dispositif est questionnée. La mise en œuvre d'échauffements au sein d'une entreprise nécessite d'une part de disposer de compétences tant ergonomiques que sur la préparation physiologique. D'autre part, l'intégration des échauffements, forme de préparation physiologique ici mise en œuvre, imposerait une construction sociale spécifique de l'intervention. Enfin, les conditions de réussite du projet tant du point de vue des intervenants que de l'entreprise devraient être posées au préalable afin de garantir le succès du dispositif global de prévention.

Source: Uguen, C., Sablon, S. et Carballeda, G. (2018). Activités, (15-2).
https://journals.openedition.org/activites/3537

Intervention, conception et transformations : comment construire une prévention durable des TMS

Cet article a pour but de participer aux réflexions sur le rôle de l'ergonome dans l'intervention en entreprise. Il présente une intervention-formation relative à la prévention de la pénibilité et des TMS au travail. Cette intervention, menée comme une conduite de projet, s'est basée sur l'adoption de principes fondamentaux pour l'ergonomie dite centrée sur l'activité (Daniellou & Rabardel, 2005). Ces principes portent sur (1) la conception et la pérennisation des démarches de prévention durable, (2) la conduite et l'efficacité des interventions en ergonomie. Sur la base de ce corps de connaissances et de nos pratiques d'intervention antérieures, nous postulons que la mobilisation des acteurs et la transformation des représentations/perceptions sur le travail et la santé participent à l'augmentation du pouvoir d'agir des acteurs en matière de prévention. Ces principes sont illustrés et discutés à partir des résultats d'une intervention menée dans un abattoir de canards.

Source: Ciccone, E., Cuvelier, L., Decortis, F. et Bationo-Tillon, A. (2018). Activités, (15-2).
https://journals.openedition.org/activites/3450

Recurrent back pain during working life and exit from paid employment

A 28-year follow-up of the Whitehall II Study
Objectives To examine the impact of recurrent, as compared with single, reports of back pain on exit from paid employment over decades of follow-up.
Methods The study sample was from the British Whitehall II Study cohort (n=8665, 69% men, aged 35–55 at baseline), who had provided information about their reports of back pain between 1985 and 1994. Data about exit from paid employment (health-related and non-health related exit, unemployment and other exit) were collected between 1995 and 2013. Repeated measures logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations, and adjust for covariates.
Results Recurrent pain was reported by 18% of participants, while 26% reported pain on an occasion and 56% did not report pain. Report of back pain on an occasion was not associated with health-related job exit, whereas recurrent pain was associated with such an exit (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.99), when compared with those who did not report pain. These associations were somewhat stronger among middle-grade and lower-grade employees, while these associations were not seen among higher-grade employees. Differences in associations by age and psychosocial working conditions were small.
Conclusions These results highlight the need for early detection of recurrent back pain to prevent exit out of paid employment for health reasons. As the risk varies by occupational grade, this emphasises the importance of identification of high-risk groups and finding ways to address their modifiable risk factors.

Source: Lallukka, T., Mänty, M., Cooper, C., Fleischmann, M., Kouvonen, A., Walker-Bone, K. E., ... et Halonen, J. I. (2018). Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 75(11), 786-791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2018-105202

Démarche multidisciplinaire appliquée à l’analyse d’une activité dans un environnement dynamique

La conduite de véhicules légers à La Poste pour la distribution du courrier et des colis
Activité complexe différente de la conduite personnelle, la conduite professionnelle de véhicules légers prend une importance croissante dans le secteur de la livraison/messagerie confronté aux nouveaux modes de consommation. Peu étudiés, les risques pour la santé autres que les accidents de la route ont été approchés dans une étude exploratoire multidisciplinaire menée en collaboration avec le groupe La Poste. Son objectif a été d'explorer, en situation de travail, les différentes composantes de l'activité de distribution de courrier/colis, et particulièrement l'activité de conduite comme partie structurante de l'activité de distribution. La démarche méthodologique alliant des analyses ergonomiques et une approche médicale a mis en évidence des contraintes ainsi que des plaintes en relation principalement avec les caractéristiques des tournées de distribution. Ces résultats ont permis d'orienter la construction d'une étude épidémiologique visant à analyser les facteurs de risque spécifiques à la conduite de véhicules légers dans les activités de distribution.

Source: Hella, F., Radauceanu, A., Atain-Kouadio, J. J., Payet, R. et Colin, R. (2018). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, (20-2).
https://journals.openedition.org/pistes/5733

Bi-directional relation between effort-reward imbalance and risk of neck-shoulder pain

Assessment of mediation through depressive symptoms using occupational longitudinal data
Objectives: Bi-directional associations between perceived effort?reward imbalance (ERI) at work and neckshoulder pain have been reported. There is also evidence of associations between ERI and depressive symptoms, and between depressive symptoms and pain while the links between ERI, depressive symptoms and pain have not been tested. We aimed to assess whether depressive symptoms mediate the association between ERI and neck-shoulder pain, as well as the association between neck-shoulder pain and ERI.
Methods: We used prospective data from three consecutive surveys of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study. ERI was assessed with a short version of the ERI questionnaire, and pain was defined as having had neck-shoulder pain that affected daily life during the past three months. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a continuous scale based on six-items of the (Hopkins) Symptom Checklist. Counterfactual mediation analyses were applied using exposure measures from 2010/2012 (T1), depressive symptoms from 2012/2014 (T2), and outcomes from 2014/2016 (T3), and including only those free of outcome at T1 and T2 (N=2876?3239).
Results: ERI was associated with a higher risk of neck-shoulder pain [risk ratio (RR) for total effect 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.50] and 40% of this total effect was mediated through depressive symptoms.
Corresponding RR for association between neck-shoulder pain and ERI was 1.36 (95% CI 1.13–1.65), but the mediating role of depressive symptoms was less consistent.
Conclusions: Depressive symptoms appear to be an intermediate factor in the relationship between ERI and neck-shoulder pain.

Source: Halonen, J. I., Lallukka, T., Virtanen, M., Rod, N. H. et Hanson, L. L. M. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3768

Comorbid symptoms of depression and musculoskeletal pain and risk of long term sickness absence

Background: Symptoms of depression and musculoskeletal pain have both been found to be associated with increased risk of long term sickness absence (LTSA). The comorbidity between depression and pain i.e. simultaneous presence of both symptoms, is well established in the literature. The aim for the current investigation was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid pain influences the associations between depressive symptoms and LTSA or if the presence of comorbid depressive symptoms influences associations between musculoskeletal pain and LTSA.
Methods: A sample of 6572 Danish female health care workers responding to a questionnaire about health and working conditions were followed up in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM) for 550 days. We estimated the risk for LTSA of four weeks or more, associated with depressive symptoms and number of musculoskeletal pain locations using a Cox proportional hazards model allowing multiple observations per individual. We conducted a test for multiplicative interaction between musculoskeletal pain locations and depressive symptoms, and presented stratified regression models to facilitate the interpretation of the results.
Results: The severity of depressive symptoms was correlated with the number of pain locations reported (Spearman's rho = .24, p < 0.001). We found a significant multiplicative interaction between depressive symptoms and musculoskeletal pain in predicting the risk of LTSA. Depressive symptoms and number of musculoskeletal pain locations were associated with increased risk of LTSA for individuals who did not have comorbid symptoms. However, we found no significant associations between the two predictors and LTSA among participants who reported comorbid symptoms.
Conclusions: The risk of LTSA associated with depressive symptoms and musculoskeletal pain appears to be moderated by the presence of comorbid symptoms. The modified risk for LTSA among workers with comorbid symptoms requires further investigation.

Source: Melkevik, O., Clausen, T., Pedersen, J., Garde, A. H., Holtermann, A. et Rugulies, R. (2018). BMC public health, 18(1).
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5740-y

Overall risk index for patient transfers in total assistance mode executed by emergency medical technician-paramedics in real work situations

Few studies have quantified the risk of musculoskeletal disorders during patient transfers in total assistance mode in real-life prehospital emergency care situations. An index to assess the overall risk of patient transfers was created; it makes it possible to quantify risk based on the patient's position and the height of the patient's location. An analysis of 71 transfers executed by paramedics in actual work situations showed that moving a patient from the ground was characterized by acute sagittal flexions and axial rotations, respectively, 42% and 12% of the time. When the patient was lying on a raised surface, the lifting index and perceived exertion were the lowest (2.55; easy). According to the overall risk index, patient transfers from the ground are the riskiest. Paramedics execute many risky lifts even in favorable patient handling contexts.

Source: Larouche, D., Bellemare, M., Prairie, J., Hegg-Deloye, S. et Corbeil, P. (2019). Applied Ergonomics, 74, 177-185.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.08.029

A comparison of lumbar spine and muscle loading between male and female workers during box transfers

There is a clear relationship between lumbar spine loading and back musculoskeletal disorders in manual materials handling. The incidence of back disorders is greater in women than men, and for similar work demands females are functioning closer to their physiological limit. It is crucial to study loading on the spine musculoskeletal system with actual handlers, including females, to better understand the risk of back disorders. Extrapolation from biomechanical studies conducted on unexperienced subjects (mainly males) might not be applicable to actual female workers. For male workers, expertise changes the lumbar spine flexion, passive spine resistance, and active/passive muscle forces. However, experienced females select similar postures to those of novices when spine loading is critical. This study proposes that the techniques adopted by male experts, male novices, and females (with considerable experience but not categorized as experts) impact their lumbar spine musculoskeletal systems differently. Spinal loads, muscle forces, and passive resistance (muscle and ligamentous spine) were predicted by a multi-joint EMG-assisted optimization musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine. Expert males flexed their lumbar spine less (avg. 21.9° vs 30.3-31.7°) and showed decreased passive internal moments (muscle avg. 8.9 % vs 15.9-16.0 %; spine avg. 4.7 % vs 7.1-7.8 %) and increased active internal moments (avg. 72.9 % vs 62.0-63.9 %), thus producing a different impact on their lumbar spine musculoskeletal systems. Experienced females sustained the highest relative spine loads (compression avg. 7.3 N/BW vs 6.2-6.4 N/BW; shear avg. 2.3 N/BW vs 1.7-1.8 N/BW) in addition to passive muscle and ligamentous spine resistance similar to novices. Combined with smaller body size, less strength, and the sequential lifting technique used by females, this could potentially mean greater risk of back injury. Workers should be trained early to limit excessive and repetitive stretching of their lumbar spine passive tissues.

Source: Gagnon, D., Plamondon, A. et Larivière, C. (2018). Journal of Biomechanics.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.09.017

Two-dimensional biomechanical thumb model for pipetting

Manual pipetting imposes repetitive movements, high force, and awkward postures on the thumb, fingers, and wrist, increasing the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study is to provide a linear regression model to estimate the optimal pipetting grip height based on the two-dimensional biomechanical static thumb model developed in this study. This biomechanical static thumb model uses hand anatomy and static equilibrium conditions to estimate internal tendon forces against a given external force. Based on the model, we conclude that the optimal grip height is 3 cm in males and 2 cm in females in terms of grip strength and force efficiency. In addition, the model is validated by RMS EMG data from correlation analysis between the predicted internal tendon forces, with RMS EMG values of 0.65 for Flexor Pollicis Longus, 0.57 for Flexor Pollicis Brevis, and 0.61 for Adductor Pollicis.

Source: Kim, E. et Freivalds, A. (2018). International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 68, 165-175.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.07.008

An ergonomic field study to evaluate the effects of a rotatable handle piece on muscular stress and fatigue as well as subjective ratings of usability, wrist posture and precision during laparoscopic surgery

An explorative pilot study
Purpose: The interface between surgeon and the laparoscopic instrument is an important factor in biomechanical stress that may increase the risk of musculoskeletal complaints in surgeons. This article investigates the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on muscular stress and fatigue during routine laparoscopic procedures (LP) as well as usability, wrist posture and working precision.
Methods: 40 LP (subtotal hysterectomies) performed by 11 surgeons were investigated. 20 LP were carried out with the rot-HP and 20 with a fixed (standard) laparoscopic handle piece instrument. Shoulder and arm muscle activity was monitored via surface electromyography (sEMG). The electrical activity (EA) and median power frequency (MPF) were used to determine muscular stress and fatigue. Usability, wrist posture, and working precision between handle piece conditions were assessed by a survey.
Results: Using the rot-HP did not reduce muscular stress. A tendency of muscular fatigue (increasing EA, decreasing MPF) occurred in the upper trapezius, middle deltoid and extensor digitorum muscles; however, no differences were found between handle pieces. Wrist posture was more comfortable using the rot-HP and working precision and usability tended to be preferred using the standard handle piece.
Conclusions: Although wrist posture seemed to be optimized by the rot-HP, no effect on muscular stress and fatigue was observed in routine LP (< 60 min duration). Optimization of wrist posture may provide positive effects in mid- or long-term procedures. However, sufficient familiarization with the new instrument is crucial since working precision and usability could be impaired.

Source: Kraemer, B., Seibt, R., Stoffels, A. K., Rothmund, R., Brucker, S. Y., Rieger, M. A. et Steinhilber, B. (2018). International archives of occupational and environmental health.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-018-1344-1

The influence of external load configuration on trunk biomechanics and spinal loading during sudden loading

Sudden loading is a major risk factor for work-related lower back injuries among occupations involving manual material handling (MMH). The current study explored the effects of external weight configuration on trunk biomechanics and trunk rotational stiffness in the sagittal plane during sudden loading. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers experienced sudden loadings using the same magnitude of weight (9 kg) with two different configurations (medially- or laterally-distributed) at three levels of height (low, middle and high). Results of this study showed that the medially distributed weight resulted in a significantly higher peak L5/S1 joint compression force (2861 N vs. 2694 N) and trunk rotational stiffness (2413 Nm/rad vs. 1785 Nm/rad) compared to the laterally distributed weight. It was concluded that when experiencing sudden loading, a more laterally distributed weight could increase the load's resistance to physical perturbations and alleviate spinal loading during sudden loading events.

Source: Madinei, S., Motabar, H. et Ning, X. (2018). Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2018.1489068

What do Workers do to Reduce Their Sitting Time?

The Relationships of Strategy use and Workplace Support with Desk-Based Workers' Behaviour Changes in a Workplace-Delivered Sitting-Reduction and Activity-Promoting Intervention
Objective: To explore workers' sitting-reduction and activity-promoting strategy use following an intervention targeting these changes, and whether strategy use and perceived workplace support impacted on three-month sitting and activity outcomes.
Methods: This secondary analysis in desk-based workers (n = 83) utilised data collected on questionnaire-derived strategy use and workplace support, and activPAL3TM-derived sitting (total; prolonged, ≥30mins) and activity (standing; stepping) at work.
Results: Fourteen strategies were commonly used during the intervention. Increased usage of some strategies were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with beneficial changes in prolonged sitting or stepping only. Workplace support was significantly beneficially associated with changes in sitting, prolonged sitting, and stepping; these associations were largely independent of strategy use changes.
Conclusions: Strategies were highly used, with increased use associated with some behavioural improvements. Workplace support appears essential for improving sitting and activity in the workplace.

Source: Brakenridge, C. L., Healy, G. N., Winkler, E. A. et Fjeldsoe, B. S. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001419

Anthropometry of the Canadian adult population

Developing comprehensive, updated normative-reference standards
Introduction: Applications of structural anthropometric measurements include user-centered design, health risk appraisal and assessment of biological maturity. It is important that anthropometric normative-reference standards are current, comprehensive, and population specific. Previous work by Pheasant (1996) included thirty-six anthropometric measurements to create a comprehensive and comparable list of data. However, Canadian studies have included nineteen or less body dimensions, and relatively small sample sizes. The aims of this investigation were to create current and comprehensive anthropometric normative-reference standards for a young Canadian adult population and to analyze the differences in anthropometric data between subjects in this study and those of a previous study on a similar population.
Methods: Thirty-six structural body dimensions were manually measured on a sample size of 197 male and 204 female Ontario, Canada university-aged subjects. Descriptive statistics were reported based on sex and independent samples t-tests were used to compare the anthropometric dimensions of the current study with that of a similar, previous study on Nova Scotia, Canada university-aged subjects.
Results: Percentiles and standard deviations of the subjects' 36 body dimensions were tabulated and are reported based on sex. For example, male and female 50th percentile values for stature are 1783?mm and 1641?mm, respectively. All differences in body dimensions between both male populations were statistically significant at p?<?0.01. All but four differences in body dimensions between both female populations were statistically significant at p?<?0.01.
Discussion & Conclusions: The current study was able to present anthropometric normative-reference standards of a large Canadian sample that are more comprehensive and current than known to exist. Moreover, as there were many significant differences between the current (Ontario) and previous (Nova Scotia) populations' anthropometric data, it is suggested that a Canada wide study be investigated.

Source: Deneau, J., van Wyk, P. M., Mallender, M. et Duquette, A. (2018). International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 68, 199-204.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.08.001

Surveillance de la lombalgie en lien avec le travail

Comparaison de quatre sources de données et perspectives pour la prévention
•Quatre sources de données sur les lombalgies en lien avec le travail sont comparées dans les Pays de la Loire : trois issues du réseau multi-volets de surveillance épidémiologique des TMS de Santé publique France et de l’Université d’Angers, et une issue du système de réparation des maladies professionnelles de l’Assurance maladie.
•Pour chaque source, les secteurs d’activité prioritaires pour la prévention ont été identifés à partir des taux de fréquence par secteurs d’activité et de l’indice de prévention, puis les résultats ont été comparés entre sources.
•Chez les hommes, les secteurs de la construction, de l’industrie manufacturière, des transports et communications et de l’agriculture ressortaient pour les 4 sources amenant à les cibler prioritairement pour les actions de prévention alors que chez les femmes, le secteur de l’industrie manufacturière, le secteur de la santé, action sociale, et le secteur du commerce devaient être prioritaires en termes d’actions de prévention des lomboradiculalgies.
•Les résultats sont cohérents et complémentaires, cependant l’utilisation d’une source unique pour la surveillance nationale des lombalgies pour orienter la prévention ne refèterait qu’un aspect du problème.
•Au niveau national, l’utilisation combinée de plusieurs sources de surveillance, chacune avec sa pertinence et ses limites, permet de détecter les secteurs d’activité à cibler de façon prioritaire et mettre en oeuvre des programmes de prévention.
•D’autres indicateurs, et notamment les arrêts de travail prolongés et le coût engendré par ces arrêts, auraient tout leur intérêt pour la surveillance nationale des lombalgies en lien avec le travail utile pour la mise en place de programmes de prévention.

Source: http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/Publications-et-outils/Rapports-et-syntheses/Travail-et-sante/2018/Surveillance-de-la-lombalgie-en-lien-avec-le-travail-comparaison-de-quatre-sources-de-donnees-et-perspectives-pour-la-prevention

Overall risk index for patient transfers in total assistance mode executed by emergency medical technician-paramedics in real work situations

Few studies have quantified the risk of musculoskeletal disorders during patient transfers in total assistance mode in real-life prehospital emergency care situations. An index to assess the overall risk of patient transfers was created; it makes it possible to quantify risk based on the patient's position and the height of the patient's location. An analysis of 71 transfers executed by paramedics in actual work situations showed that moving a patient from the ground was characterized by acute sagittal flexions and axial rotations, respectively, 42% and 12% of the time. When the patient was lying on a raised surface, the lifting index and perceived exertion were the lowest (2.55; easy). According to the overall risk index, patient transfers from the ground are the riskiest. Paramedics execute many risky lifts even in favorable patient handling contexts.

Source: Larouche, D., Bellemare, M., Prairie, J., Hegg-Deloye, S. et Corbeil, P. (2019). Applied Ergonomics, 74, 177-185.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.08.029

Occupational biomechanical risk factors for surgically treated ulnar nerve entrapment in a prospective study of male construction workers

Evidence was provided for forceful hand-grip work, with and without vibration, as a risk factor for ulnar nerve entrapment (UNE) surgery in a large cohort of Swedish construction  workers. Several individual biomechanical factors comprising such work were associated with increased risk of UNE, including: increased grip force, upper extremity load, frequency of hand-held tool use, and hand arm vibration.

Source: Jackson, J. A., Olsson, D., Punnett, L., Burdorf, A., Järvholm, B. et Wahlström, J. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3757

The impact of workplace ergonomics and neck-specific exercise versus ergonomics and health promotion interventions on office worker productivity

A cluster-randomized trial
A 12-week workplace combined ergonomics and neck-specific exercise intervention improves sickness presenteeism and monetized health-related productivity loss among a general population of office workers and longer-term sickness absenteeism for those with neck pain, when compared to ergonomics and health promotion education combined. This study provides employers of office workers sought-after evidence of health-related productivity benefit from such workplace interventions.

Source: Pereira, M., Comans, T., Sjøgaard, G., Straker, L., Melloh, M., O'Leary, S., ... et Johnston, V. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3760

Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce office workers’ sitting time: the "Stand Up Victoria" trial

Multicomponent intervention involving a sit-and-stand desk can reduce sitting time and increase the standing and stepping time during the working hours for office-based workers, and it is likely to promote the cardiovascular fitness. It is cost-effective in the long-term from a societal perspective. This study provides important evidence for policy-makers and workplaces regarding allocation of resources to reduce workplace sitting.

Source: Gao, L., Flego, A., Dunstan, D. W., Winkler, E. A., Healy, G. N., Eakin, E. G., ... et Wiesner, G. H. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3740

Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring

Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to vinyl overlay by 22–49% over a concrete subfloor and by 8–20% over a compliant subfloor. Compliant subflooring increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring by 18–31% when under a vinyl overlay. In contrast, compliant flooring caused no change in initial or sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring when under a carpet overlay.

Source: Lachance, C. C., Korall, A. M., Russell, C. M., Feldman, F., Robinovitch, S. N. et Mackey, D. C. (2018). Applied ergonomics, 71, 95-101.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.04.009

Conceptual frameworks for the workplace change adoption process

Elements integration from decision making and learning cycle process
Sound workplace ergonomics and safety-related interventions may be resisted by employees, and this may be detrimental to multiple stakeholders. Understanding fundamental aspects of decision-making, behavioural change, and learning cycles may provide insights into pathways influencing employees' acceptance of interventions. This manuscript reviews published literature on thinking processes and other topics relevant to decision making and incorporates the findings into two new conceptual frameworks of the workplace change adoption process. Such frameworks are useful for thinking about adoption in different ways and testing changes to traditional intervention implementation processes. Moving forward, it is recommended that future research focuses on systematic exploration of implementation process activities that integrate principles from the research literature on sense-making, decision-making, and learning processes. Such exploration may provide the groundwork for development of specific implementation strategies that are theoretically grounded and provide a revised understanding of how successful intervention adoption processes work.

Source: Radin Umar, R. Z., Sommerich, C. M., Lavender, S. A., Sanders, E. et Evans, K. D. (2018). Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2018.1475016

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