Dose-response relationship between cumulative physical workload and osteoarthritis of the hip

A meta-analysis applying an external reference population for exposure assignment
Background: There is consistent evidence from observational studies of an association between occupational lifting and carrying of heavy loads and the diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis. However, due to the heterogeneity of exposure estimates considered in single studies, a dose-response relationship between cumulative physical workload and hip osteoarthritis could not be determined so far.
Methods: This study aimed to analyze the dose-response relationship between cumulative physical workload and hip osteoarthritis by replacing the exposure categories of the included studies with cumulative exposure values of an external reference population. Our meta-regression analysis was based on a recently conducted systematic review (Bergmann A, Bolm-Audorff U, Krone D, Seidler A, Liebers F, Haerting J, Freiberg A, Unverzagt S, Dtsch Arztebl Int 114:581–8, 2017). The main analysis of our meta-regression comprised six case-control studies for men and five for women. The population control subjects of a German multicentre case-control study (Seidler A, Bergmann A, Jäger M, Ellegast R, Ditchen D, Elsner G, Grifka J, Haerting J, Hofmann F, Linhardt O, Luttmann A, Michaelis M, Petereit-Haack G, Schumann B, Bolm-Audorff U, BMC Musculoskelet Disord 10:48, 2009) served as the reference population. Based on the sex-specific cumulative exposure percentiles of the reference population, we assigned exposure values to each category of the included studies using three different cumulative exposure parameters. To estimate the doubling dose (the amount of physical workload to double the risk of hip osteoarthritis) on the basis of all available case-control-studies, meta-regression analyses were conducted based on the linear association between exposure values of the reference population and the logarithm of reported odds ratios (ORs) from the included studies.
Results: In men, the risk to develop hip osteoarthritis was increased by an OR of 1.98 (95% CI 1.20–3.29) per 10,000 tons of weights ≥20 kg handled, 2.08 (95% CI 1.22–3.53) per 10,000 tons handled > 10 times per day and 8.64 (95% CI 1.87–39.91) per 106 operations. These estimations result in doubling dosages of 10,100 tons of weights ≥20 kg handled, 9500 tons ≥20 kg handled > 10 times per day and 321,400 operations of weights ≥20 kg. There was no linear association between manual handling of weights at work and risk to develop hip osteoarthritis in women.
Conclusions: Under specific conditions, the application of an external reference population allows for the derivation of a dose-response relationship despite high exposure heterogeneities in the pooled studies.

Source: Seidler, A., Lüben, L., Hegewald, J., Bolm-Audorff, U., Bergmann, A., Liebers, F., ... et Unverzagt, S. (2018). BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 19(1).
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-018-2085-8

Aide et soin à la personne - Dossier

En France, plus de 3,5 millions de professionnels travaillent dans l'aide et le soin à la personne. Ce secteur, qui emploie majoritairement du personnel féminin, est toujours en pleine croissance et marqué par une grande diversité d'acteurs. Certains exercent en établissement, d'autres au domicile d'un bénéficiaire avec, d'un lieu à l'autre, des conditions d'intervention et des moyens extrêmement variables.

Source: (2018). Travail & sécurité (794).
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ts/dossier/Aide%20et%20soin%20à%20la%20personne.html

Appropriation et transfert par des formateurs d’une nouvelle approche de prévention en manutention axée sur l’utilisation de principes d’action

Prenant acte du constat d'échec des formations à la manutention axées sur l'enseignement exclusif de la technique sécuritaire « dos droit – genoux fléchis », une nouvelle approche d'intervention dite « stratégie intégrée de prévention en manutention » (SIPM) a été proposée en 2011. Son originalité repose, entre autres, sur l'utilisation de neuf principes d'action permettant de comprendre et de commenter la richesse des techniques de manutention utilisées naturellement par les manutentionnaires dans leur milieu de travail. L'étude a pour objectif central d'évaluer l'appropriation et le transfert de la SIPM par un groupe d'intervenants formés à cette approche lors d'interventions naturelles en contextes réels.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100992/n/appropriation-transfert-prevention-manutention-utilisation-principes-action

Ergonomic and psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal complaints in public sector administration

A joint monitoring approach with analysis of association
Administration entails a high level of computerization with multiple risk factors (including psychosocial and of ergonomic nature), affecting worker health and well-being. An ergonomics researcher supported by a senior ergonomist and guided by a domain specific checklist assessed physical ergonomics of an organization, including 96 administrative workers in the assessment. Unstructured observations and interviews to the workers were also done. Socio-demographic, musculoskeletal health and psychosocial job data was collected from a composite questionnaire including the versions validated for the Portuguese population of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). This paper demonstrates an approach to jointly monitor multiple factors to support controlling work system efficiency, safeguarding health. Even though postural issues, especially static posture, have previously been identified as risk factors contributing to the onset of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), the results of correlation analysis did not unveil a salient association between musculoskeletal complaints and ergonomic mismatches. The analysis did unveil statistically significant associations between exposure to psychosocial job factors and ergonomic risk factors. The pairs of variables actually associated were different according to gender confirming the need for future studies aiming the gendered study of MSD causality."

Source: Lima, T. M. et Coelho, D. A. (2018). International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 66, 85-94.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.02.006

Impact of a Safe Resident Handling Program in Nursing Homes on Return-to-Work and Re-injury Outcomes Following Work Injury

Purpose: This study examined the impact of a Safe Resident Handling Program (SRHP) on length of disability and re-injury, following work-related injuries of nursing home workers. Resident handling-related injuries and back injuries were of particular interest. Methods: A large national nursing home corporation introduced a SRHP followed by three years of training for 136 centers. Lost-time workers' compensation claims (3 years pre-SRHP and 6 years post-SRHP) were evaluated. For each claim, length of first episode of disability and recurrence of disabling injury were evaluated over time. Differences were assessed using Chi square analyses and a generalized linear model, and “avoided” costs were projected. Results: The SRHP had no impact on length of disability, but did appear to significantly reduce the rate of recurrence among resident handling-related injuries. As indemnity and medical costs were three times higher for claimants with recurrent disabling injuries, the SRHP resulted in significant “avoided” costs due to “avoided” recurrence. Conclusions: In addition to reducing overall injury rates, SRHPs appear to improve long-term return-to-work success by reducing the rate of recurrent disabling injuries resulting in work disability. In this study, the impact was sustained over years, even after a formal training and implementation program ended. Since back pain is inherently a recurrent condition, results suggest that SRHPs help workers remain at work and return-to-work.

Source: Kurowski, A., Pransky, G. et Punnett, L. (2018). Journal of occupational rehabilitation.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-018-9785-7

Associations of office workers’ objectively assessed occupational sitting, standing and stepping time with musculoskeletal symptoms

We examined the association of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) with workplace sitting, standing and stepping time, as well as sitting and standing time accumulation (i.e. usual bout duration of these activities), measured objectively with the activPAL3 monitor. Using baseline data from the Stand Up Victoria trial (216 office workers, 14 workplaces), cross-sectional associations of occupational activities with self-reported MSS (low-back, upper and lower extremity symptoms in the last three months) were examined using probit regression, correcting for clustering and adjusting for confounders. Sitting bout duration was significantly (p < 0.05) associated, non-linearly, with MSS, such that those in the middle tertile displayed the highest prevalence of upper extremity symptoms. Other associations were non-significant but sometimes involved large differences in symptom prevalence (e.g. 38%) by activity. Though causation is unclear, these non-linear associations suggest that sitting and its alternatives (i.e. standing and stepping) interact with MSS and this should be considered when designing safe work systems.

Source: Coenen, P., Healy, G. N., Winkler, E. A., Dunstan, D. W., Owen, N., Moodie, M., ... et Straker, L. M. (2018). Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2018.1462891

Effectiveness of a vacuum lifting system in reducing spinal load during airline baggage handling

Information on spinal loading for using lift assist systems for airport baggage handling is lacking. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate a vacuum lift system for reducing lumbar spinal loads during baggage loading/unloading tasks. Ten subjects performed the tasks using the industry average baggage weight of 14.5?kg on a typical two-shelved baggage cart with or without using the lift system (i.e. lifting technique). Repeated measures analysis of variance (2 tasks × 2 shelf heights x 2 techniques) was used. Spinal loads were estimated by an electromyography-driven biomechanical model. On average, the vacuum lift system reduced spinal compressive forces on the lumbar spine by 39% and below the 3400?N damage threshold. The system also resulted in a 25% reduction in the anterior-posterior shear force at the L5/S1 inferior endplate level. This study provides evidence for the potential to reduce spinal loads when using a vacuum lift system.

Source: Lu, M. L., Dufour, J. S., Weston, E. B. et Marras, W. S. (2018). Applied Ergonomics, 70, 247-252.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.03.006

Facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux associés aux contraintes posturales en milieu professionnel

Résultats à partir de l'enquête Sumer 2010
Contexte: Parmi les contraintes biomécaniques associées aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS), les contraintes posturales (CP) font partie des plus fréquemment observées chez les travailleurs. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer les associations entre l'exposition à des facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux et celle à au moins une CP ≥10 h par semaine dans la population salariée française.
Méthodes: Cette étude s'appuie sur les données de l'enquête Sumer 2010. Les caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles et organisationnelles étaient renseignées par le médecin du travail et les facteurs psychosociaux par le salarié lui-même à l'aide d'un auto-questionnaire. Les associations entre les facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux et l'exposition à une CP ont été explorées à l'aide de régressions logistiques.
Résultats: L'exposition à au moins une CP ≥10 h par semaine était relevée chez 14% des hommes et 12% des femmes. Les contraintes industrielles, les normes de production ainsi que le manque de flexibilité, la surveillance hiérarchique et la polyvalence des postes de travail étaient positivement associées à l'exposition à une CP, quel que soit le genre. De même, un environnement psychosocial délétère (faible soutien social, faibles utilisation et développement des compétences et forte demande psychologique) était associé à un risque accru d'exposition à une CP.
Conclusion: Ces résultats suggèrent la nécessité de prendre en compte les dimensions organisationnelles et psychosociales, au-delà des facteurs biomécaniques et socioprofessionnels, dans la prévention des TMS en milieu professionnel.

Source: Bertin M, Natacha Fouquet, Léonard M, Chazelle E, Roquelaure Y. (2018). Bull Epidémiol Hebd, (12-13):228-33.?
http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/beh/2018/12-13/2018_12-13_3.html

Pour quelles raisons la formation aux techniques sécuritaires de manutention ne fonctionne-t-elle pas?

Revue critique de la littérature
La formation en manutention fait l'objet de nombreuses demandes de la part des milieux de travail. Or, malgré leur abondante diffusion, ces formations voient leur efficacité remise en cause par cinq méta-analyses publiées entre 2007 et 2014. La consultation de ces revues de la littérature ne permet pas de comprendre les raisons pour lesquelles il en est ainsi puisque les formations recensées – et dont on tente d'évaluer l'efficacité – n'y sont pas décrites, ou alors elles ne le sont que sommairement. Le fait de disposer de plus d'informations sur les caractéristiques des formations en manutention permettrait certainement de mieux expliquer leur manque d'efficacité rapportée, et ainsi pouvoir proposer des voies d'amélioration. C'est le but que se sont fixé les auteurs de cette étude.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100981/n/raisons-formation-techniques-securitaires-manutention-revue-critique-litterature

Manual handling risks to midwives associated with birthing pools literature review and incident analysis

This report describes research into the manual handling related risks to midwives associated with providing care to women choosing to use a birthing pool for labour and/or birth at home and in hospital.
The research comprised: a review of incidents reported to the Health and Safety Executive, a literature review and familiarisation visits to include discussions with midwives to identify current practices and procedures.
The manual handling risks are likely to result from the position of the mother in the pool, as well as from the position of the midwife whilst undertaking tasks at the birthing pool, and when actively supporting a mother's entry/exit into the pool or the mother using the midwife as a support whilst entering/exiting the pool. The risk of manual handling injury is exacerbated in the home birth setting, as, despite planning, there is typically less control over environmental factors.
The research suggests a need for the development of guidelines for good practice with regard to birthing pool, room and equipment design for both hospital and home birth settings. This is fundamental to reducing the manual handling risks to midwives and to enable the midwife to focus on the safety of the mother and baby.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1132.htm

Participatory approaches to workplace safety management

Bridging the gap between behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics
Many researchers and practitioners argue the importance of end-user involvement in workplace safety management, but the research literature and practices remain fractured across orientations. The primary aim of this article is to bridge the gap between two major participatory safety management approaches: behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics. First, an overview and brief history of participative management is presented to provide context for its application to workplace safety. Next, behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics are separately examined in terms of their origins and core elements. Finally, based on this examination, unifying elements between behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics will be presented to provide a comprehensive account of participatory safety management.

Source: Rost, K. A. et Alvero, A. M. (2018). International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2018.1438221

Évaluation de la prévalence des plaintes de troubles musculosquelettiques et du lien avec les contraintes de travail chez des électriciens du BTP

La prévalence des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) et les liens avec les contraintes de travail dans une population d'électriciens ont été étudiés par le questionnaire TMS de l'INRS, les échelles de Borg, des mesures de vibrations et des études de poste ergonomiques. Les principaux TMS concernaient le rachis, notamment lombaire, et le poignet droit, en lien avec une exposition intense à des contraintes posturales. Les TMS du poignet et de l'épaule étaient également liés à l'exposition aux vibrations émises par des outils percutants. Un lien fort a été démontré entre la charge physique des membres supérieurs et les TMS du rachis cervical. Ces résultats ont permis d'engager une réflexion au sein de l'entreprise étudiée pour élaborer un plan de prévention des TMS agissant entre autre sur les contraintes biomécaniques et la charge physique.

Source: Dib, K., Duvauchelle, S., Bentoglio, E., Lanotte, M., Biclea, C., Bauduin, C., Fort, E., Charbotel, B. (2018). Références en santé au travail (153).
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/DMT/TI-TF-253/tf253.pdf

Risk factors for episodic neck pain in workers

A 5-year prospective study of a general working population
Purpose: Development of neck pain (NP) in workers has a multifactorial etiology and depends on both individual and workplace factors. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for episodic NP in a large diverse sample of active workers.
Methods: A prospective study based on the surveillance program implemented by the French Public Health Agency in the Loire Valley region. Between 2002 and 2005, 3710 workers were included. Between 2007 and 2010, 2332 workers responded to a follow-up questionnaire which assessed: (1) musculoskeletal symptoms (Nordic questionnaire) and (2) individual and work-related risk factors. Associations between episodic NP in 2007 (i.e., free subjects at baseline and who suffered at least 8 days during the preceding 12 months) and individual and work-related risk factors at baseline were studied using logistic regression modeling, stratified by sex.
Results: Among the 1510 workers (914 men, 596 women) still active at follow-up, 10.4% (8.4–12.4) of men and 14.6% (11.8–17.4) of women declared episodic NP. Among men, work pace dependence of guests or permanent hierarchical controls were risk factors of NP [OR = 1.8 (1.1–2.8) and OR = 2.1 (1.3–3.3), respectively]. Among women, the combination of sustained/repeated arm abduction with high physical perceived exertion was the strongest risk factor for NP [OR = 3.5 (1.7–7.2)]; age and paced work were also predictors for NP in women.
Conclusions: NP results from complex relationships between individual and work-related variables. High physical workload, awkward postures, and poor organizational environment together with age differently predicted episodic NP according to the sex.

Source: Petit, A., Bodin, J., Delarue, A., D'Escatha, A., Fouquet, N. et Roquelaure, Y. (2018). International archives of occupational and environmental health, 91(3), 251-261.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-017-1272-5

Peut-on élaborer une approche ergonomique du « temps long » ?

Cet article propose une réflexion sur l'intégration de dimensions de long terme dans une démarche ergonomique, permise par l'articulation entre approche ergonomique, médecine du travail et analyse démographique. Une recherche centrée sur une problématique de troubles musculo-squelettiques en entreprise constitue le fil-guide de cet article.
Après avoir présenté des éléments de contexte scientifique et social suggérant d'appréhender des processus à long terme pour étudier les relations entre travail et santé, nous insistons sur les méthodes utilisées et leur complémentarité recherchée, puis nous revenons sur les principaux résultats qui relèvent de trois grands types de processus (« régulation », « usure » et « sélection »).
Nous interrogeons, au-delà de cette recherche, les possibilités pour l'ergonomie de développer des moyens d'analyse qui dépassent le cadre temporel de l'observation instantanée, en lui assignant une nouvelle place dans un modèle plus large de compréhension des relations entre santé et travail.

Source: Buchmann, W., Mardon, C., Volkoff, S. et Archambault, C. (2018). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, 20(1).
https://journals.openedition.org/pistes/5565

Ergonomic study on wrist posture when using laparoscopic tools in four different techniques regarding minimally invasive surgery

Purpose: With reference to four different minimally invasive surgery (MIS) cholecystectomy the aims were: to recognize the factors influencing dominant wrist postures manifested by the surgeon; to detect risk factors involved in maintaining deviated wrist postures; to compare the wrist postures of surgeons while using laparoscopic tools.
Materials and methods: Video films were recorded during live surgeries. The films were synchronized with wrist joint angles obtained from wireless electrogoniometers placed on the surgeon's hand. The analysis was conducted for five different laparoscopic tools used during all surgical techniques.
Results: The most common wrist posture was extension. In the case of one laparoscopic tool, the mean values defining extended wrist posture were distinct in all four surgical techniques. For one type of surgical technique, considered to be the most beneficial for patients, more extreme postures were noticed regarding all laparoscopic tools. We recognized a new factor, apart from the tool's handle design, that influences extreme and deviated wrist postures. It involves three areas of task specification including the type of action, type of motion patterns and motion dynamism.
Conclusions: The outcomes proved that the surgical technique which is most beneficial for the patient imposes the greatest strain on the surgeon's wrist.

Source: Bartnicka, J., Zietkiewicz, A. A. et Kowalski, G. J. (2018). International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2018.1452666

Effects of work surface and task difficulty on neck-shoulder posture and trapezius activity during a simulated mouse task

Objectives. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the work surface and task difficulty on the head, upper back and upper arm postures and activity of the descending trapezius during a simulated mouse task. Methods. Healthy female university students (N = 15) were evaluated. The work surface was positioned at elbow height (EH) and above elbow height (AEH) and the task difficulty was set at low (LD) and high (HD) levels. The postures were recorded by inclinometers. Trapezius activity was normalized by the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Results. Significantly higher head flexion was found at EH compared to the AEH condition, with an average difference of 2°–5° at the same difficulty level. The HD task significantly increased head (3°–6°) and upper back flexion (6°–7°) at the same table height. For upper arm elevation and trapezius activation, the AEH condition presented higher upper arm elevation (about 6°–8°) and trapezius activity (0.8–1.4% of MVIC), regardless of the difficulty level of the task. Conclusions. Head posture was influenced by the table height and task difficulty; the upper back posture by high difficulty; and upper arm posture and trapezius activity were only influenced by table height.

Source: Gonçalves, J. S., Moriguchi, C. S., Takekawa, K. S. et Sato, T. D. O. (2018). International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2018.1438960

Pratique d’exercices physiques au travail et prévention des TMS

Revue de la littérature
Les troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) sont à l'origine d'une sinistralité très élevée et les entreprises se sentent parfois démunies face à ce problème. La tentation est grande aujourd'hui d'orienter les efforts de prévention vers une approche individuelle. Les entreprises sont très fréquemment sollicitées par des intervenants extérieurs qui leur proposent d'instaurer des programmes d'échauffements, d'étirements, d'exercices de renforcement musculaire… en vue de prévenir l'apparition de TMS. Ces pratiques posent de nombreuses questions. Après un état des lieux des différentes techniques proposées, une revue de la littérature analyse leur pertinence et leur place dans la prévention des TMS. Enfin, des points de repères sur les conditions de leur mise en oeuvre sont également présentés.

Source: Claudon, L., Aublet-Cuvelier, A., Gautier, M.A. et Kerlot-Brusset, M. (2018). Références en santé au travail (153), 25-40.
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/DMT/TI-TC-161/tc161.pdf

Differences in postural loading between primary and assistant surgeons during vaginal surgery

While increasing attention has been given to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among surgeons in various medical specialties, there is no quantitative information about the potential work-related risk factors that contribute to WMDs among vaginal surgeons in the operating room (OR). This study aimed to quantify the frequency and duration of awkward postures, as well as musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by primary and assistant vaginal surgeons during surgery in order to provide a first step of informing ergonomics interventions that reduce postural loading during surgery. Thirteen primary and 14 assistant surgeons were evaluated during 13 surgical cases. Surgeon pre- and post-operative musculoskeletal discomfort ratings were collected with surveys. During surgery, real-time observations systematically characterized the frequency and duration of awkward neck, trunk and shoulder postures using tablet-based ergonomics software. Surgeons experienced postoperative increases in musculoskeletal discomfort of the neck, wrists, hands, back and feet. Assistant surgeons experienced greater right and left shoulder discomfort than primary surgeons (p < .05 and p < .034). The frequencies and durations of observed awkward postures were high for both primary and assistant surgeons. Assistant surgeons spent twice as long in trunk flexion than the primary surgeons. These results suggest that the postural loading experienced by assistant vaginal surgeons is for some postures higher than that of primary surgeons, and that ergonomics interventions aimed at reducing the frequency of neck, shoulder and trunk postures during surgery could potentially benefit vaginal surgeons.

Source: Yurteri-Kaplan, L. A., Zhu, X., Iglesia, C. B., Gutman, R. E., Sokol, A. I., Paquet, V. et Park, A. J. (2018). International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 65, 60-67.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.01.003

Interventions to prevent and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal injuries among nurses

A systematic review
Background: Musculoskeletal injuries and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent among nurses compared to many other occupational groups.
Objective: To identify interventions that may be effective at reducing the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal injuries and pain in registered nurses.
Results: Twenty studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. Types of interventions reported included: patient lift systems (N?=?8), patient handling training (N?=?3), multi-component interventions (N?=?7), cognitive behavioural therapy (N?=?1), and unstable shoes (N?=?1). Only two studies received a ‘strong' quality rating according to quality assessment criteria. One of these found no evidence for the effectiveness of patient handling training; the other found preliminary support for unstable shoes reducing self-reported pain and disability among nurses. Overall, evidence for each intervention type was limited.
Conclusions: There is an absence of high quality published studies investigating interventions to protect nurses from musculoskeletal injuries and pain. Further research (including randomised controlled trials) is needed to identify interventions that may reduce the high rates of injury and pain among nurses.

Source: Richardson, A., McNoe, B., Derrett, S. et Harcombe, H. (2018). International journal of nursing studies.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.03.018

Une atteinte aux capacités de travail : l'usure des articulations

L'usure professionnelle est de plus en plus prise en compte par les politiques de santé publique, car elle pèse sur les organisations et les collectifs de travail, voire sur l'employabilité des individus.
 Ce 4-pages est centré sur l'usure des articulations, un processus invalidant pour les salariés qui porte atteinte à leurs capacités de travail et les contraint à recourir à des stratégies d'évitement ou de contournement. Il propose une approche statistique longitudinale de la question à partir des données recueillies par l'observatoire Evrest sur le travail et la santé.
 Au-delà des déclarations des salariés, cette approche statistique permet de mettre en évidence les facteurs générateurs d'usure physique ainsi que les liens entre exposition répétée à des contraintes et santé dégradée, caractérisée par des douleurs et des gênes dans le travail.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/connaissance-de-lemploi/une-atteinte-aux-capacites-de-travail-lusure-des-articulations

Accuracy, precision and reliability in anthropometric surveys for ergonomics purposes in adult working populations

A literature review
Anthropometric surveys are the most common method of gathering human morphometric data, used to design clothing, products and workspaces. The aim of this paper was to assess how current peer reviewed literature addresses the accuracy, reliability and precision regarding manual anthropometric surveys applied to adult working populations in the field of ergonomics. A literature review was performed in two electronic databases for finding relevant papers. A total of 312 papers were reviewed, of which 79 met the inclusion criteria. The results shown that the subjects of these publications are poorly addressed, so that only 27 studies mentioned at least one of the terms and none of the studies evaluated all of the terms. Only one paper mentioned and assessed precision and reliability of the measurement procedure. Furthermore, none of the publications evaluated accuracy. Moreover, the reviewed papers presented large differences in the factors that affect precision, reliability and accuracy. This was particularly clear in the measurer technique/training, measurement tools, subject posture and clothing. Researchers in this area should take more rigorous approaches and explicit indicators with their results should be presented in any report. Relevance for industry: It is important that scientific literature related to manual anthropometric measurements uses methods for assessing measurement error, since these data are often used to design clothing and workspaces as well as to calibrate non manual methods such as 3D scanners.

Source: Viviani, C., Arezes, P. M., Bragança, S., Molenbroek, J., Dianat, I. et Castellucci, H. I. (2018). International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 65.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.01.012

A detailed description of the short-term musculoskeletal and cognitive effects of prolonged standing for office computer work

Due to concerns about excessive sedentary exposure for office workers, alternate work positions such as standing are being trialled. However, prolonged standing may have health and productivity impacts, which this study assessed. Twenty adult participants undertook two hours of laboratory-based standing computer work to investigate changes in discomfort and cognitive function, along with muscle fatigue, movement, lower limb swelling and mental state. Over time, discomfort increased in all body areas (total body IRR [95% confidence interval]: 1.47[1.36–1.59]). Sustained attention reaction time (β = 18.25[8.00–28.51]) deteriorated, while creative problem solving improved (β = 0.89[0.29–1.49]). There was no change in erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris or tibialis anterior muscle fatigue; low back angle changed towards less  lordosis, pelvis movement increased, lower limb swelling increased and mental state decreased. Body discomfort was positively correlated with mental state. The observed changes suggest replacing office work sitting with standing should be done with caution.

Source: Baker, R., Coenen, P., Howie, E., Lee, J., Williamson, A. et Straker, L. (2018). Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2017.1420825

Développement d’un système de mesures et d’un protocole de mesures permettant de quantifier l’exposition physique des manutentionnaires

L'objectif principal de ce projet était de combiner différents senseurs et instruments pour expérimenter, en laboratoire et sur le terrain, un système de mesures permettant d'estimer quantitativement l'exposition physique des manutentionnaires. Ce type de système pourrait éventuellement servir à évaluer objectivement l'efficacité d'approches de prévention. Un second objectif consistait à mettre au point une stratégie d'échantillonnage pour optimiser la mesure de l'exposition physique de manutentionnaires sur le terrain. Des auteurs ont fréquemment souligné des lacunes dans la manière d'échantillonner les données ce qui a peut-être contribué à affaiblir les études portant sur les relations entre l'exposition physique et les lésions physiques.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100973/n/exposition-physique-manutentionnaires

Barriers to the Use of Assistive Devices in Patient Handling

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are a major safety concern in today’s health care environment due to the manual lifting of patients with higher acuity levels and obesity. Nurses move patients multiple times each day, incurring cumulative stress and trauma resulting in chronic pain and potential injury. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to the use of assistive devices in safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) that contribute to WMSD in health care workers. Interpersonal, situational, organizational, and environmental influences have both direct and indirect effects on workers’ commitment to use, or their actual likelihood of using, assistive devices. This study confirmed that time constraints contribute to fewer instances of assistive device use. Comprehensive ergonomic programs are needed to promote staff and patient safety. By providing safe environments for health care workers who engage in patient handling and mobility, the risk of injury can be significantly reduced.

Source: Noble, N. L., & Sweeney, N. L. (2018). Workplace health & safety.
https://doi.org/10.1177/2165079917697216

Observatoire des troubles musculo-squelettiques des actifs agricoles

Bilan 2011-2015
Toute démarche de prévention devant nécessairement s'appuyer sur un état des lieux, ce bilan national permet de connaître plus précisément les caractéristiques en France des Troubles Musculo-Squelettiques (TMS) dans le secteur agricole.
Les principaux objectifs de cette étude sont de :
- suivre, sur les cinq dernières années, l'évolution annuelle d'indicateurs spécifiques pour les TMS des actifs agricoles dont les données ou caractéristiques sont connues et consolidées, regrouper ces indicateurs dans des tableaux de bord,
- établir un bilan national sur des grandes tendances, à partir de quelques indicateurs de référence couramment utilisés (nombre de maladies avec et sans arrêt de travail, nombre de maladies graves, indice et taux de fréquence des maladies avec et sans arrêt de travail, coût des maladies, …),
- répondre à l'accord cadre des partenaires sociaux européens en agriculture en centralisant les données relatives aux TMS en agriculture.

Source: http://ssa.msa.fr/lfr/documents/21447876/0/11953%20Observatoire%20des%20TMS%202011%202015/34b585be-8f72-4496-b62e-fa8526710474

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