2018-08-01 12:00 - Messages

Les technologies de surveillance: La recherche du bien-être du XXIe sièlce?

Quel est le type de technologie de surveillance qui vous a aidé à vous sentir mieux? A-t-il eu cet effet sur le long terme? S'agissait-il du logiciel qui vous forçait à prendre une pause ou du podomètre qui attirait votre attention sur le fait que vous ne bougiez pas assez? Ou était-ce l'outil de discussion professionnel grâce auquel vous pouviez garder le contact avec vos collègues? Ces technologies ne sont-elles que des gadgets ou davantage? Si elles sont davantage que des gadgets, peuvent-elles nous aider dans notre recherche du bien-être?
Le présent article vise à répondre à toutes ces questions. Nous commençons par expliquer ce que l'on entend par technologies de surveillance, bien-être et technologies de surveillance en faveur du bien-être. Ensuite, nous abordons l'invasion du lieu de travail par la surveillance électronique traditionnelle des performances professionnelles (SEP) et les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) et la comparons avec les technologies de surveillance en faveur du bien-être. À partir de cette analyse, il est possible de définir cinq grands défis qui devront disparaître ou être surmontés pour que les technologies de surveillance atteignent leur maturité. Enfin, nous clôturons cet article par une brève conclusion.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/en/tools-and-publications/publications/monitoring-technology-workplace/view

Impression 3D et fabrication additive - Conséquences pour la santé et la sécurité au travail

Le présent article sur l'impression 3D a été établi à la demande de l'Agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail (EU-OSHA). Ses auteurs passent en revue quelques questions essentielles concernant les possibilités et les défis liés à l'industrie émergente de l'impression 3D pour les employeurs, les travailleurs et les nouveaux entrepreneurs qui travaillent à partir de leur domicile ou dans des lieux de travail informels. L'objectif de ce document de réflexion est de présenter l'impression 3D et d'étudier son incidence possible tant sur l'environnement de travail existant que sur le nouvel environnement de travail. Enfin, il présente quelques recommandations à mettre en oeuvre à l'échelle européenne concernant les mesures qui peuvent être prises afin de garantir que l'impression 3D favorise un environnement de travail plus sûr, plus sain et plus épanouissant, tant dans le cadre des relations employeur-travailleur existantes que dans le cas des nouveaux «auto-entrepreneurs» informels.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/en/tools-and-publications/publications/3d-printing-new-industrial-revolution/view

The future of the (e-)retail sector from an occupational safety and health point of view

E-retailing, which continues to grow, is a challenging sector, for example in terms of high consumer expectations and demands.
The difficult working conditions associated with the sector as a result of the high value employers place on efficiency — such as long working hours and fast picking rates — have become well known.
This article explores the safety and health implications that workers in the e-retail sector face, and considers what is being done to manage their safety and health.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/en/tools-and-publications/publications/future-e-retail-sector-occupational-safety-and-health-point-view/view

"Negotiating the algorithm”: Automation, artificial intelligence and labour protection

This paper aims at filling some gaps in the mainstream debate on automation, the introduction of new technologies at the workplace and the future of work. This debate has concentrated, so far, on how many jobs will be lost as a consequence of technological innovation. This paper examines instead issues related to the quality of jobs in future labour markets. It addresses the detrimental effects on workers of awarding legal capacity and rights and obligation to robots. It examines the implications of practices such as People Analytics and the use of big data and artificial intelligence to manage the workforce. It stresses on an oft-neglected feature of the contract of employment, namely the fact that it vests the employer with authority and managerial prerogatives over workers. It points out that a vital function of labour law is to limit these authority and prerogatives to protect the human dignity of workers. In light of this, it argues that even if a Universal Basic Income were introduced, the existence of managerial prerogatives would still warrant the existence of labour regulation since this regulation is about much more than protecting workers' income. It then highlights the benefits of human-rights based approaches to labour regulation to protect workers' privacy against invasive electronic monitoring. It concludes by highlighting the crucial role of collective regulation and social partners in governing automation and the impact of technology at the workplace. It stresses that collective dismissal regulation and the involvement of workers' representatives in managing and preventing job losses is crucial and that collective actors should actively participate in the governance of technology-enhanced management systems, to ensure a vital “human-in-command” approach.

Source: https://www.ilo.org/employment/Whatwedo/Publications/working-papers/WCMS_634157/lang--en/index.htm

HSA - Annual Report 2017

This is the second annual report under the Authority's strategy for 2016 to 2018. The Authority achieved a challenging and broad programme of work in 2017.

Source: http://www.hsa.ie/eng/Publications_and_Forms/Publications/Corporate/Annual_Report_2017.html

Preventing disease through a healthier and safer workplace

This assessment is a comprehensive report combining: a) the key evidence linking diseases and injuries to occupational risks; b) a quantitative assessment of the disease burden attributable to selected occupational risks; and c) a compilation of general interventions and selected examples of occupational and environmental interventions that successfully improve health.
This study estimates that in 2015, more than 1.2 million deaths globally were attributable to occupational risks, which represent 2.1% of all deaths in the general population. When accounting for both deaths and disability, the fraction of the global disease burden in the general population due to occupation amounts to 2.7%. Noncommunicable diseases contribute 70%, injuries 22% and infectious diseases 8% to the total disease burden from occupational risks. Low- and middle-income countries are disproportionally affected by occupational death and disease.
This study provides an approximate estimate of how much disease can be prevented by reducing occupational risks to health. The analysis uses a combination of approaches with a clear focus on comparative risk assessment methods, which apply detailed exposure and exposure-risk information. Of the 1.2 million deaths attributable to occupation, 1.1 million (90%) were estimated using comparative risk assessment methods, and the remaining using more limited epidemiological data and expert opinion. While the evidence has shown that many diseases are caused by occupational risks to health, to date, only a limited number of those
could be quantified, suggesting that the disease burden from occupational risks presented in this report remains a conservative estimate.
This assessment summarizes extensive information on interventions to reduce the burden of disease due to occupation. It lists general interventions by disease or injury as well as selected examples of occupational and environmental interventions from the epidemiological literature. Occupational risks, in this study, include physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial risks, working conditions and the built environments of workplaces.

Source: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272980/9789241513777-eng.pdf

La CNESST en bref - année 2017

Cette publication présente un portrait sommaire d'information financière ainsi que diverses statistiques sur les grands secteurs de la mission de la CNESST. Elle contient des informations relatives aux lésions professionnelles, au programme Pour une maternité sans danger, des données portant sur les normes du travail et sur l'équité salariale, quelques données sur la prévention, un portrait financier, certaines données sur les recours ainsi que quelques comparaisons interprovinciales. Les données sont soit extraites de rapports comptables ou statistiques existants soit produites à partir des systèmes respectifs.

Source: http://www.cnesst.gouv.qc.ca/Publications/200/Pages/DC_200_1047.aspx

Trends and topics in occupational diseases over the last 60 years from PubMed

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of scientific production on occupational diseases (OD) during the period 1945–2015 in order to describe publication trends on that topic and identify the major diseases as well as the predominant actors (journals, countries) involved in this field.
Methods: A PubMed search was carried out to extract articles related to occupational diseases during the period 1 January 1945 to 31 December 2015 using a specific query. Data were downloaded from PubMed in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and processed through a dedicated parser.
Results: A total of 160 025 articles were retrieved from 7127 journals. One third of these articles were published in 39 journals: the core journals according to Bradford's law. Following exponential growth, OD publications reached a plateau in 2007. The overall dynamics of the OD field are heterogeneous with differences between subfields: psychological diseases emerged in the 1990s while “traditional” OD are less studied nowadays. Despite a sharp decrease in the proportion of publications, the most productive country remains the USA with 14.5% of the OD publications over the period but Scandinavian countries are, proportionally, the most active in research and publication on OD.
Conclusions: The proportion of publications on OD is decreasing in Medline, except for specific subfields of OD. This is discrepant with the global burden of occupational diseases.

Source: Gehanno, J. F., Postel, A., Schuers, M. et Rollin, L. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3750

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