Objectives: Prolonged sitting is a health risk for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Epidemiological evaluation of occupational sitting has received little attention, even though it may have a potential impact on workers' health. We prospectively examined the association between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality.
Methods: Community-dwelling, Japanese workers aged 50–74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 2000–2003 were followed for all-cause mortality through 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) of all-cause mortality among middle (1 to <3 hours/day) or longer (≥≥3 hours/day) occupationally sedentary subjects by gender or types of engaging industry (“primary industry” and “secondary or tertiary industry”).
Results: During 368 120 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up period, 10.1 years) for the 36 516 subjects, 2209 deaths were identified. Among workers in primary industry, longer duration of occupational sitting was significantly or marginally associated with higher mortality [HR 1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00–1.51 among men; HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97–1.84 among women]. No associations were found among secondary or tertiary industry workers (men: HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75–1.01; women: HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77–1.39).
Conclusions: Occupational sitting time increased all-cause mortality among primary industry workers, however similar relationships were not observed for secondary-tertiary workers. Future studies are needed to confirm detailed dose–response relationships by using objective measures. In addition, studies using cause-specific mortality data would be important to clarify the physiological underlying mechanism.
Source: Kikuchi H, Inoue S, Odagiri Y, Inoue M, Sawada N, Tsugane S. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2015.
Bilan des connaissances
Les atteintes musculosquelettiques de l'épaule constituent une problématique importante au sein de la population générale, et particulièrement chez les travailleurs. Ce type d'atteintes affecte le statut fonctionnel de l'épaule et la qualité de vie des personnes et peut entrainer, chez les travailleurs, des problématiques d'absentéisme ou des pertes de productivité. Les travailleurs effectuant des tâches avec les bras au-dessus des épaules ou des tâches répétitives présentent un risque plus important de développer une lésion à l'épaule, particulièrement une atteinte de la coiffe des rotateurs (CR). Pour la période 2005-2007, les coûts totaux générés annuellement par les lésions aux épaules acceptées par la Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST), incluant les coûts humains et ceux associés aux pertes de productivité, se chiffraient à 393 204 738$.
Devant l'importance de cette problématique, un vaste bilan des connaissances a été effectué sur plusieurs aspects liés aux atteintes de la CR. L'objectif principal de ce bilan des connaissances était de synthétiser les données probantes et de formuler des recommandations concernant les outils diagnostiques et d'évaluation clinique, les interventions thérapeutiques ainsi que les interventions en milieu de travail pour les travailleurs souffrant d'une atteinte de la CR. Des revues systématiques ou des méta-analyses de la littérature pertinente ont été effectuées pour chacun de ces thèmes. Plusieurs acteurs du réseau ont contribué à dresser ce bilan, soit des chercheurs, des collaborateurs et des cliniciens.
When your safety and your life depends on it, you need your equipment to fit properly. This is especially true in the workplace. Improper fit may prevent workers from performing their job duties safely and effectively. If your respirator does not seal properly to your face, if your gloves are too big, if your seatbelt cannot buckle with your safety gear on . . . you get the picture.
Anthropometry is the science of defining human body dimensions and physical characteristics. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts anthropometric research to prevent work-related injuries and deaths by studying how work spaces and equipment fit today's diverse worker population. This includes the fit of machines, vehicles, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Much of the available data were collected in the 1950s and 1970s from military personnel and the general population from that era. These decades-old data do not represent, on average and collectively, the sizes and body types of today's workers, who are much more diverse in age, gender, and ethnicity. NIOSH research has shown workers have unique shapes and sizes for specific occupations.
This study of home care workers in a Norwegian municipality aimed to examine the effect of two measures involving organizational (job checklists) and technological (personal digital assistants) job aids on perceived work demands and musculoskeletal health. Questionnaire data was collected in 2009 (n = 138, response rate 76.2%) and 2011 (n = 80, response rate 54%). Forty-six home care workers responded at both waves. Respondents were assigned into ‘high', ‘moderate' and ‘low' strain groups based on their responses to open and closed survey questions regarding impact of the two measures. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc t-tests and regression analyses investigated group differences and examined development in variables. Perceived work demands and health effects over the two-year study period were unchanged overall, yet significant differences between subgroups were highlighted. Work demands and shoulder-neck pain remained high for high-strain workers, but were reduced for low and moderate strain workers. Management should be aware of diversity in worker responses to rationalizations and give priority to supplementary, targeted measures to counteract adverse effects.
Source: Andersen, Gunn Robstad, Bendal, Synne, & Westgaard, Rolf H. (2015). Applied Ergonomics, 51, 172-179.
A Comparison of Risk Factors for Symptoms Using Quality of Work Life Data From the 2002, 2006, and 2010 General Social Survey
Objective: To report trends for the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.
Methods: Three Quality of Work Life surveys examine the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders.
Results: Findings similar for several risk factors, but differences across the reporting years may reflect economic conditions. Respondent numbers in 2010 were reduced, some risk factors had pattern changes, and there were sex and age differences. Trend analysis showed most significant changes were for the “work fast” risk factor. New 2010 “physical effort” item showed sex differences, and items reflective of total worker health showed strong associations with “back pain” and “pain in arms.”
Conclusions: Intervention strategies should focus on physical exposures and psychosocial risk factors (work stress, safety climate, job satisfaction, supervisor support, work fast, work freedom, work time) that have been consistently related to reports of musculoskeletal disorders. Economic conditions will influence some psychosocial risk factors.
Source: ***, Robert B.; Lowe, Brian D.; Lu, Ming-Lun; Krieg, Edward F. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Médicine, August 2015, Volume 57, Issue 8, p. 910-928.
A measure of operational performance and employee well-being
Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being.
Source: Krista Hoffmeister, Alyssa Gibbons, Natalie Schwatka, John Rosecrance. Applied Ergonomics, Volume 50, September 2015, p. 160-169.
A scoping review of practices, approaches, and techniques
The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the current research evidence on approaches to preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Databases in business, engineering, and health and safety were searched and 718 potentially relevant publications were identified and examined for their relevance. Twenty-one papers met the selection criteria and were subjected to thematic analysis. There was very little literature describing the integration of MSD risk assessment and prevention into management systems. This lack of information may isolate MSD prevention, leading to difficulties in preventing these disorders at an organizational level. The findings of this review argue for further research to integrate MSD prevention into management systems and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.
Source: Yazdani, Amin, Neumann, W. Patrick, Imbeau, Daniel, Bigelow, Philip, Pagell, Mark, & Wells, Richard. (2015). Applied Ergonomics, 51, p. 255-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2015.05.006
La journée technique organisée par l'INRS, en partenariat avec l'Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux (Ifsttar), avait pour objectif de montrer les atouts et les limites des logiciels de conception des postes de travail utilisant des mannequins numériques. Des retours d'expérience et des résultats d'études ont permis de confronter les fonctionnalités proposées par les éditeurs aux besoins des industriels.
Cette publication vise à documenter les lésions attribuables aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) en milieu de travail sous les aspects administratif, médical et socio-économique, dans un souci de qualité et d'uniformité des informations transmises sur le sujet. Les données qu'elle contient sont tirées des banques informationnelles de la CSST.
This report estimates work productivity loss due to musculoskeletal pain in 23-year-old workers in Western Australia based on findings from the longitudinal Raine Study.
The report ascertains the prevalence of diagnosed back and neck pain among young workers, provides estimates of work productivity loss among young workers and examines the impact of musculoskeletal pain specifically on work productivity. Productivity measures used in this report are absenteeism due to health reasons, absenteeism due to any other reason, and presenteeism. The report also assesses the prevalence of psychological conditions, such as depression and anxiety, among young people.
This research report has been written to inform the development of work health and safety policies. The views and conclusions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of Safe Work Australia Members.
Le présent document définit les exigences à intégrer lors de la conception des cabines de tri manuel des déchets recyclables secs ménagers et assimilés issus des collectes sélectives. Ces exigences sont relatives aux structures, aux matériels, aux espaces et aux postes de travail nécessaires pour réaliser l'activité de séparation manuelle de ces déchets effectuée sur des tables de tri en cabine.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dynamic office chair to activate the core muscles while participants performed exercises sitting on the chair compared to a stability ball.
Background: Prolonged sitting has become an accepted part of the modern office. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that sedentary postures are linked to many adverse effects on health. The concept of dynamic or active sitting is intended to promote movement while sitting to reduce the time spent in prolonged, static postures.
Methods: Sixteen participants performed four pelvic rotation exercises (front-back, side-side, circular, and leg lift) on both a dynamic office chair and a stability ball. Muscle activity from 12 torso muscles were evaluated with surface electromyography.
Results: For all exercises, trunk muscle activity on the chair was comparable to that on a stability ball. The right external oblique was the only muscle to produce greater peak activity (p = .019) when using the ball compared to the chair (21.4 ± 14.0 percent maximal voluntary excitations (%MVE) and 14.7 ± 10.8 %MVE for the ball and chair, respectively). The left thoracic erector spinae produced greater average activity (p = .044) on the chair than on the ball.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that this dynamic sitting approach could be an effective tool for core muscle activation while promoting movement and exercise while sitting at work.
Application: Muscle activations on the dynamic chair are comparable to those on a stability ball, and dynamic office chairs can promote movement and exercise while sitting at work.
Source: Holmes, Michael W.R., De Carvalho, Diana E., Karakolis, Thomas, & Callaghan, Jack P. Human Factors, 2015.
Objective: The aims of this study were to determine long-term fatigue effects in the lower limbs associated with standing work and to estimate possible age and gender influences.
Background: The progressive accumulation of muscle fatigue effects is assumed to lead to musculoskeletal disorders, as fatigue generated by sustained low-level exertions exhibits long-lasting effects. However, these effects have received little attention in the lower limbs.
Method: Fourteen men and 12 women from two different age groups simulated standing work for 5 hr including 5-min seated rest breaks and a 30-min lunch. The younger group was also tested in a control day. Muscle fatigue was quantified by electrically induced muscle twitches (muscle twitch force [MTF]), postural stability, and subjective evaluation of discomfort.
Results: MTF showed a significant fatigue effect after standing work that persisted beyond 30 min after the end of the workday. MTF was not affected on the control day. The center of pressure displacement speed increased significantly over time after standing work but was also affected on the control day. Subjective evaluations of discomfort indicated a significant increase in perception of fatigue immediately after the end of standing work; however, this perception did not persist 30 min after. Age and gender did not influence fatigue.
Conclusion: Objective measures show the long-term effects of muscle fatigue after 5 hr of standing work; however, this fatigue is no longer perceived after 30 min of rest postwork.
Application: The present results suggest that occupational activities requiring prolonged standing are likely to contribute to lower-extremity and/or back disorders.
Source: Garcia, Maria-Gabriela, & Läubli, Thomas. Human Factors, 2015.
Prevalence and Risk Factors
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. Method: A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. Results: A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x2(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Conclusion: Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.
Source: Alnaser MZ. J. Occup. Rehabil. June 2015.
Dans cette brochure, les propriétaires d’exploitations agricoles et les travailleurs trouveront une description générale des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) et de leurs stades de développement. On y propose également des moyens de prévention à appliquer pour prévenir les TMS et une méthode d’évaluation des risques. Finalement, on y trace un portrait des TMS dans le secteur de l’agriculture et on y décrit des situations de travail propres au secteur de même que les risques de TMS que ces dernières comportent.
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