Organiser en vue de rendement élevé / Organizing for High Performance

Les actes du 48e Congrès annuel de l'Association canadienne d'ergonomie (ACE) et du 12e Symposium international sur l'ergonomie de conception organisationnelle et de gestion qui se sont tenus entre le 31 juillet et le 3 août 2017 sont disponibles en ligne.

Source: https://www.ace-ergocanada.ca/files/ACE_2017/ACE-ODAM%202017%20eProceedings_sm.pdf

A practical guidance for assessments of sedentary behavior at work

A PEROSH initiative
Sedentary behavior is defined as sitting or lying with low energy expenditure. Humans in industrialized societies spend an increasing amount of time in sedentary behaviors every day. This has been associated with detrimental health outcomes. Despite a growing interest in the health effects of sedentary behavior at work, associations remain unclear, plausibly due to poor and diverse methods for assessing sedentary behavior. Thus, good practice guidance for researchers and practitioners on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior are needed.
The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guidance for practitioners and researchers on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior.
Ambulatory systems for use in field applications (wearables) are a promising approach for sedentary behavior assessment. Many different small-size consumer wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity are commercially available today. However, no stand-alone commercial system is able to assess sedentary behavior in accordance with its definition. The present paper offers decision support for practitioners and researchers in selecting wearables and data collection strategies for their purpose of study on sedentary behavior.
Valid and reliable assessment of occupational sedentary behavior is currently not easy. Several aspects need to be considered in the decision process on how to assess sedentary behavior. There is a need for development of a cheap and easily useable wearable for assessment of occupational sedentary behavior by researchers and practitioners.

Source: Holtermann, A., Schellewald, V., Mathiassen, S. E., Gupta, N., Pinder, A., Punakallio, A., ... & Enquist, H. (2017). Applied Ergonomics, 63, 41-52.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2017.03.012

Conférence sur la contribution des travailleurs à des lieux de travail plus sûrs

En partenariat avec diverses sociétés d'ergonomie, l'ETUI a organisé les 26 et 27 juin 2017 à Bruxelles une conférence sur la manière dont les travailleurs contribuent à l'amélioration des conditions de travail.
Intitulée « Travailleurs et créativité : comment améliorer les conditions de travail par des méthodes participatives », la conférence a réuni des ergonomes, des experts en sécurité et santé au travail, des travailleurs et des représentants syndicaux de l'Europe entière. Ils ont débattu de la manière dont l'expérience de terrain des travailleurs peut enrichir les connaissances des experts et améliorer la prévention.
Cette approche provient de l'observation que les travailleurs développent des procédures opérationnelles qui leur permettent de faire face à des situations imprévisibles qui se produisent sur les lieux de travail. Jusqu'à quel point la créativité des travailleurs peut-elle corriger des situations de travail à risques ? ; La créativité des travailleurs en tant qu'experts de leurs conditions de travail peut-elle contribuer à améliorer la prévention en général ? ; Dans le contexte de la « numérisation de l'économie », l'ergonomie participative peut-elle apporter des réponses aux changements des statuts d'emploi et de la qualité du travail ? sont quelques-unes des thématiques qui ont été abordées par les participants.
La conférence a été organisée conjointement avec la Fédération des sociétés européennes d'ergonomie (FEES), la Société belge d'ergonomie (BES) et le Centre for Registration of European Ergonomists (CREE).

Source: http://www.etui.org/fr/Evenements/Conference-sur-la-contribution-des-travailleurs-a-des-lieux-de-travail-plus-surs/

The Relationship Between Occupational Standing and Sitting and Incident Heart Disease Over a 12-Year Period in Ontario, Canada

While a growing body of research is examining the impacts of prolonged occupational sitting on cardiovascular and other health risk factors, relatively little work examined the effects of occupational standing. The objectives of this paper were to examine the relationship between occupations that require predominantly sitting, and those that require predominantly standing, and incident heart disease. A prospective cohort study combining responses to a population health survey with administrative health care records, linked at the individual level was conducted in Ontario, Canada. The sample included 7320 employed labour market participants (50% male) working 15 hours a week or more and free of heart disease at baseline. Incident heart disease was assessed using administrative records over an approximately 12-year follow-up period (2003-2015). Models were adjusted for a wide range of potential confounding factors. Occupations involving predominantly standing were associated with an approximately two-fold risk of heart disease compared to occupations involving predominantly sitting. This association was robust to adjustment for other health, socio-demographic and work variables. Cardiovascular risk associated with occupations that involve combinations of sitting, standing and walking differed for men and women, with these occupations associated with lower cardiovascular risk estimates among men, but elevated risk estimates among women.

Source: Smith, P., Ma, H., Glazier, R. H., Gilbert-Ouimet, M., & Mustard, C. (2017). American Journal of Epidemiology.
https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx298

NIOSH Lifting Equation App: NLE Calc

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Equation mobile application, NLE Calc, is a tool to calculate the overall risk index for single and multiple manual lifting tasks. This application provides risk estimates to help evaluate lifting tasks and reduce the incidence of low back injuries in workers.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ergonomics/nlecalc.html

Conception des équipements de travail et prévention des TMS Complémentarités et points d’ancrage des démarches

Après un bref rappel sur les démarches de prévention des TMS et de conception des équipements de travail, cet article présente dans un premier temps les difficultés constatées vis-à-vis de leur articulation. Il propose ensuite des « points d'ancrage » pour accompagner, dans un cadre participatif et multidisciplinaire, les temps de recherche de solutions et de décisions. Les interactions ainsi obtenues favorisent le partage des référentiels et explicitent les processus de décision. Elles fonctionnent à l'identique d'un « moteur méthodologique » qui implante la problématique des TMS à chaque séquence de la conception.
Cette approche doit permettre aux petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) de trouver des réponses à leurs besoins en matière de prévention des TMS très en amont dans le processus de conception d'un équipement de travail. Elle contribue en effet à une meilleure compréhension des leviers favorisant la prise en compte des TMS et à l'élaboration de nouvelles références d'actions vis-à-vis du processus de conception.

Source: Marsot, J. et Atain-Kouadio, J-J. (2017). Pistes, 19(2).
http://pistes.revues.org/4993

Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

Prospective cohort study
Using a biomechanical job exposure matrix combined with Danish registers, cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout life (ie, more years with heavy and frequent lifting, and kneeling work) predicted risk of long-term sickness absence among older workers. Importantly, heavy lifting throughout working life was associated with disability pension.

Source: Sundstrup E, Hansen ÅM, Mortensen EL, Poulsen OM, Clausen T, Rugulies R, Møller A, Andersen LL. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3663

Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention

A worksite RCT among cleaners
Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. Objective: The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. Methods: One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group (n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group (n = 59) lectures in health promotion. Strata were formed according to closest manager (total 11 strata); clusters were set within strata (total 40 clusters, 20 in each group). Musculoskeletal pain data from eight body regions was collected at baseline and after 4- and 12-months follow-up. The participants stated highest pain in the last month on a scale from 0, stating no pain, up to 10, stating worst possible pain. A repeated-measure 2 × 2 multi-adjusted mixed-models design was applied to compare the between-groups differences in an intention to treat analysis. Participants were entered as a random effect nested in clusters to account for the cluster-based randomization. Results: Clinically significant reductions (>30%, f 2 > 0.25) in the aerobic exercise group, compared to the reference group, in pain intensity in neck, shoulders, arms/wrists were found at 12-months follow-up, and a tendency (p = 0.07, f 2 = 0.18) to an increase for the knees. At 4-months follow-up the only significant between-group change was an increase in hip pain. Conclusions: This study indicates that aerobic exercise reduces musculoskeletal pain in the upper extremities, but as an unintended side effect may increase pain in the lower extremities. Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.

Source: Korshøj, M., Birk Jørgensen, M., Lidegaard, M., Mortensen, O. S., Krustrup, P., Holtermann, A., & Søgaard, K. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Public Health.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1403494817717833

Work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predict disability after 28 years

A Finnish longitudinal study
Higher level of work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly carried a higher risk for increase in disability after 28 years. Mitigation of both of these co-occurring exposures at work in midlife could reduce the risk of disability in later life. Thus the workplace should be promoted as an arena for preventive interventions regarding disability in old age.

Source: Prakash KC, Neupane S, Leino-Arjas P, von Bonsdorff MB, Rantanen T, von Bonsdorff ME, Seitsamo J, Ilmarinen J, Nygård C-H. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3656

Relations between work and upper extremity musculoskeletal problems (UEMSP) and the moderating role of psychosocial work factors on the relation between computer work and UEMSP

Purpose: Computer work has been identified as a risk factor for upper extremity musculoskeletal problems (UEMSP). But few studies have investigated how psychosocial and organizational work factors affect this relation. Nor have gender differences in the relation between UEMSP and these work factors  been studied. We sought to estimate: (1) the association between UEMSP and a range of physical, psychosocial and organizational work exposures, including the duration of computer work, and (2) the moderating effect of psychosocial work exposures on the relation between computer work and UEMSP.
Methods: Using 2007–2008 Québec survey data on 2478 workers, we carried out gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression modeling and two-way interaction analyses.
Results: In both genders, odds of UEMSP were higher with exposure to high physical work demands and emotionally demanding work. Additionally among women, UEMSP were associated with duration of occupational computer exposure, sexual harassment, tense situations when dealing with clients, high quantitative demands and lack of prospects for promotion, and among men, with low coworker support, episodes of unemployment, low job security and contradictory work demands. Among women, the effect of computer work on UEMSP was considerably increased in the presence of emotionally demanding work, and may also be moderated by low recognition at work, contradictory work demands, and low supervisor support.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the relations between UEMSP and computer work are moderated by psychosocial work exposures and that the relations between working conditions and UEMSP are somewhat different for each gender, highlighting the complexity of these relations and the importance of considering gender.

Source: Nicolakakis, Nektaria, Stock, Susan R., Abrahamowicz, Michal, Kline, Rex, & Messing, Karen. (2017). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-017-1236-9

Paramedics' working strategies while loading a stretcher into an ambulance

For paramedics, loading a stretcher into an ambulance is an activity with a high risk of back injury and accidents. The objective of this study was to document strategies paramedics use at work while loading a powered stretcher into an ambulance. A total of 249 stretcher loading operations performed by 58 paramedics, and 51 semistructured post-intervention interviews were analyzed. Almost three quarters of loading operations required additional actions (e.g., raising the shoulders and additional lifting) to insert the stretcher into the cot fastener system in the ambulance. Some strategies that were necessary to complete the stretcher loading operation seemed to have negative impacts on the workers' health, such as repositioning the stretcher. This action wastes time and requires significant physical efforts, as it is usually done alone. This study suggests some potential solutions, related to equipment, training, workers and work organization, to reduce the risk of injury while loading stretchers.

Source: Prairie, J., Plamondon, A., Larouche, D., Hegg-Deloye, S., & Corbeil, P. (2017). Applied Ergonomics, 65, 112-122.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2017.06.005

Older females in the workforce

The effects of age on psychophysical estimates of maximum acceptable lifting loads
This psychophysical study demonstrated that older female workers (aged 50–63 years) selected maximum acceptable lift masses that were (on average) 24% lower than younger workers (aged 20–32 years), which corresponded with lower grip strength and heart rate reserve. Current maximum acceptable lifting weights based on psychophysical information may not protect female workers greater than 50 years of age.

Source: Chen, J. A., Dickerson, C. R., Wells, R. P., & Laing, A. C. (2017). Ergonomics, 1-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2017.1335883

Méthode d'analyse de la charge physique de travail - Secteur sanitaire et social

La méthode d'analyse de la charge physique de travail dans le secteur sanitaire et social a été conçue pour être utilisée dans les établissements spécialisés (hôpitaux, cliniques, hébergements pour personnes âgées, handicapés, enfants) et les services d'aide et de soins à domicile. Elle permet de repérer et d'analyser les facteurs de risques pour l'appareil locomoteur en tenant compte de la globalité des composantes de l'activité.
Elle propose une conduite d'action de prévention qui permet d'établir des priorités, d'orienter vers des pistes de prévention pertinentes et d'en évaluer l'efficacité. Elle est applicable dans les structures de toutes tailles. Sa mise en oeuvre peut être initiée par tous les acteurs de la structure, mais son efficacité repose sur une démarche collective.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206291

Perceived affordances and postures for lifting in child care

Childcare work appears to be full of the physical and mental risk factors frequently associated with chronic exertion leading to injury of the musculoskeletal system. The purpose of this study was to examine the affordances and mechanics for lifting a child, and to associate those mechanics with physical demands reports provided by experienced childcare workers. Participants perceived a smaller safe reaching distance to a child compared to a conventional handling target, despite the identical load and similar load distribution. This difference may reflect the influence of coupling (suitcase had ‘good' coupling, child manikin had ‘poor' coupling), or an increased concern for the safety of the child over the suitcase. While lifting at a smaller affordant distance could contribute to decreasing spinal loading from reactive moments, the greater trunk and knee flexions observed in child lifting may be contributing to childcare workers' musculoskeletal discomfort and injury in those regions.

Source: Doan, Jon, Awosoga, Olu, Provost, Trishell, Blinch, Jarrod, & Hudson, Jessica. (2017). Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1463922X.2016.1214986

A Study of the Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Surgeons Performing Minimally Invasive Surgery

Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has shown significant benefits for patients and healthcare systems. However, due to the poor ergonomic adaptation of operating rooms and surgical instruments, most surgeons suffer from pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).
Methods: A descriptive survey on MIS surgeons working on different surgical specialties has been carried out in Hospital Valdecilla (Spain). The aim is to determine the prevalence of MSDs by using a personal interview and the standardized Nordic questionnaire (SNQ). The study determines the prevalence of MSDs in different parts of the body and their relationship with epidemiological and labor variables. A questionnaire was filled out by 129 surgeons.
Results: 90% of surgeons reported MSDs. The higher prevalence appears in the most experienced surgeons. The most affected zones are the lower back (54%), neck (51%), upper back (44%), lower extremities (42%), right shoulder (29%) and right hand (28%).
Conclusions: The prevalence of MSDs is higher in MIS surgeons than in any other occupational group. The most vulnerable group is experienced surgeons and there is a potential risk that symptoms will be increased in the future. Muscle strength is revealed as a protective factor against MSDs.

Source: Gutierrez-Diez, M. C., Benito-Gonzalez, M. A., Sancibrian, R., Gandarillas-Gonzalez, M. A., Redondo-Figuero, C., & Manuel-Palazuelos, J. C. (2017). International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2017.1337682

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